Yasushi Shiratori

Summary

Affiliation: Okayama University
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Antiviral therapy for cirrhotic hepatitis C: association with reduced hepatocellular carcinoma development and improved survival
    Yasushi Shiratori
    University of Tokyo, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Nippon University School of Medicine, and Tokyo Women s Medical College
    Ann Intern Med 142:105-14. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Interferon therapy after tumor ablation improves prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus
    Yasushi Shiratori
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113, Japan
    Ann Intern Med 138:299-306. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint Gene expressions associated with chemosensitivity in human hepatoma cells
    Yujin Hoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 54:489-92. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Relevance network between chemosensitivity and transcriptome in human hepatoma cells
    Masaru Moriyama
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Mol Cancer Ther 2:199-205. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Synergistic activation of the serum response element-dependent pathway by hepatitis B virus x protein and large-isoform hepatitis delta antigen
    Tadashi Goto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    J Infect Dis 187:820-8. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Nucleotide change of codon 38 in the X gene of hepatitis B virus genotype C is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Ryosuke Muroyama
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Hepatol 45:805-12. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Neither hepatitis C virus genotype nor virus load affects survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Masatoshi Akamatsu
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16:459-66. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Involvement of the biliary system in autoimmune pancreatitis: a follow-up study
    Kenji Hirano
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 1:453-64. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Age-related comparison of the profiles of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Tomonori Fujishima
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 53:913-8. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma invading the portal vein--a retrospective analysis using 952 consecutive HCC patients
    Yukihiro Koike
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 50:2035-9. 2003

Detail Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Antiviral therapy for cirrhotic hepatitis C: association with reduced hepatocellular carcinoma development and improved survival
    Yasushi Shiratori
    University of Tokyo, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Nippon University School of Medicine, and Tokyo Women s Medical College
    Ann Intern Med 142:105-14. 2005
    ..Although cirrhosis is a major risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, no definitive prospective analyses have assessed the long-term efficacy of antiviral therapy in cirrhotic patients...
  2. ncbi request reprint Interferon therapy after tumor ablation improves prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus
    Yasushi Shiratori
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113, Japan
    Ann Intern Med 138:299-306. 2003
    ..Even after the surgical or medical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, tumors frequently develop at new foci, leading to a poor prognosis...
  3. ncbi request reprint Gene expressions associated with chemosensitivity in human hepatoma cells
    Yujin Hoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 54:489-92. 2007
    ..Only limited patients with hepatoma benefit from chemotherapy without a clear explanation. We aimed to identify genes associated with chemosensitivity using transcriptional profiles...
  4. ncbi request reprint Relevance network between chemosensitivity and transcriptome in human hepatoma cells
    Masaru Moriyama
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Mol Cancer Ther 2:199-205. 2003
    ..Our results suggested the necessity of systematically evaluating the transporting systems that may play a major role in resistance in hepatoma. This may provide useful information to modify anticancer drug action in hepatoma...
  5. ncbi request reprint Synergistic activation of the serum response element-dependent pathway by hepatitis B virus x protein and large-isoform hepatitis delta antigen
    Tadashi Goto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    J Infect Dis 187:820-8. 2003
    ..Thus, HBx and LHDAg synergistically activated the SRE-dependent pathway. These results may help us understand clinical phenomena in patients coinfected with HBV and HDV...
  6. ncbi request reprint Nucleotide change of codon 38 in the X gene of hepatitis B virus genotype C is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Ryosuke Muroyama
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Hepatol 45:805-12. 2006
    ..In this study, we investigated whether nucleotide changes in the X gene of genotype C are associated with the development of HCC...
  7. ncbi request reprint Neither hepatitis C virus genotype nor virus load affects survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Masatoshi Akamatsu
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16:459-66. 2004
    ..This study was conducted to elucidate whether these two factors are capable of predicting the prognosis of patients with HCC...
  8. ncbi request reprint Involvement of the biliary system in autoimmune pancreatitis: a follow-up study
    Kenji Hirano
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 1:453-64. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to define the bile duct changes associated with autoimmune pancreatitis...
