Naohito Aoki

Summary

Affiliation: Nagoya University
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Lactation-dependent expression of an mRNA splice variant with an exon for a multiply O-glycosylated domain of mouse milk fat globule glycoprotein MFG-E8
    K Oshima
    Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, 464 8601, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 254:522-8. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Lactation-dependent down regulation of leptin production in mouse mammary gland
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1427:298-306. 1999
  3. ncbi request reprint High fat feeding of lactating mice causing a drastic reduction in fat and energy content in milk without affecting the apparent growth of their pups and the production of major milk fat globule membrane components MFG-E8 and butyrophilin
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63:1749-55. 1999
  4. ncbi request reprint A growing family of dual specificity phosphatases with low molecular masses
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biochem 130:133-40. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase gene expression in lactating mouse mammary gland
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, 464 8601, Japan
    J Biochem 125:669-75. 1999
  6. ncbi request reprint A nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP is a potential negative regulator of the PRL-mediated signaling pathway: dephosphorylation and deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b by TC-PTP in nucleus
    Naohito Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 16:58-69. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Mutual regulation of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 20 and protein-tyrosine kinase Tec activities by tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
    Naohito Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:10765-75. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint A cytosolic protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B specifically dephosphorylates and deactivates prolactin-activated STAT5a and STAT5b
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:39718-26. 2000
  9. pmc Weaning-induced expression of a milk-fat globule protein, MFG-E8, in mouse mammary glands, as demonstrated by the analyses of its mRNA, protein and phosphatidylserine-binding activity
    Hajime Nakatani
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Biochem J 395:21-30. 2006
  10. doi request reprint IgG2 dominancy and carbohydrate recognition specificity of C3H/He mouse antibodies directed to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) bearing beta-(1,2)-xylose and alpha-(1,3)-fucose
    Shingo Hino
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Immunol Lett 133:28-34. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi request reprint Lactation-dependent expression of an mRNA splice variant with an exon for a multiply O-glycosylated domain of mouse milk fat globule glycoprotein MFG-E8
    K Oshima
    Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, 464 8601, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 254:522-8. 1999
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Lactation-dependent down regulation of leptin production in mouse mammary gland
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1427:298-306. 1999
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint High fat feeding of lactating mice causing a drastic reduction in fat and energy content in milk without affecting the apparent growth of their pups and the production of major milk fat globule membrane components MFG-E8 and butyrophilin
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63:1749-55. 1999
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint A growing family of dual specificity phosphatases with low molecular masses
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biochem 130:133-40. 2001
    ..Taken together, it is conceivable that a distinct class of low molecular mass DSPs is present and plays a role in dephosphorylating unknown molecules other than MAP kinases...
  5. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase gene expression in lactating mouse mammary gland
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, 464 8601, Japan
    J Biochem 125:669-75. 1999
    ..These results suggest the possible contribution of PTPs to the development, involution, and remodeling of mammary gland and their possible inhibitory action on maintaining high expression of milk genes during lactation...
  6. ncbi request reprint A nuclear protein tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP is a potential negative regulator of the PRL-mediated signaling pathway: dephosphorylation and deactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a and 5b by TC-PTP in nucleus
    Naohito Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 16:58-69. 2002
    ..Taken together, we conclude that TC-PTP is catalytically competent with respect to dephosphorylation and deactivation of PRL-activated STAT5 in the nucleus...
  7. ncbi request reprint Mutual regulation of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 20 and protein-tyrosine kinase Tec activities by tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
    Naohito Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    J Biol Chem 279:10765-75. 2004
    ..Taken together, PTP20 appears to play a negative role in Tec-mediated signaling, and Tec-PTP20 interaction might represent a negative feedback mechanism...
  8. ncbi request reprint A cytosolic protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B specifically dephosphorylates and deactivates prolactin-activated STAT5a and STAT5b
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biol Chem 275:39718-26. 2000
    ..These results strongly suggest that PTP1B dephosphorylates PRL-activated STAT5a and STAT5b, thereby negatively regulating PRL-mediated signaling pathway...
