N Mizushima

Summary

Affiliation: National Institute for Basic Biology
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. pmc Dissection of autophagosome formation using Apg5-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells
    N Mizushima
    Unit Process and Combined Circuit, PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi 332 0012, Japan
    J Cell Biol 152:657-68. 2001
  2. ncbi Methods for monitoring autophagy
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2491-502. 2004
  3. ncbi Mouse Apg16L, a novel WD-repeat protein, targets to the autophagic isolation membrane with the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate
    Noboru Mizushima
    PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi 332 0012, Japan
    J Cell Sci 116:1679-88. 2003
  4. ncbi Autophagosome formation in mammalian cells
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Cell Struct Funct 27:421-9. 2002
  5. pmc The pre-autophagosomal structure organized by concerted functions of APG genes is essential for autophagosome formation
    K Suzuki
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    EMBO J 20:5971-81. 2001
  6. pmc LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast Apg8p, is localized in autophagosome membranes after processing
    Y Kabeya
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, PRESTO, Japan
    EMBO J 19:5720-8. 2000
  7. pmc The reversible modification regulates the membrane-binding state of Apg8/Aut7 essential for autophagy and the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway
    T Kirisako
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Cell Biol 151:263-76. 2000
  8. pmc Apg16p is required for the function of the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate in the yeast autophagy pathway
    N Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    EMBO J 18:3888-96. 1999
  9. ncbi A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation
    Y Ichimura
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Nature 408:488-92. 2000
  10. pmc The mouse SKD1, a homologue of yeast Vps4p, is required for normal endosomal trafficking and morphology in mammalian cells
    T Yoshimori
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 11:747-63. 2000

Detail Information

Publications72

  1. pmc Dissection of autophagosome formation using Apg5-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells
    N Mizushima
    Unit Process and Combined Circuit, PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi 332 0012, Japan
    J Cell Biol 152:657-68. 2001
    ..We also show that Apg12-Apg5 is required for targeting of a mammalian Aut7/Apg8 homologue, LC3, to the isolation membranes. These results suggest that the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate plays essential roles in isolation membrane development...
  2. ncbi Methods for monitoring autophagy
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2491-502. 2004
    ..Importantly, most of these proteins are conserved in mammals. Using these probes, we can now specifically monitor autophagic activity...
  3. ncbi Mouse Apg16L, a novel WD-repeat protein, targets to the autophagic isolation membrane with the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate
    Noboru Mizushima
    PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi 332 0012, Japan
    J Cell Sci 116:1679-88. 2003
    ..Because WD-repeat proteins provide a platform for protein-protein interactions, the approximately 800 kDa complex is expected to function in autophagosome formation, further interacting with other proteins in mammalian cells...
  4. ncbi Autophagosome formation in mammalian cells
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Cell Struct Funct 27:421-9. 2002
    ..These findings are now being applied to studies on the physiological roles of autophagy in mammals...
  5. pmc The pre-autophagosomal structure organized by concerted functions of APG genes is essential for autophagosome formation
    K Suzuki
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    EMBO J 20:5971-81. 2001
    ..The Apg1p protein kinase complex functions in the late stage of autophagosome formation. Here, we present the classification of Apg proteins into three groups that reflect each step of autophagosome formation...
  6. pmc LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast Apg8p, is localized in autophagosome membranes after processing
    Y Kabeya
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, PRESTO, Japan
    EMBO J 19:5720-8. 2000
    ..The amount of LC3-II is correlated with the extent of autophagosome formation. LC3-II is the first mammalian protein identified that specifically associates with autophagosome membranes...
  7. pmc The reversible modification regulates the membrane-binding state of Apg8/Aut7 essential for autophagy and the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway
    T Kirisako
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Cell Biol 151:263-76. 2000
    ..A reaction similar to ubiquitination is probably involved in the second modification. The reversible modification of Apg8 appears to be coupled to the membrane dynamics of autophagy and the Cvt pathway...