  9. ncbi request reprint Age-related comparison of the profiles of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Tomonori Fujishima
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 53:913-8. 2006
    ..Therefore this study aims to evaluate whether the clinicopathological features in young patients with HCC significantly differ from those of elderly patients...
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma invading the portal vein--a retrospective analysis using 952 consecutive HCC patients
    Yukihiro Koike
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 50:2035-9. 2003
    ..Hepatocellular carcinoma with portal venous invasion has a very poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors contributing to the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal venous invasion...
  11. ncbi request reprint Hepatocellular carcinoma in elderly patients: beneficial therapeutic efficacy using percutaneous ethanol injection therapy
    Takuma Teratani
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Cancer 95:816-23. 2002
    ..The age of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) in elderly patients with HCC...
  12. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus core protein and hepatitis activity are associated through transactivation of interleukin-8
    Yujin Hoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Infect Dis 192:266-75. 2005
    ..Expression vectors with the core region were transfected into Huh7 cells, and cytokine induction was evaluated by reporter assay...
  13. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus core protein upregulates transforming growth factor-beta 1 transcription
    Hiroyoshi Taniguchi
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Med Virol 72:52-9. 2004
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Analysis of factors influencing hepatocellular carcinoma detection: efficient use of computed tomography during arterial portography and during hepatic arteriography
    Tomonori Fujishima
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo, 113 8655, Japan
    J Gastroenterol 40:266-73. 2005
    ..This study was performed to investigate the situations in which computed tomography (CT) combined with arterial portography and hepatic arteriography surpassed dynamic CT in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  15. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-1beta gene polymorphisms associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus infection
    Yue Wang
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatology 37:65-71. 2003
    ..73 (T/T vs. C/C), 4.12, 4.03, 3.89, and 3.27, respectively. In conclusion, the IL-1beta-31 genotype T/T or the IL-1beta-511/-31 haplotype C-T is associated with the presence of HCC in Japanese patients with chronic HCV infection...
  16. ncbi request reprint Interferons specifically suppress the translation from the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis C virus through a double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-independent pathway
    Jun Kato
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    J Infect Dis 186:155-63. 2002
    ..These results indicate a novel antiviral effect of IFNs against HCV...
  17. ncbi request reprint Factors predisposing to poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma and its recurrence
    Masatoshi Akamatsu
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 52:391-7. 2005
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the beta-catenin/T cell factor signaling pathway in 36 gastrointestinal and liver cancer cells
    Tsuneo Ikenoue
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Jpn J Cancer Res 93:1213-20. 2002
    ..The presence of signaling-upregulated gastric cancer cell lines with intact APC and beta-catenin suggests the involvement of other mechanisms than mutations of APC or beta-catenin...
  19. ncbi request reprint Helicobacter pylori CagA protein activates serum response element-driven transcription independently of tyrosine phosphorylation
    Yoshihiro Hirata
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Gastroenterology 123:1962-71. 2002
    ..Here we identify a new role for CagA protein as an activator of host cell signaling...
  20. ncbi request reprint Flat-type early colorectal cancer preferentially develops in right-sided colon in older patients
    Makoto Okamoto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Dis Colon Rectum 48:101-7. 2005
    ..Thus, we investigated the clinical features of flat-type early colorectal cancer with respect to tumor location and patient age and compared them with those of polypoid-type early and advanced cancer...
  21. ncbi request reprint Clinical features of patients with HCC who are negative for both HBV and HCV markers
    Hirotsugu Watabe
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 50:2157-60. 2003
    ..The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma that are negative for both hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody...
  22. ncbi request reprint Early removal of bile duct stones in patients with acute biliary pancreatitis by endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation
    Nobuo Toda
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 51:1263-6. 2004
    ..Hence, little or no attempt was made to retrieve stones in cases with acute biliary pancreatitis by endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation...
  23. ncbi request reprint Rectosigmoid findings are not associated with proximal colon cancer: analysis of 6 196 consecutive cases undergoing total colonoscopy
    Makoto Okamoto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    World J Gastroenterol 11:2249-54. 2005
    ..To review the risk of proximal colon cancer in patients undergoing colonoscopy...
