Kikuro Fukushima

Summary

Affiliation: Hokkaido University
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Vestibular-pursuit interactions: gaze-velocity and target-velocity signals in the monkey frontal eye fields
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 871:248-59. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Coding of smooth eye movements in three-dimensional space by frontal cortex
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Nature 419:157-62. 2002
  3. pmc Activity of pursuit-related neurons in medial superior temporal area (MST) during static roll-tilt
    Keishi Fujiwara
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 21:155-65. 2011
  4. pmc Representation of neck velocity and neck-vestibular interactions in pursuit neurons in the simian frontal eye fields
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 20:1195-207. 2010
  5. doi request reprint Reafferent head-movement signals carried by pursuit neurons of the simian frontal eye fields during head movements
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:194-200. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Roles of the cerebellum in pursuit-vestibular interactions
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Cerebellum 2:223-32. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Role of the frontal eye fields in smooth-gaze tracking
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Prog Brain Res 143:391-401. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Frontal cortical control of smooth-pursuit
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo, 060 8638 Japan
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 13:647-54. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint Role of vestibular signals in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields in pursuit eye movements in three-dimensional space
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1039:272-82. 2005
  10. doi request reprint Predictive signals in the pursuit area of the monkey frontal eye fields
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Prog Brain Res 171:433-40. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. ncbi request reprint Vestibular-pursuit interactions: gaze-velocity and target-velocity signals in the monkey frontal eye fields
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 871:248-59. 1999
    ..These results suggest that the region near the arcuate sulcus coordinates its various inputs to provide signals for target velocity in space and accurate gaze-velocity command during pursuit-vestibular interactions...
  2. ncbi request reprint Coding of smooth eye movements in three-dimensional space by frontal cortex
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Nature 419:157-62. 2002
    ..We propose that the brain creates this distinctly different intermediate representation to allow these neurons to function as part of a system that enables primates to track and manipulate objects moving in three-dimensional space...
  3. pmc Activity of pursuit-related neurons in medial superior temporal area (MST) during static roll-tilt
    Keishi Fujiwara
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 21:155-65. 2011
    ..These results suggest that smooth pursuit and/or visual motion signals of MST neurons are not coded in the earth-centered coordinates; our results favor the head- and/or trunk-centered coordinates...
  4. pmc Representation of neck velocity and neck-vestibular interactions in pursuit neurons in the simian frontal eye fields
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 20:1195-207. 2010
    ..Our results suggest that neck inputs could contribute to representing eye- and gaze-velocity FEF signals in trunk coordinates...
  5. doi request reprint Reafferent head-movement signals carried by pursuit neurons of the simian frontal eye fields during head movements
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1164:194-200. 2009
    ..The results indicate that both vestibular and neck proprioceptive inputs contributed to the discharge modulation of FEF pursuit neurons during head movements...
  6. ncbi request reprint Roles of the cerebellum in pursuit-vestibular interactions
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Cerebellum 2:223-32. 2003
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Role of the frontal eye fields in smooth-gaze tracking
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Prog Brain Res 143:391-401. 2004
    ..This processing, which is of higher order than previously supposed, enables primates to track and manipulate objects moving in 3D space with the utmost of efficiency...
  8. ncbi request reprint Frontal cortical control of smooth-pursuit
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo, 060 8638 Japan
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 13:647-54. 2003
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Role of vestibular signals in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields in pursuit eye movements in three-dimensional space
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1039:272-82. 2005
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the caudal FEF coordinates its various inputs to provide signals for accurate eye-movement-in-space commands...
  10. doi request reprint Predictive signals in the pursuit area of the monkey frontal eye fields
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Prog Brain Res 171:433-40. 2008
    ..These results suggest that activity related to visual motion-memory was not conveyed by the discharge of caudal FEF pursuit neurons...
  11. ncbi request reprint Predictive responses of periarcuate pursuit neurons to visual target motion
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo, 060 8638 Japan
    Exp Brain Res 145:104-20. 2002
    ..We suggest that many periarcuate pursuit neurons convey this information to generate appropriate smooth pursuit eye movements...
  12. pmc Eye-pursuit and reafferent head movement signals carried by pursuit neurons in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields during head-free pursuit
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 19:263-75. 2009
    ..Our results suggest that FEF pursuit neurons issue gaze or eye movement commands during gaze-pursuit and that the head-pursuit-related modulation primarily reflects reafferent signals resulting from head movements...