  8. pmc Apg16p is required for the function of the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate in the yeast autophagy pathway
    N Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    EMBO J 18:3888-96. 1999
    ..These results suggest that the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugate requires Apg16p to accomplish its role in the autophagy pathway, and Apg16p is a key molecule as a linker to form the Apg12p-Apg5p-Apg16p multimer...
  9. ncbi A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation
    Y Ichimura
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Nature 408:488-92. 2000
    ..11) and Apg3, respectively. These reactions are necessary for the formation of Apg8-phosphatidylethanolamine. This lipidation has an essential role in membrane dynamics during autophagy...
  10. pmc The mouse SKD1, a homologue of yeast Vps4p, is required for normal endosomal trafficking and morphology in mammalian cells
    T Yoshimori
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 11:747-63. 2000
    ..The early endosome antigen EEA1 was also redistributed to these aberrant membranes. Taken together, our findings suggest that SKD1 regulates morphology of endosomes and membrane traffic through them...
  11. ncbi A new protein conjugation system in human. The counterpart of the yeast Apg12p conjugation system essential for autophagy
    N Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Biol Chem 273:33889-92. 1998
    ..These findings indicate that the Apg12 system is well conserved and may function in autophagy also in human cells...
  12. pmc Apg10p, a novel protein-conjugating enzyme essential for autophagy in yeast
    T Shintani
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    EMBO J 18:5234-41. 1999
    ..These findings indicate that Apg10p is a new type of protein-conjugating enzyme that functions in the Apg12p-Apg5p conjugation pathway...
  13. ncbi A protein conjugation system in yeast with homology to biosynthetic enzyme reaction of prokaryotes
    K Furukawa
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:7462-5. 2000
    ..This fact may provide an important clue regarding evolution of protein conjugation systems in eukaryotic cells...
  14. ncbi Mouse Apg10 as an Apg12-conjugating enzyme: analysis by the conjugation-mediated yeast two-hybrid method
    Noboru Mizushima
    PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 332 0012, Kawaguchi, Japan
    FEBS Lett 532:450-4. 2002
    ..This novel two-hybrid method, which we have named 'conjugation-mediated yeast two-hybrid', proves to be a simple and useful technique with which to analyze protein-protein conjugation...
  15. ncbi Formation of the approximately 350-kDa Apg12-Apg5.Apg16 multimeric complex, mediated by Apg16 oligomerization, is essential for autophagy in yeast
    Akiko Kuma
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:18619-25. 2002
    ..These results suggest that the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate and Apg16 form a multimeric complex mediated by the Apg16 homo-oligomer, and formation of the approximately 350-kDa complex is required for autophagy in yeast...
  16. ncbi A protein conjugation system essential for autophagy
    N Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan
    Nature 395:395-8. 1998
    ..Furthermore, Apg5 and Apg12 have mammalian homologues, suggesting that this new modification system is conserved from yeast to mammalian cells...
  17. ncbi Two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems essential for autophagy
    Yoshinori Ohsumi
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji cho, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 15:231-6. 2004
  18. ncbi LC3, GABARAP and GATE16 localize to autophagosomal membrane depending on form-II formation
    Yukiko Kabeya
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji 38, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Cell Sci 117:2805-12. 2004
    ..Generation of the form II correlates with autophagosome association of GABARAP and GATE16. These results suggest that all mammalian Atg8 homologues receive a common modification to associate with autophagosomal membrane as the form II...
  19. pmc In vivo analysis of autophagy in response to nutrient starvation using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent autophagosome marker
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    Mol Biol Cell 15:1101-11. 2004
    ..Our results suggest that the regulation of autophagy is organ dependent and the role of autophagy is not restricted to the starvation response. This transgenic mouse model is a useful tool to study mammalian autophagy...