  24. ncbi request reprint Identification of genes associated with sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in hepatoma cells
    Yujin Hoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    J Gastroenterol 37:92-5. 2002
    ..In this study, we aimed to identify genes associated with sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, drugs widely used in treatment, using gene expression profiles...
  25. ncbi request reprint Vitamin K2 inhibits the growth and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via protein kinase A activation
    Motoyuki Otsuka
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatology 40:243-51. 2004
    ..In conclusion, similar to an acyclic retinoid--which was previously reported to prevent the recurrence of HCC--vitamin K(2), another lipid-soluble vitamin, may be a promising therapeutic means for the management of HCC...
  26. ncbi request reprint Endoscopic sphincterotomy and papillary balloon dilation for bile duct stones
    Nobuo Toda
    Division of Gastroenterology, Kameda General Hospital, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 52:700-4. 2005
    ..Recently, there were several reports on the results of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for this condition. However, there have been few reports about a comparison between EST and EPBD...
  27. ncbi request reprint Quantitative analysis of K-ras gene mutation in pancreatic tissue obtained by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration: clinical utility for diagnosis of pancreatic tumor
    Minoru Tada
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Am J Gastroenterol 97:2263-70. 2002
    ..The combination of pathological diagnosis and analysis for mutant K-ras gene was investigated to improve the accuracy of diagnosis...
  28. ncbi request reprint [HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma]
    Motoyuki Otsuka
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1, Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Uirusu 52:295-300. 2002
  29. ncbi request reprint Congenital absence of portal vein with multiple hyperplastic nodular lesions in the liver
    Yasuo Tanaka
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    J Gastroenterol 38:288-94. 2003
    ..In addition to this case report, the clinical features of 25 reported cases of congenital absence of the portal vein are reviewed...
  30. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Masao Akanuma
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 49:1039-44. 2002
    ..To evaluate the risk factors for esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma...
  31. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of adjuvant interferon therapy after surgical resection of Hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma
    Yujin Hoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Liver 22:479-85. 2002
    ..To evaluate cost-effectiveness of adjuvant interferon therapy used with surgical resection of hepatitis C-related primary hepatocellular carcinoma...
  32. ncbi request reprint Relationship between nuclear factor-kappaB activation and virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori in Japanese clinical isolates
    Shin Maeda
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:556-62. 2002
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate these candidates in nuclear factor (NF)-kappaBeta activation, which is a critical regulator of genes involved in inflammatory reactions...
  33. ncbi request reprint Ulinastatin for pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a randomized, controlled trial
    Takeshi Tsujino
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:376-83. 2005
    ..Because ulinastatin, a protease inhibitor, has proved effective in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ulinastatin for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis and hyperenzymemia...
  34. ncbi request reprint Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma and its recurrence in chronic hepatitis C patients by interferon therapy
    Masao Omata
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:S141-3. 2005
    ..Further improvement in prognosis may be expected in the future because the current combination therapy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin shows higher efficiency than interferon alone...
  35. pmc Changes in hepatic functional reserve after percutaneous tumor ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: long-term follow up for 227 consecutive patients with a single lesion
    Yukihiro Koike
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Kanto Central Hospital, 6 25 1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, 158 8531, Japan
    Hepatol Int 1:295-301. 2007
    ..Percutaneous tumor ablation is presumed to be relatively non-invasive, but there are few studies on long-term follow-up of liver function after tumor ablation...
  36. ncbi request reprint Preserved function of the Oddi sphincter after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation
    Hiroyuki Isayama
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 50:1787-91. 2003
    ..However, little is known about the function of Oddi muscle after EPBD. The aim of the present study is to evaluate Oddi muscle function using quantitative cholescintigraphy...
  37. ncbi request reprint Identification of risk factors for lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer
    Satoshi Takano
    Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Science, 2 5 1 Shikata cho Okayama, 700 8558, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 54:746-50. 2007
    ..Although lymph node metastasis is widely considered to be the potent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer patients, the clinical risk factors for lymph node metastasis in these patients have been scarcely analyzed...