  9. pmc Weaning-induced expression of a milk-fat globule protein, MFG-E8, in mouse mammary glands, as demonstrated by the analyses of its mRNA, protein and phosphatidylserine-binding activity
    Hajime Nakatani
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Biochem J 395:21-30. 2006
    ..The weaning-induced MFG-E8 might play an important role in the recognition and engulfment of apoptotic epithelial cells by the neighbouring phagocytic epithelial cells in involuting mammary glands...
  10. doi request reprint IgG2 dominancy and carbohydrate recognition specificity of C3H/He mouse antibodies directed to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) bearing beta-(1,2)-xylose and alpha-(1,3)-fucose
    Shingo Hino
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Immunol Lett 133:28-34. 2010
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Heterocomplex formation and cell-surface accumulation of hen's serum zona pellucida B1 (ZPB1)with ZPC expressed by a mammalian cell line (COS-7): a possible initiating step of egg-envelope matrix construction
    Hiroki Okumura
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Biol Reprod 76:9-18. 2007
    ..In addition, it appears that such ZPB1-ZPC complexes accumulated on the oocyte surface act as a scaffold for subsequent matrix construction events including ZPX2 association...
  12. ncbi request reprint Transplantation of a mammary stromal cell line into a mammary fat pad: development of the site-specific in vivo analysis system for mammary stromal cells
    Hajime Nakatani
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 75:550-5. 2011
    ..Finally, we discuss the application of transplantation procedure for in vivo studies of the mammary stromal tissue development and stromal-epithelial interactions...
  13. doi request reprint Establishment of a mammary stromal fibroblastic cell line for in vitro studies in mice of mammary adipocyte differentiation
    Hajime Nakatani
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
    Biol Reprod 82:44-53. 2010
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Secretion of a peripheral membrane protein, MFG-E8, as a complex with membrane vesicles
    Kenji Oshima
    Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
    Eur J Biochem 269:1209-18. 2002
    ..These results suggest a possible role of MFG-E8 in the membrane vesicle secretion, such as budding or shedding of plasma membrane (microvesicles) and exocytosis of endocytic multivesicular bodies (exosomes)...
  15. ncbi request reprint Identification and characterization of microvesicles secreted by 3T3-L1 adipocytes: redox- and hormone-dependent induction of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8-associated microvesicles
    Naohito Aoki
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Endocrinology 148:3850-62. 2007
    ..Based on the above findings, the adipocyte-derived microvesicles were named adiposomes...
  16. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel dual specificity phosphatase, LMW-DSP2, that lacks the cdc25 homology domain
    K Aoyama
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Biol Chem 276:27575-83. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the binding between LMW-DSP2 and p38 and SAPK/JNK was also not disrupted by such mutations. Among the DSPs lacking the cdc25 homology domain, LMW-DSP2 is the first one that dephosphorylates and deactivates p38 and SAPK/JNK...
  17. ncbi request reprint The nuclear isoform of protein-tyrosine phosphatase TC-PTP regulates interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway through STAT3 dephosphorylation
    Tetsuya Yamamoto
    Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita Ku Kita 12 Nishi 6, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 297:811-7. 2002
    ..Endogenous TC-PTP complexed with STAT3 in the nucleus of M1 cells. These results strongly suggest that the nuclear isoform of TC-PTP may serve as a negative regulator of IL-6-mediated signaling pathway...
  18. ncbi request reprint A 42-kDa glycoprotein from chicken egg-envelope, an avian homolog of the ZPC family glycoproteins in mammalian Zona pellucida. Its first identification, cDNA cloning and granulosa cell-specific expression
    Y Takeuchi
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    Eur J Biochem 260:736-42. 1999
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Stage specific expression of milk fat globule membrane glycoproteins in mouse mammary gland: comparison of MFG-E8, butyrophilin, and CD36 with a major milk protein, beta-casein
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1334:182-90. 1997
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Absorption, migration and kinetics in peripheral blood of orally administered ovalbumin in a mouse model
    Takeshi Matsubara
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Aichi, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:2555-65. 2008
    ..Such stable absorption and blood kinetics of undigested ovalbumin in normal mice suggest some sort of physiological significance for the intestinal uptake of intact food proteins...