  20. ncbi [Molecular mechanism of autophagy: the role of the Apg12 conjugation system]
    Noboru Mizushima
    PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation JST, Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaijicho, Okazaki, Aichi 444 8585
    Seikagaku 74:523-37. 2002
  21. ncbi Role of the Apg12 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy
    Noboru Mizushima
    PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 332 0012, Kawaguchi, Japan
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 35:553-61. 2003
    ..Discovery of the Apg12 system has facilitated our understanding of the molecular mechanism of autophagosome formation...
  22. ncbi The role of autophagy during the early neonatal starvation period
    Akiko Kuma
    Time s Arrow and Biosignaling, PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi 332 0012, Japan
    Nature 432:1032-6. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the production of amino acids by autophagic degradation of 'self' proteins, which allows for the maintenance of energy homeostasis, is important for survival during neonatal starvation...
  23. ncbi Localization of mammalian NAD(P)H steroid dehydrogenase-like protein on lipid droplets
    Masato Ohashi
    Department of Molecular Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444 8585, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:36819-29. 2003
    ..These results add to the growing notion that the lipid droplet is an organelle endowed with more complex roles in various biological phenomena...
  24. ncbi SKD1 AAA ATPase-dependent endosomal transport is involved in autolysosome formation
    Atsuki Nara
    Department of Cell Biology, National Institute for Basic Biology, Myodaiji, Okazaki, Japan
    Cell Struct Funct 27:29-37. 2002
    ..These results indicate that SKD1-dependent endosomal membrane trafficking is required for formation of autolysosomes...
  25. ncbi LC3, an autophagosome marker, can be incorporated into protein aggregates independent of autophagy: caution in the interpretation of LC3 localization
    Akiko Kuma
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Autophagy 3:323-8. 2007
    ..Therefore, LC3 localization should be carefully interpreted, particularly if LC3 is overexpressed by transient transfection or if aggregates are formed within cells...
  26. ncbi [Methods for monitoring macroautophagy]
    Noboru Mizushima
    Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 51:1542-8. 2006
  27. ncbi The dynamics of autophagy visualized in live cells: from autophagosome formation to fusion with endo/lysosomes
    Edward T W Bampton
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Autophagy 1:23-36. 2005
    ..Use of fluorescent LC3 and a counter-fluorescent endosomal/lysosomal protein clearly allows the entire autophagic process to be followed by live cell imaging with high fidelity...
  28. ncbi [Regulators of mammalian cellular autophagy]
    Taichi Hara
    Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 51:1484-9. 2006
  29. ncbi ALIS are stress-induced protein storage compartments for substrates of the proteasome and autophagy
    Jason Szeto
    Infection, Immunity, Injury and Repair Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Autophagy 2:189-99. 2006
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that ALIS act as generalized stress-induced protein storage compartments for substrates of the proteasome and autophagy...
  30. ncbi Cellular autophagy machinery is not required for vaccinia virus replication and maturation
    Haiyan Zhang
    Department of Pharmacology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Autophagy 2:91-5. 2006
    ..This study indicates that the cellular autophagy machinery is not required for the life-cycle of vaccinia virus, suggesting that the primary vaccinia viral membrane does not originate from the autophagic membrane...
  31. ncbi Chromosomal mapping of the GFP-LC3 transgene in GFP-LC3 mice
    Akiko Kuma
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan SORST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Japan
    Autophagy 4:61-2. 2008
    ..Homozygous GFP-LC3 mice (GFP-LC3(tg/tg)) were healthy, fertile and did not show an abnormal phenotype. Thus, GFP-LC3 integration in this model appears not to affect functions of other genes, justifying use of this mouse model...
  32. ncbi Autophagy: process and function
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
    Genes Dev 21:2861-73. 2007
    ..In this review, the process of autophagy is summarized, and the role of autophagy is discussed in a process-based manner...
  33. pmc Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
    Daniel J Klionsky
    Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 2216, USA
    Autophagy 4:151-75. 2008
    ..In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response...