  38. ncbi request reprint Risk factors and indications for first surgery in Crohn's disease patients
    Naofumi Morimoto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 54:2011-6. 2007
    ..Despite appropriate medical treatment, a large part of CD patients undergo surgery. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors and indications for first surgery in CD patients...
  39. ncbi request reprint Quantity of mutant K-ras gene in pancreatic secretions for diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma with different assays: analysis of 100 patients
    Minoru Tada
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, 113 8655 Tokyo, Japan
    Clin Chim Acta 324:105-11. 2002
    ..The K-ras mutations were analyzed using these assays...
  40. ncbi request reprint Surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C virus infection may improve patient survival
    Hironori Tanaka
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Disease, Okayama University School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan
    Liver Int 26:543-51. 2006
    ..The benefit of surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in terms of long-term survival, has not yet been established...
  41. ncbi request reprint "Duodenal intussusception" due to adenoma of the papilla of Vater
    Hideaki Ijichi
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 50:1399-402. 2003
    ..There seems to be an exceptional subtype of the tumor in the papilla of Vater, like this case, demonstrating the duodenal intussusception-like appearance without prominent clinical symptoms...
  42. ncbi request reprint Interferon therapy prolonged life expectancy among chronic hepatitis C patients
    Haruhiko Yoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Gastroenterology 123:483-91. 2002
    ..The effects of interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients on survival are unclear. Our objective was to analyze survival among a large cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients...
  43. pmc Novel nucleoside analogue MCC-478 (LY582563) is effective against wild-type or lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus
    Suzane Kioko Ono-Nita
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2602-5. 2002
    ..0 microM for L528M/M552V. Wild-type HBV and lamivudine-resistant mutants are susceptible to MCC-478. MCC-478 appears to be a candidate for the treatment of HBV infection and exhibits potent activity against lamivudine-resistant HBV...
  44. ncbi request reprint Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver and peripheral eosinophilia in autoimmune pancreatitis
    Naoki Sasahira
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    World J Gastroenterol 11:922-5. 2005
    ..Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the liver is a rare benign lesion, the etiology of which remains obscure. It is not associated with any particular diseases apart from phlebitis and Crohn's disease...
  45. ncbi request reprint Laterally spreading type of colorectal adenoma exhibits a unique methylation phenotype and K-ras mutations
    Sakiko Hiraoka
    Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Gastroenterology 131:379-89. 2006
    ..Laterally spreading tumors (LST), characterized by superficial extension along the colonic lumen, have recently been detected by colonoscopy. However, genetic and epigenetic characteristics of these tumors were scarcely reported...
  46. pmc Weak association between SEN virus viremia and liver disease
    Hideo Yoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3140-5. 2002
    ..SEN-V was detected at almost the same frequency in patients with and without liver disease. SEN-V does not seem to contribute either to the pathogenesis of liver disease or to the development of HCC from chronic liver disease...
  47. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits apoptosis via enhanced Bcl-xL expression
    Motoyuki Otsuka
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Virology 296:84-93. 2002
    ..These results suggest that core protein inhibits apoptosis at the mitochondria level through augmentation of Bcl-x expression, resulting in an inhibition of caspase 3 activation...
  48. doi request reprint Effect of vitamin K2 on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Haruhiko Yoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, and Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kanto Central Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatology 54:532-40. 2011
    ..150 (95% confidence interval: 0.843-1.570, one-sided; P=0.811) between the placebo and combined active-drug groups, and the study was discontinued in March 2007...
  49. ncbi request reprint Hepatic volumetry to predict adverse events in percutaneous ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Yujin Hoshida
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 49:451-5. 2002
    ..This study aimed to clarify the relation of hepatic volumetry to adverse events after percutaneous transhepatic ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma...
  50. ncbi request reprint Re-appearance of power Doppler signals in the tumor nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma after transarterial embolization reflects residual viable tumor cells: histological confirmation
    Shin pei Sato
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 51:56-61. 2004
    ..The present study was prospectively performed to elucidate the relationship between the power Doppler signals of hepatocellular carcinoma after transarterial embolization and histological confirmation of viable tumor cells...