  21. doi request reprint Development and evaluation of transgenic rice seeds accumulating a type II-collagen tolerogenic peptide
    Fujio Hashizume
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464 8601, Japan
    Transgenic Res 17:1117-29. 2008
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Periodate-resistant carbohydrate epitopes recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies from some of the immunized mice and patients with allergy
    Shingo Hino
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bio agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 380:632-7. 2009
    ....
  23. pmc A newly identified zona pellucida glycoprotein, ZPD, and dimeric ZP1 of chicken egg envelope are involved in sperm activation on sperm-egg interaction
    Hiroki Okumura
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Biochem J 384:191-9. 2004
    ..Collectively, ZPD might bind loosely to egg envelope matrix and play a key role in the sperm activation on avian sperm-egg interaction...
  24. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the bovine kappa-casein gene promoter
    T Adachi
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60:1937-40. 1996
    ..One of them expressed preferentially during pregnancy bound to a 132-bp fragment (-439/-308) and another expressed preferentially during lactation bound to a 183-bp fragment (-307/-125)...
  25. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning of glycoprotein antigens MGP57/53 recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against bovine milk fat globule membrane
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1245:385-91. 1995
    ..0 kb mRNA of lactating bovine mammary gland. These results strongly support our previous report that the two MFGM antigens originate from a single gene and are isoforms with different N-linked sugar chains...
  26. ncbi request reprint Carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain of mouse butyrophilin specifically associates with a 150-kDa protein of mammary epithelial cells and milk fat globule membrane
    T Ishii
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1245:285-92. 1995
    ..These results suggest that butyrophilin might be physiologically associated with xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase and might function in a complex form in milk fat secretion...
  27. ncbi request reprint Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP20 induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization by dephosphorylating p190 RhoGAP in rat ovarian granulosa cells stimulated with follicle-stimulating hormone
    Masayuki Shiota
    Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8572, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 17:534-49. 2003
    ..Moreover, our data suggest that PTPs play significant roles in controlling the dynamics of ovarian functions...
  28. ncbi request reprint Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon (PTPepsilonM) is a negative regulator of insulin signaling in primary hepatocytes and liver
    Yoshimi Nakagawa
    Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Japan
    Zoolog Sci 22:169-75. 2005
    ..These results suggest that PTPepsilonM is a negative regulator of IR signaling and involved in insulin-induced glucose metabolism mainly through direct dephosphorylation and inactivation of IR in hepatocytes and liver...
  29. ncbi request reprint Binding of Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) to human intestinal Caco-2 cells and the suppressive effect of pasteurized bovine colostrum on this VLP binding
    Kosuke Murakami
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:541-7. 2010
    ..5 microg of the colostral proteins. Furthermore, the colostrum contained IgG antibodies reacting to VLPs, suggesting that cross-reactive antibodies in the bovine colostrums block human NoV binding to intestinal cells...
  30. ncbi request reprint Overexpression and ribozyme-mediated targeting of transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein and p300 revealed their indispensable roles in adipocyte differentiation through the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
    Nobuyuki Takahashi
    Laboratory of Nutrition Chemistry, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 8502, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:16906-12. 2002
    ..These data suggest that both CBP and p300 are indispensable for the full activation of PPARgamma and adipocyte differentiation and that CBP and p300 do not mutually complement in the process...
  31. ncbi request reprint Regulation and functional relevance of milk fat globules and their components in the mammary gland
    Naohito Aoki
    Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu, Japan
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:2019-27. 2006
    ..Recent reports using MFG-E8 deficient mice support the view that MFG-E8 is indispensable for eliminating apoptotic mammary epithelial cells during involution...