  34. doi Rapamycin inhibits polyglutamine aggregation independently of autophagy by reducing protein synthesis
    Matthew A King
    Southampton Neuroscience Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX, UK
    Mol Pharmacol 73:1052-63. 2008
    ..This finding may have important therapeutic implications...
  35. ncbi GFP-like proteins stably accumulate in lysosomes
    Hiroyuki Katayama
    Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN
    Cell Struct Funct 33:1-12. 2008
    ....
  36. doi Autophagosomes in GFP-LC3 Transgenic Mice
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Methods Mol Biol 445:119-24. 2008
    ..To analyze autophagy in whole animals, we generated GFP-LC3 transgenic mice and describe here how we determine the occurrence of autophagy in vivo using this mouse model...
  37. pmc FIP200, a ULK-interacting protein, is required for autophagosome formation in mammalian cells
    Taichi Hara
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8549, Japan
    J Cell Biol 181:497-510. 2008
    ..These results suggest that FIP200 is a novel mammalian autophagy factor that functions together with ULKs...
  38. doi Autophagy is essential for preimplantation development of mouse embryos
    Satoshi Tsukamoto
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1 5 45 Yushima, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
    Science 321:117-20. 2008
    ..Protein synthesis rates were reduced in the autophagy-null embryos. Thus, autophagic degradation within early embryos is essential for preimplantation development in mammals...
  39. ncbi Regulation of intracellular accumulation of mutant Huntingtin by Beclin 1
    Mamoru Shibata
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:14474-85. 2006
    ..100, 15077-15082), we propose that the age-dependent decrease of beclin 1 expression may lead to a reduction of autophagic activity during aging, which in turn promotes the accumulation of mutant Htt and the progression of the disease...
  40. ncbi Escape of intracellular Shigella from autophagy
    Michinaga Ogawa
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4 6 1, Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
    Science 307:727-31. 2005
    ..Rather, Shigella VirG, a protein required for intracellular actin-based motility, induced autophagy by binding to the autophagy protein, Atg5. In nonmutant Shigella, this binding is competitively inhibited by IcsB binding to VirG...
  41. ncbi Role of Bcl-2 family proteins in a non-apoptotic programmed cell death dependent on autophagy genes
    Shigeomi Shimizu
    Department of Post Genomics and Diseases, Osaka University Medical School, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nat Cell Biol 6:1221-8. 2004
    ..These results indicate that the Bcl-2 family of proteins not only regulates apoptosis, but also controls non-apoptotic programmed cell death that depends on the autophagy genes...
  42. ncbi Essential roles of Atg5 and FADD in autophagic cell death: dissection of autophagic cell death into vacuole formation and cell death
    Jong Ok Pyo
    Department of Life Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712, Korea
    J Biol Chem 280:20722-9. 2005
    ..These results suggest that Atg5 plays a crucial role in IFN-gamma-induced autophagic cell death by interacting with FADD...
  43. ncbi Alfy, a novel FYVE-domain-containing protein associated with protein granules and autophagic membranes
    Anne Simonsen
    Department of Biochemistry, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo 0310, Norway
    J Cell Sci 117:4239-51. 2004
    ..By electron microscopy, similar structures can be found within autophagosomes. We propose that Alfy might target cytosolic protein aggregates for autophagic degradation...
  44. pmc Impairment of starvation-induced and constitutive autophagy in Atg7-deficient mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    J Cell Biol 169:425-34. 2005
    ..Our results indicate the important role of autophagy in starvation response and the quality control of proteins and organelles in quiescent cells...
  45. ncbi The crystal structure of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, a mammalian homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atg8
    Kenji Sugawara
    Department of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12, Nishi 6, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    Genes Cells 9:611-8. 2004
    ..We also propose the functional implications of the ubiquitin fold as a recognition module of target proteins...