  51. ncbi request reprint Possible contribution of prior hepatitis B virus infection to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Hironori Tanaka
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Disease, Okayama University School of Medicine, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:850-6. 2005
    ..The aim of the present study is to clarify the importance of prior HBV infection in development of HCC...
  52. ncbi request reprint Short-term high-dose followed by long-term low-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin and lamivudine therapy prevented recurrent hepatitis B after liver transplantation
    Akinobu Takaki
    Department of Gastroenterology, Transplant and Surgical Oncology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama City, Japan
    Transplantation 83:231-3. 2007
    ..This method allows reliable and cost-effective control of hepatitis B recurrence...
  53. ncbi request reprint Relationship between age and site of colorectal cancer based on colonoscopy findings
    Makoto Okamoto
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Gastrointest Endosc 55:548-51. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any relationship between the site of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma in the colon and age...
  54. ncbi request reprint Intraductal papillary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the bile ducts
    Hirotoshi Fukatsu
    Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Gastrointest Endosc 64:438-9; discussion 439. 2006
  55. ncbi request reprint alpha-Fetoprotein mRNA in the circulation as a predictor of postsurgical recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study
    Masayoshi Ijichi
    Hepato Biliary Pancreatic Surgery Division, Artificial Organ and Transplantation Division, Department of Surgery, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    Hepatology 35:853-60. 2002
    ..33; 95% CI, 1.26-4.34; P =.007). In conclusion, postsurgical recurrence of HCC can be predicted by detecting AFP mRNA-expressing cells in peripheral blood...
  56. ncbi request reprint Helicobacter pylori activates the proto-oncogene c-fos through SRE transactivation
    Yuzo Mitsuno
    Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 291:868-74. 2002
    ..pylori possessing intact cag PAI. SRE is required for the activation of c-fos by H. pylori. These results suggest a direct involvement of H. pylori infection in cellular proliferation, which may play a role in neoplastic transformation...
  57. ncbi request reprint Limitation of combination therapy of interferon and ribavirin for older patients with chronic hepatitis C
    Yoshiaki Iwasaki
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Hepatology 43:54-63. 2006
    ..Thus, treatment schedule should be modified, or other therapeutic modalities should be considered for older patients with chronic hepatitis C...
  58. pmc Two cases of development of entecavir resistance during entecavir treatment for nucleoside-naive chronic hepatitis B
    Haruhiko Kobashi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan
    Hepatol Int 3:403-10. 2009
    ..We observed two cases of genotypic ETVr with viral rebound and biochemical breakthrough during ETV treatment of nucleoside-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
  59. ncbi request reprint Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography depicts small tumor vessels for the evaluation of pancreatic tumors
    Yuko Okamoto
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Eur J Radiol 61:163-9. 2007
    ..The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors...
  60. ncbi request reprint Regression of hepatocellular carcinoma during vitamin K administration
    Kazuhiro Nouso
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima City Hospital, Naka ku, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima 730 8518, Japan
    World J Gastroenterol 11:6722-4. 2005
    ..Here we present the report describing the regression of HCC during the administration of vitamin K...
  61. ncbi request reprint Cost-effectiveness of the surveillance program of hepatocellular carcinoma depends on the medical circumstances
    Kazuhiro Nouso
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima City Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:437-44. 2008
    ..The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance of HCC in different medical circumstances...
  62. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for local and distant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinomas after local ablation therapies
    Kazuhiro Nouso
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima City Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:453-8. 2008
    ..Recurrence following the therapies may be of two types: local recurrence and distant recurrence. The aim of the current study is to separately elucidate the predisposing factors for each recurrence...
  63. doi request reprint Efficacy and safety of entecavir in nucleoside-naive, chronic hepatitis B patients: phase II clinical study in Japan
    Haruhiko Kobashi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24:255-61. 2009
    ..Entecavir has demonstrated clinical efficacy for chronic hepatitis B. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of entecavir in nucleoside-naive Japanese chronic hepatitis B patients...