  13. ncbi request reprint Cross axis vestibulo-ocular reflex induced by pursuit training in alert monkeys
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Neurosci Res 25:255-65. 1996
    ..These results indicate that pursuit training during VOR is effective in inducing cross-axis eye movement responses that are tuned to the metrics of the training stimulus...
  14. ncbi request reprint Adaptive changes in human smooth pursuit eye movement
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Neurosci Res 25:391-8. 1996
    ..Adaptive changes started 100-200 ms after onset of pursuit eye movement (usually 140 ms), suggesting that the late (but not early) component of initial eye velocity was under adaptive control by our training paradigms...
  15. ncbi request reprint Further evidence for the specific involvement of the flocculus in the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Prog Brain Res 112:431-40. 1996
    ..These results suggest that the activity of the majority of pitch-responding P cells contains a vertical eye velocity component during vestibular or optokinetic stimuli in addition to canal inputs during pitch rotation...
  16. doi request reprint Memory-based smooth pursuit: neuronal mechanisms and preliminary results of clinical application
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1233:117-26. 2011
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Corticovestibular interactions: anatomy, electrophysiology, and functional considerations
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 117:1-16. 1997
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Adaptive eye movements induced by cross-axis pursuit--vestibular interactions in trained monkeys
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 545:73-9. 2001
    ..These results indicate the importance of eye velocity for cross-axis VOR and suggest that this adaptation occurs most probably in the smooth pursuit pathways...
  19. ncbi request reprint Adaptive changes in smooth pursuit eye movements induced by cross-axis pursuit-vestibular interaction training in monkeys
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 139:473-81. 2001
    ....
  20. pmc Memory and decision making in the frontal cortex during visual motion processing for smooth pursuit eye movements
    Natsuko Shichinohe
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Neuron 62:717-32. 2009
    ..These results suggest an important role for the SEF in memory and assessment of visual motion direction and the programming of appropriate pursuit eye movements...
  21. pmc Neuronal activity in the caudal frontal eye fields of monkeys during memory-based smooth pursuit eye movements: comparison with the supplementary eye fields
    Junko Fukushima
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 21:1910-24. 2011
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Purkinje cells of the cerebellar dorsal vermis: simple-spike activity during pursuit and passive whole-body rotation
    Yasuhiro Shinmei
    Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 87:1836-49. 2002
    ..Because we used identical tasks, these differences suggest that the two cerebellar regions are involved in very different kinds of processing of pursuit-vestibular interactions...
  23. ncbi request reprint Visual and vergence eye movement-related responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to motion-in-depth stimuli
    Teppei Akao
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 164:92-108. 2005
    ..These results together with previous observations suggest that the caudal FEF carries visual signals appropriate to be converted into motor commands for pursuit in depth and frontal plane...
  24. ncbi request reprint Activity of pursuit neurons in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields during static roll-tilt
    Sergei A Kurkin
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo, 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 176:658-64. 2007
    ..These results suggest that FEF pursuit neurons do not signal static roll-tilt and that they code pursuit signals in head/trunk-centered coordinates...
  25. ncbi request reprint Latency of adaptive vergence eye movements induced by vergence-vestibular interaction training in monkeys
    Teppei Akao
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, 060 8638, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 158:129-32. 2004
    ..These results indicate that vestibular information can be used effectively to initiate vergence eye movements following vergence-vestibular training...
  26. ncbi request reprint Latency of vestibular responses of pursuit neurons in the caudal frontal eye fields to whole body rotation
    Teppei Akao
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 177:400-10. 2007
    ..These results provide further support for the involvement of the caudal FEF in integration of vestibular inputs and pursuit signals...
  27. ncbi request reprint Involvement of the cerebellar dorsal vermis in vergence eye movements in monkeys
    Takuya Nitta
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Cereb Cortex 18:1042-57. 2008
    ..These results suggest involvement of the dorsal vermis in conversion of 3D-pursuit signals and in convergence eye movements...
  28. ncbi request reprint Further evidence for selective difficulty of upward eye pursuit in juvenile monkeys: Effects of optokinetic stimulation, static roll tilt, and active head movements
    Satoshi Kasahara
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, 060 8638, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 171:306-21. 2006
    ..These results, taken together, suggest that the asymmetric eye movements during vertical pursuit are specific for upward, primarily eye pursuit in the orbit...
  29. doi request reprint Otolith inputs to pursuit neurons in the frontal eye fields of alert monkeys
    Teppei Akao
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 193:455-66. 2009
    ..These results indicate that the discharge modulation of FEF pursuit neurons during whole body translation reflected otolith inputs...