  46. ncbi Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of a 14-3-3 gene-deficient yeast
    Tohru Ichimura
    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji shi, Tokyo 192 0397, Japan
    Biochemistry 43:6149-58. 2004
    ..This study presents the first comprehensive overview of the genes and proteins that are affected by the depletion of Bmh1/2p and extends the scope of knowledge of the regulatory roles of Bmh1/2p in S. cerevisiae...
  47. ncbi Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins inhibit Beclin 1-dependent autophagy
    Sophie Pattingre
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 122:927-39. 2005
    ..This antiautophagy function of Bcl-2 may help maintain autophagy at levels that are compatible with cell survival, rather than cell death...
  48. ncbi Coronavirus replication complex formation utilizes components of cellular autophagy
    Erik Prentice
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Elizabeth B Lamb Center for Pediatric Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37221, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:10136-41. 2004
    ..Furthermore, the rough endoplasmic reticulum is implicated as the possible source of membranes for replication complexes...
  49. pmc Constitutive activation of chaperone-mediated autophagy in cells with impaired macroautophagy
    Susmita Kaushik
    Departments of Anatomy and Structural Biology and Developmental and Molecular Biology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center and Institute for Aging Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Mol Biol Cell 19:2179-92. 2008
    ..This work supports a direct cross-talk between these two forms of autophagy, and it identifies changes in the lysosomal compartment that underlie the basis for the communication between both autophagic pathways...
  50. ncbi Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of LC3-I
    Kenji Sugawara
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N 12, W 6, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 59:1464-5. 2003
    ..39, c = 36.89 A. The other form belongs to space group P4(1) or P4(3), with unit-cell parameters a = 60.48, c = 35.28 A. From the latter form, a complete diffraction data set was collected to 2.1 A resolution...
  51. pmc Analysis of the role of autophagy in replication of herpes simplex virus in cell culture
    Diane E Alexander
    Department of Ophthalmology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 81:12128-34. 2007
    ..These data show that while ICP34.5 regulates autophagy, it is the prevention of translational arrest by ICP34.5 rather than its control of autophagy that is the pivotal determinant of efficient HSV-1 replication in primary cell culture...
  52. ncbi Aberrant membranes and double-membrane structures accumulate in the axons of Atg5-null Purkinje cells before neuronal death
    Jun Nishiyama
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
    Autophagy 3:591-6. 2007
    ..These results suggest that Atg5 plays important roles in the maintenance of axon morphology and membrane structures, and its loss of function leads to the swelling of axons, followed by progressive neurodegeneration in mammalian neurons...
  53. ncbi Autophagy defends cells against invading group A Streptococcus
    Ichiro Nakagawa
    Department of Oral and Molecular Microbiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1 8 Yamadaoka, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Science 306:1037-40. 2004
    ..In autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- cells, GAS survived, multiplied, and were released from the cells. Thus, the autophagic machinery can act as an innate defense system against invading pathogens...
  54. ncbi Homeostatic levels of p62 control cytoplasmic inclusion body formation in autophagy-deficient mice
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Laboratory of Frontier Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Cell 131:1149-63. 2007
    ....
  55. pmc Involvement of autophagy in trypsinogen activation within the pancreatic acinar cells
    Daisuke Hashimoto
    Division of Developmental Genetics, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860 0811, Japan
    J Cell Biol 181:1065-72. 2008
    ..These results suggest that autophagy exerts devastating effects in pancreatic acinar cells by activation of trypsinogen to trypsin in the early stage of acute pancreatitis through delivering trypsinogen to the lysosome...
  56. pmc Promotion of tumorigenesis by heterozygous disruption of the beclin 1 autophagy gene
    Xueping Qu
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:1809-20. 2003
    ..Thus, mutation of beclin 1 or other autophagy genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of human cancers...
  57. ncbi How to interpret LC3 immunoblotting
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
    Autophagy 3:542-5. 2007
    ..Accordingly, simple comparison of LC3-I and LC3-II, or summation of LC3-I and LC3-II for ratio determinations, may not be appropriate, and rather, the amount of LC3-II can be compared between samples...