  64. pmc Identification of XAGE-1 isoforms: predominant expression of XAGE-1b in testis and tumors
    Shuichiro Sato
    Department of Immunology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shikata cho, Okayama, Japan
    Cancer Immun 7:5. 2007
    ..These findings suggested that XAGE-1b is a promising target molecule for a cancer vaccine against lung cancer...
  65. ncbi request reprint Centrifugal leukocytapheresis therapy for ulcerative colitis without concurrent corticosteroid administration
    Hiroyuki Okada
    Department of Medicine and Medical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    Ther Apher Dial 10:242-6. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Hepatitis C patients with sustained virologic response to interferon therapy
    Yoshiaki Iwasaki
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    Liver Int 24:603-10. 2004
    ..Although a variety of papers demonstrated inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis with interferon (IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis C, a small number of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were still observed even in sustained virologic responders...
  67. ncbi request reprint Prediction of the ablated area by the spread of microbubbles during radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma
    Kazuhiro Nouso
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima City Hospital, 7 33 Motomachi, Naka ku, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima 730 8518, Japan
    Liver Int 25:967-72. 2005
    ..Patients and..
  68. ncbi request reprint Analysis of HCV genotypes from blood donors shows three new HCV type 6 subgroups exist in Myanmar
    Toshiyuki Shinji
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Acta Med Okayama 58:135-42. 2004
    ..M6-3, though only found in one sample, was a brand-new subgroup. These subtypes were not seen in Vietnam, where type 6 group variants are widely spread. These findings may be useful for analyzing how and when these subgroups were formed...
  69. ncbi request reprint Polyurethane-covered metal stent for management of distal malignant biliary obstruction
    Hiroyuki Isayama
    Department of Gastroenterology, Department of Endoscopy and Endoscopic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8655, Japan
    Gastrointest Endosc 55:366-70. 2002
    ..The efficacy of polyurethane-covered metal expandable stents for treatment of neoplastic distal biliary obstruction was analyzed...
  70. ncbi request reprint Risk factors and indications for colectomy in ulcerative colitis patients are different according to patient's clinical background
    Motoaki Kuriyama
    Department of Gastroenterology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Dis Colon Rectum 49:1307-15. 2006
    ..We analyzed the clinical variables of ulcerative colitis patients and determined the risk factors and indications for colectomy...
  71. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus NS4A and NS4B proteins suppress translation in vivo
    Jun Kato
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
    J Med Virol 66:187-99. 2002
    ..In conclusion, HCV NS4A and NS4B proteins have an effect of translational inhibition. This novel function may be involved in HCV infection and help its survival in host cells...
  72. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-1beta genetic polymorphism influences the effect of cytochrome P 2C19 genotype on the cure rate of 1-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection
    Susumu Take
    Department of Medicine and Medical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    Am J Gastroenterol 98:2403-8. 2003
    ..In this study, we examined the impact of IL-1beta genetic polymorphism on the cure rate of triple therapy for H. pylori in relation to cytochrome P (CYP) 2C19 genotype and antibiotic resistance...
  73. ncbi request reprint Peritoneal dissemination of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with a combination therapy of interferon-alpha-2b and oral tegafur/uracil
    Yasuhiro Miyake
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Intern Med 46:565-9. 2007
    ..A combination therapy of interferon-alpha-2b and oral tegafur/uracil is facile and may be effective for extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  74. ncbi request reprint Anti-viral actions and viral dynamics in the early phase of three different regimens of interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C: differences between the twice-daily administration of interferon-beta treatment and the combination therapy with interfer
    Hirofumi Nakajima
    Department of Medicine and Medical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Acta Med Okayama 57:217-25. 2003
    ..The expression of these 3 proteins tended to decrease at day 6 in group C, but increase in groups A and B. These might make differences in the viral decay during the second phase..
  75. ncbi request reprint A homosexual Japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis
    Yasuhiro Miyake
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Acta Med Okayama 61:35-9. 2007
    ..Furthermore, education of homosexual men regarding hepatitis B virus, hepatitis B virus vaccination, and amebiasis is urgently required...