  30. doi request reprint Discharge of pursuit neurons in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields during cross-axis vestibular-pursuit training in monkeys
    Keishi Fujiwara
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, North, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 195:229-40. 2009
    ..FEF pursuit neurons are unlikely to be involved in the initial stage of generating predictive eye movements. We suggest that they may participate in the maintenance of predictive pursuit...
  31. ncbi request reprint Pursuit-related neurons in the supplementary eye fields: discharge during pursuit and passive whole body rotation
    Junko Fukushima
    Department of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7 North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 91:2809-25. 2004
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Discharge characteristics of pursuit neurons in MST during vergence eye movements
    Teppei Akao
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo, 060 8638, Japan
    J Neurophysiol 93:2415-34. 2005
    ..The results in this and previous studies indicate differences in discharge characteristics of FEF and MST pursuit neurons, suggesting different roles for the two in pursuit-in-3D...
  33. pmc The vestibular-related frontal cortex and its role in smooth-pursuit eye movements and vestibular-pursuit interactions
    Junko Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060 8638, Japan
    J Vestib Res 16:1-22. 2006
    ..These results suggest that FEF- and SEF-pursuit neurons are involved in different aspects of vestibular-pursuit interactions and that eye velocity coding of SEF pursuit neurons is specialized for the task condition...
  34. ncbi request reprint Directional asymmetry in vertical smooth-pursuit and cancellation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in juvenile monkeys
    Teppei Akao
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 182:469-78. 2007
    ..These results support our view that the directional asymmetry reflects the difference in the organization of the cerebellar floccular region for upward and downward directions and the preeminent role of pursuit in VOR cancellation...
  35. pmc Neuronal activity in medial superior temporal area (MST) during memory-based smooth pursuit eye movements in monkeys
    Sergei Kurkin
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 214:293-301. 2011
    ..MSTd neurons are unlikely to provide signals for memory of visual motion-direction or preparation for smooth pursuit eye movements...
  36. ncbi request reprint Prediction in the timing of pursuit eye movement initiation revealed by cross-axis vestibular-pursuit training in monkeys
    Takashi Tsubuku
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo, 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 168:427-35. 2006
    ..The monkeys' estimate of the delays revealed by the latencies of pursuit was shorter by 22-36% than the actual delays...
  37. ncbi request reprint Adaptive changes in vergence eye movements induced by vergence-vestibular interaction training in monkeys
    Fumie Sato
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, 060 8638 Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 156:164-73. 2004
    ..15-0.35 after training in two monkeys. These results suggest that vestibular information can be used effectively to modify vergence tracking...
  38. doi request reprint Vergence eye movement signals in the cerebellar dorsal vermis
    Takuya Nitta
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Prog Brain Res 171:173-6. 2008
    ..These results suggest specific involvement of the dorsal vermis in vergence eye movements...
  39. doi request reprint Oscillatory eye movements resembling pendular nystagmus in normal juvenile macaques
    Natsuko Shichinohe
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:3458-67. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze these oscillations, the effects of gabapentin on them, and responses of cerebellar floccular neurons to understand possible neuronal mechanisms...
  40. ncbi request reprint Saccular stimulation of the human cortex: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    Tamaki Miyamoto
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 423:68-72. 2007
    ..Thus, semicircular canal and otolith/saccular signals may be processed in similar regions of the human cortex...
  41. doi request reprint Discharge of pursuit-related neurons in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields in juvenile monkeys with up-down pursuit asymmetry
    Sergei Kurkin
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 7, North 15, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 193:181-8. 2009
    ..5 Hz. These results indicate that the responses of the majority of upward FEF pursuit neurons did not signal the actual eye velocity during pursuit. We suggest that their activity reflected primarily the required eye velocity...
  42. ncbi request reprint Ocular torsion produced by unilateral chemical inactivation of the cerebellar flocculus in alert cats
    Shinki Chin
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Curr Eye Res 25:133-8. 2002
    ..To test whether the cerebellar flocculus is involved in the control of torsional eye position, we examined the effects of unilateral chemical inactivation of the flocculus on ocular torsion in alert cats...