  58. ncbi The role of autophagy in cardiomyocytes in the basal state and in response to hemodynamic stress
    Atsuko Nakai
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nat Med 13:619-24. 2007
    ....
  59. ncbi Intracellular inclusions containing mutant alpha1-antitrypsin Z are propagated in the absence of autophagic activity
    Takahiro Kamimoto
    Department of Cell Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:4467-76. 2006
    ....
  60. ncbi Organelle degradation during the lens and erythroid differentiation is independent of autophagy
    Makoto Matsui
    Department of Bioregulation and Metabolism, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 339:485-9. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that degradation system(s) other than autophagy play major roles in organelle degradation during these processes...
  61. ncbi Suppression of basal autophagy in neural cells causes neurodegenerative disease in mice
    Taichi Hara
    Department of Bioregulation and Metabolism, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 113 8613, Japan
    Nature 441:885-9. 2006
    ....
  62. ncbi Structural basis for the specificity and catalysis of human Atg4B responsible for mammalian autophagy
    Kenji Sugawara
    Department of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N 12, W 6, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:40058-65. 2005
    ..The structure and in vitro mutational analyses provide the basis for the specificity and catalysis of HsAtg4B. This will enable the design of Atg4-specific inhibitors that block autophagy...
  63. ncbi [Autophagy: a strategy for neogenesis]
    Noboru Mizushima
    Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 50:393-402. 2005
  64. pmc Cerebral ischemia-hypoxia induces intravascular coagulation and autophagy
    Faisal Adhami
    Division of Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Room 3464, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Am J Pathol 169:566-83. 2006
    ..Together, these results suggest that ischemia-hypoxia is a powerful stimulus for spontaneous coagulation leading to reperfusion deficits and autophagic/lysosomal cell death in brain...
  65. ncbi Induction of autophagy in axonal dystrophy and degeneration
    Qing Jun Wang
    Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry and Gaseous Ion Chemistry, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Neurosci 26:8057-68. 2006
    ..We propose that induction of autophagy serves as an early stress response in axonal dystrophy and may participate in the remodeling of axon structures...
  66. ncbi [Physiological role in constitutive autophagy]
    Masaaki Komatsu
    Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 51:1515-8. 2006
  67. pmc A critical role for the autophagy gene Atg5 in T cell survival and proliferation
    Heather H Pua
    Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Exp Med 204:25-31. 2007
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for Atg5 in multiple aspects of lymphocyte development and function and suggest that autophagy may be essential for both T lymphocyte survival and proliferation...
  68. ncbi Autophagy-dependent viral recognition by plasmacytoid dendritic cells
    Heung Kyu Lee
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Science 315:1398-401. 2007
    ..These results support a key role for autophagy in mediating ssRNA virus detection and interferon-alpha secretion by pDCs and suggest that cytosolic replication intermediates of viruses serve as pathogen signatures recognized by TLR7...
  69. ncbi Protein turnover via autophagy: implications for metabolism
    Noboru Mizushima
    Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
    Annu Rev Nutr 27:19-40. 2007
    ..We review the current information on the mechanism of autophagy, with a focus on its role in protein metabolism and intracellular homeostasis...
  70. ncbi Collaboration of proteolytic systems
    Noboru Mizushima
    Autophagy 3:179-80. 2007
  71. pmc Participation of autophagy in storage of lysosomes in neurons from mouse models of neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (Batten disease)
    Masato Koike
    Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan
    Am J Pathol 167:1713-28. 2005
    ..These data strongly argue for a major involvement of autophagy in the pathogenesis of Batten disease/lysosomal storage disorders...
  72. doi Autophagy in thymic epithelium shapes the T-cell repertoire and is essential for tolerance
    Jelena Nedjic
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Doktor Bohr Gasse 7, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nature 455:396-400. 2008
    ..In doing so, it contributes to T-cell selection and is essential for the generation of a self-tolerant T-cell repertoire...