  76. ncbi request reprint Differences between right- and left-sided colon cancer in patient characteristics, cancer morphology and histology
    Toru Nawa
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 23:418-23. 2008
    ..Recently, the clinical and biological differences between right- and left-sided colon cancers have been widely debated. However, close analyses of these clinical differences, based on large-scale studies, have been scarcely reported...
  77. ncbi request reprint Development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a woman with HBV- and HCV-negative autoimmune hepatitis with unsatisfactory response to Corticosteroid
    Yasuhiro Miyake
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    Intern Med 44:949-53. 2005
    ..Nine years later, hepatocellular carcinoma 20 mm in diameter was detected. This case suggests that hepatocellular carcinoma develops even if serum alanine aminotransferase levels are maintained at less than twice the upper normal limit...
  78. ncbi request reprint HBcAg-specific CD8 T cells play an important role in virus suppression, and acute flare-up is associated with the expansion of activated memory T cells
    Noriaki Shimada
    Department of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Okayama University Graduated School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    J Clin Immunol 23:223-32. 2003
    ..In conclusion. HBV-specific CD8 T cells play an important role in the suppression of virus replication, and acute flare-up is associated with the expansion and activation of HBV-specific memory cells...
  79. ncbi request reprint Identification of the antigens predominantly reacted with serum from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Masayuki Uemura
    Department of Medicine and Medical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    Cancer 97:2474-9. 2003
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases: comparative study of hepatocellular carcinoma versus cirrhosis
    Tsutomu Masaki
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kagawa Medical University, Kagawa, Japan
    Hepatology 37:534-43. 2003
    ..Cyclin D1, Cdk4, and cyclin E activation may be closely related to the histopathologic grade and progression of HCC...
  81. doi request reprint Fibrosis progression rates between chronic hepatitis B and C patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels
    Akiko Fujiwara
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 5 1 Shikata, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    J Gastroenterol 43:484-91. 2008
    ..We evaluated the annual rate of fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis B and C patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels...
  82. ncbi request reprint Lamivudine treatment improves the prognosis of fulminant hepatitis B
    Yasuhiro Miyake
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Intern Med 47:1293-9. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors and the efficacy of lamivudine for fulminant hepatitis B in Japan, where the main infection genotype is B...
  83. ncbi request reprint Progression from chronic hepatitis to hepatocellular carcinoma: natural course and treatments
    Masao Omata
    Department of Medicine II, Tokyo University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17:S434-6. 2002
  84. ncbi request reprint Expression of p57(KIP2) in hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship between tumor differentiation and patient survival
    Seiji Nakai
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kagawa Medical University, Kagawa 761 0793, Japan
    Int J Oncol 20:769-75. 2002
    ..New therapeutic options might be provided by the combination of the loss of p57(KIP2) and expression of PCNA...
  85. ncbi request reprint Change of clinical characteristics of ulcerative colitis in Japan: analysis of 844 hospital-based patients from 1981 to 2000
    Tsuyoshi Fujimoto
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:229-35. 2007
    ..We investigated the clinical characteristics and chronological change of ulcerative colitis in Japanese patients...
  86. ncbi request reprint Increased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma
    Eiji Matsumoto
    Department of Medicine and Medical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Shikata cho, Japan
    Liver Int 24:379-83. 2004
    ..Invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). However, the role of TIMPs in these processes is not clear...
  87. ncbi request reprint Intrahepatic mRNA levels of type I interferon receptor and interferon-stimulated genes in genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. Association between IFNAR1 mRNA level and sustained response to interferon therapy
    Hideaki Taniguchi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
    Intervirology 50:32-9. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the association between pretreatment intrahepatic mRNA levels of interferon receptor and interferon-stimulated genes and response to interferon therapy for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C...
  88. ncbi request reprint Lamivudine treatment in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma--using an untreated, matched control cohort
    Cheng Yu Piao
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Acta Med Okayama 59:217-24. 2005
    ..These results suggest that lamivudine treatment for patients with HCC may prevent death due to liver failure. Further prospective randomized studies using a larger number of patients are required...