  43. doi request reprint No-go neurons in the cerebellar oculomotor vermis and caudal fastigial nuclei: planning tracking eye movements
    Sergei Kurkin
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 232:191-210. 2014
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Difficulty in terminating the preceding movement/posture explains the impaired initiation of new movements in Parkinson's disease
    Tateo Warabi
    Clinical Brain Research Laboratory, Toyokura Memorial Hall, Department of Neurology, Sapporo Yamanoue Hospital, Yamanote, Nishiku, Sapporo, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 496:84-9. 2011
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Recovery of intentional dynamic balance function after intravenous sedation with midazolam in young and elderly subjects
    T Fujisawa
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 23:422-5. 2006
    ..The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the recovery of intentional dynamic balance function after intravenous sedation with midazolam in elderly subjects in comparison with that in young subjects...
  46. ncbi request reprint Voluntary control of saccadic and smooth-pursuit eye movements in children with learning disorders
    Junko Fukushima
    Department of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, West 5, North 12, Sapporo 060 0812, Japan
    Brain Dev 27:579-88. 2005
    ..Frontal eye movement-related areas such as the frontal eye fields and supplementary eye fields may be involved in these disturbances of voluntary control of eye movement in LDs...
  47. ncbi request reprint Slow eye movement evoked by sudden appearance of a stationary visual stimulus observed in a step-ramp smooth pursuit task in monkey
    M Tanaka
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Neurosci Res 29:93-8. 1997
    ..The results demonstrate a new form of smooth eye movement, suggesting that the eye movement may be contained in the initial stages of smooth pursuit observed in step-ramp paradigms...
  48. ncbi request reprint Latency of saccades during smooth-pursuit eye movement in man. Directional asymmetries
    M Tanaka
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 121:92-8. 1998
    ..Although the forward-backward asymmetry was much smaller than the "gap effect", it was statistically significant in six of eight cases. These results suggest that the preparation of saccades is affected by smooth-pursuit eye movements...
  49. ncbi request reprint Development of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements. I. Age-related changes in normal children
    J Fukushima
    Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Technology, Hokkaido University, West 5, North 12, Sapporo, Japan
    Brain Dev 22:173-80. 2000
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Study on the usefulness of precise and simple dynamic balance tests for the evaluation of recovery from intravenous sedation with midazolam and propofol
    T Fujisawa
    Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Sapporo, Japan
    Eur J Anaesthesiol 24:425-30. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the recovery of dynamic balance after intravenous sedation with propofol or midazolam, and to investigate the usefulness of simple dynamic balance tests in evaluating the recovery...
  51. doi request reprint Cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit in normal human subjects: importance of extra-retinal mechanisms for initial pursuit
    Norie Ito
    Clinical Brain Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Toyokura Memorial Hall, Sapporo Yamanoue Hospital, Yamanote 6 9 1 1, Nishiku, Sapporo 063 0006, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 229:23-35. 2013
    ..Comparison with monkey studies on neuronal responses and model analysis suggested possible pathways for the extra-retinal mechanisms...
  52. ncbi request reprint Saccular projections in the human cerebral cortex
    Tamaki Miyamoto
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1039:124-31. 2005
    ..The saccular projections to the prefrontal and frontal cortex suggest that these areas are involved in planning motor synergies to counteract loss of equilibrium...
  53. doi request reprint Postural changes during eye-head movements
    J Fukushima
    Department of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Prog Brain Res 171:335-8. 2008
    ..These results indicate that the eye-head movements elicited the COP changes that preceded the onset of head movements...
  54. ncbi request reprint Directional asymmetry in smooth ocular tracking in the presence of visual background in young and adult primates
    N Takeichi
    Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, West 7, North 15, Sapporo, 060 8638, Japan
    Exp Brain Res 149:380-90. 2003
    ..Apparently, proper compensation matures later...
  55. pmc Vestibular-related frontal cortical areas and their roles in smooth-pursuit eye movements: representation of neck velocity, neck-vestibular interactions, and memory-based smooth-pursuit
    Kikuro Fukushima
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University Sapporo, Japan
    Front Neurol 2:78. 2011
    ..Preliminary results suggested specific roles of the basal ganglia in memory-based smooth-pursuit...
  56. ncbi request reprint The neuronal substrate of integration in the oculomotor system
    K Fukushima
    Department of Physiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
    Prog Neurobiol 39:609-39. 1992
  57. ncbi request reprint Positional vertigo and macroscopic downbeat positioning nystagmus in spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6)
    Ichiro Yabe
    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15 W7, Kita ku, Sapporo 060 8638, Japan
    J Neurol 250:440-3. 2003
    ..Our findings indicated that DPN is a distinct part of the clinical presentation of SCA6, showing that vestibular cerebellum is more affected in SCA6 than other types of degenerative ataxia...