  32. ncbi request reprint Species-specific beta-N-acetylgalactosaminylation of serum IgG proteins
    N Aoki
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1334:207-13. 1997
    ..These results indicate that beta-N-acetylgalactosaminylation occurs to N-linked sugar chains of heavy and light chains of IgG proteins in a species-specific manner...
  33. ncbi request reprint Molecular cloning of a unique CMP-sialic acid synthetase that effectively utilizes both deaminoneuraminic acid (KDN) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) as substrates
    D Nakata
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Glycobiology 11:685-92. 2001
    ..These results indicate that at least one cloned enzyme has the ability to utilize both KDN and Neu5Ac as substrates efficiently and is useful for the production of CMP-KDN...
  34. ncbi request reprint Morphological and biochemical changes of isolated chicken egg-envelope during sperm penetration: degradation of the 97-kilodalton glycoprotein is involved in sperm-driven hole formation on the egg-envelope
    Y Takeuchi
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
    Biol Reprod 64:822-30. 2001
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that gp97 may play pivotal roles not only in constitution of the macromolecular organization of the egg-envelope but also in triggering hydrolysis of the egg-envelope during sperm penetration...
  35. ncbi request reprint A 33-kDa allergen from rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica). cDNA cloning, expression, and identification as a novel glyoxalase I
    Y Usui
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
    J Biol Chem 276:11376-81. 2001
    ..Taken all together, the rice allergen, Glb33, was identified to be a novel type of plant glyoxalase I that is expressed in various plant tissues, including maturing seeds...
  36. ncbi request reprint Characterization of newly identified four isoforms for a putative cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP36
    K Aoyama
    Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya, 464 8601, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 266:523-31. 1999
    ..Tissue-dependent expression and deletion in domain structures might reflect the biological significance of the isoforms for PTP36 in certain physiological conditions...
  37. doi request reprint A food-derived synergist of NGF signaling: identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B as a key regulator of NGF receptor-initiated signal transduction
    Takahiro Shibata
    Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
    J Neurochem 107:1248-60. 2008
    ..The identification of PTP1B as a regulator of NGF signaling may provide new clues about the chemoprotective potential of food components, such as isothiocyanates...
  38. ncbi request reprint Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method for measuring galactosyltransferase activity using a synthetic glycopolymer acceptor substrate
    M Oubihi
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    Anal Biochem 257:169-75. 1998
    ..Our system was successfully applied to assess GalT activity in milk of various mammals...
  39. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (ART-123) in disseminated intravascular coagulation: results of a phase III, randomized, double-blind clinical trial
    H Saito
    JR Tokai General Hospital, Nagoya, Japan
    J Thromb Haemost 5:31-41. 2007
    ..Soluble thrombomodulin is a promising therapeutic natural anticoagulant that is comparable to antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor and activated protein C...
  40. ncbi request reprint Precursor-product relationship between chicken vitellogenin and the yolk proteins: the 40 kDa yolk plasma glycoprotein is derived from the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of vitellogenin II
    J Yamamura
    Department of Applied Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1244:384-94. 1995
    ....
  41. doi request reprint Serum and monoclonal immunoglobulin E antibodies from NC/Nga mice with severe atopic-like dermatitis recognize an auto-antigen, histone H3
    T Matsubara
    Department of Applied Molecular Biosciences, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:579-90. 2009
    ..The specific effects of such a strong serum IgE response on the development of the dermatitis and specific antigens recognized by the IgE antibodies are still uncertain...
  42. ncbi request reprint [Secreted membrane vesicles: components and biological functions]
    Naohito Aoki
    Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya cho, Tsu, Mie 514 8507, Japan
    Seikagaku 79:669-73. 2007
  43. ncbi request reprint Visfatin is released from 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a non-classical pathway
    Masaki Tanaka
    Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 359:194-201. 2007
    ..In addition, visfatin was not released on microvesicles. These results suggest that visfatin should be released from 3T3-L1 adipocytes via an ER-Golgi or microvesicles independent pathway...