  89. ncbi request reprint Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1a mRNA expression in normal tissues and tumors, and correlation of the protein expression with the mRNA copy number
    Shuichiro Sato
    Department of Immunology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    Int J Oncol 26:57-63. 2005
    ..B9.8-specific staining was observed weakly and focally in one liver cancer specimen expressing >10(5) copies of LAGE-1a mRNA...
  90. ncbi request reprint Altered expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 and endostatin in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Shuji Uematsu
    Department of Medicine and Medical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 20:583-8. 2005
    ....
  91. ncbi request reprint Long-term monitoring of platelet count, as a non-invasive marker of hepatic fibrosis progression and/or regression in patients with chronic hepatitis C after interferon therapy
    Hideaki Taniguchi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 21:281-7. 2006
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess hepatic fibrosis progression or regression of CHC patients by long-term monitoring of the platelet count...
  92. ncbi request reprint Sloughing of intraductal tumor thrombus of hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter chemoembolization causing obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis
    Takao Hiraki
    J Vasc Interv Radiol 17:583-5. 2006
  93. ncbi request reprint Simple surrogate index of the fibrosis stage in chronic hepatitis C patients using platelet count and serum albumin level
    Takeyuki Ohta
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Acta Med Okayama 60:77-84. 2006
    ..7% and 75.0% in the initial cohort and 70.8% and 81.0% in the validation cohort. The fibrosis index comprised of platelet count and albumin level reflected the histological fibrosis stage in patients with chronic hepatitis C...
  94. ncbi request reprint Twenty-four weeks of interferon alpha-2b in combination with ribavirin for Japanese hepatitis C patients: sufficient treatment period for patients with genotype 2 but not for patients with genotype 1
    Keiichi Fujiwara
    Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
    Liver Int 26:520-8. 2006
    ....
  95. ncbi request reprint A novel display of reconstruction computed tomography for the detection of small hepatocellular carcinoma
    Takuma Teratani
    University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Gastroenterology, Tokyo, Japan
    Liver Int 24:619-24. 2004
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of the alternate display of arterial and equilibrium phase images (ADAEI) of 2 mm-pitch reconstruction computed tomography (CT) in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  96. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity and specificity of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin for diagnosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinomas varies according to tumor size
    Shinichiro Nakamura
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    Am J Gastroenterol 101:2038-43. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic efficacy of DCP and AFP in differentiating HCC from chronic liver diseases...
  97. ncbi request reprint Anti-endostatin monoclonal antibody enhances growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting activity of endostatin secreted by the transplanted cells in nude mice
    So Tsuboi
    Department of Hepatology, Shigei Medical Research Hospital, 2117 Yamada, Okayama 701 0202, Japan
    Int J Oncol 25:1267-71. 2004
    ..But the antibody itself did not stimulate proliferation of the tumor cells. Our present experimental procedure, the use of anti-endostatin antibody, definitely solved the question whether endostatin might exert its anticancer activity...
  98. ncbi request reprint Endoscopic therapy for bleeding esophageal varices improves the outcome of Child C cirrhotic patients
    Shinichiro Hori
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 21:1704-9. 2006
    ..The management of esophageal varices is therefore important for patient survival. The purpose of this study was to clarify the predictive factors for mortality in patients with Child C cirrhosis presenting with variceal bleeding...
  99. ncbi request reprint [Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus after tumor ablation]
    Kohsaku Sakaguchi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School
    Nihon Rinsho 62:629-33. 2004
  100. ncbi request reprint [Evaluating the efficacy of interferon therapy on hepatitis C patients]
    Hidenori Shiraha
    Department of Medicine and Medical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry
    Nihon Rinsho 62:489-92. 2004
  101. ncbi request reprint Establishment of hepatitis C virus replicon cell lines possessing interferon-resistant phenotype
    Katsuyuki Namba
    Department of Molecular Biology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, 2 5 1 Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323:299-309. 2004
    ..These newly established HCV replicon cell lines possessing IFN-resistant phenotypes are the first useful tools for understanding the mechanisms by which HCV acquires IFN resistance in vivo...