Koichi Wakabayashi

Summary

Affiliation: Hirosaki University School of Medicine
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Serine 129 phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein induces unfolded protein response-mediated cell death
    Naoto Sugeno
    Department of Neurology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1 1 Seiryomachi, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8574, Japan
    J Biol Chem 283:23179-88. 2008
  2. doi request reprint The Lewy body in Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Mol Neurobiol 47:495-508. 2013
  3. ncbi request reprint Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia with hypoplastic corpus callosum, multisystem degeneration and ubiquitinated eosinophilic granules
    K Wakabayashi
    Brain Disease Research Center, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 101:69-73. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in synucleinopathies, tauopathies and other neurodegenerative proteinopathies of the brain
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 120:1-12. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint Primary intracranial solitary leptomeningeal glioma: a report of 3 cases
    K Wakabayashi
    Brain Science Reseach Center, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Clin Neuropathol 21:206-13. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Lewy bodies in Betz cells of the motor cortex in a patient with Parkinson's disease
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 105:189-92. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Pathological heterogeneity in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 24:79-86. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint The Lewy body in Parkinson's disease: molecules implicated in the formation and degradation of alpha-synuclein aggregates
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 27:494-506. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Cellular pathology in multiple system atrophy
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Japan
    Neuropathology 26:338-45. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Immunocytochemical localization of synphilin-1, an alpha-synuclein-associated protein, in neurodegenerative disorders
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 103:209-14. 2002

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. ncbi request reprint Serine 129 phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein induces unfolded protein response-mediated cell death
    Naoto Sugeno
    Department of Neurology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1 1 Seiryomachi, Aobaku, Sendai, Miyagi 980 8574, Japan
    J Biol Chem 283:23179-88. 2008
    ..Taken together, it seems plausible that alpha-synuclein toxicity is dependent on the phosphorylation at Ser(129) that induces the UPRs, possibly triggered by the disturbed endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi trafficking...
  2. doi request reprint The Lewy body in Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Mol Neurobiol 47:495-508. 2013
    ..However, recent studies have indicated that nonfibrillar α-synuclein is cytotoxic and that fibrillar aggregates of α-synuclein (LBs and pale bodies) may represent a cytoprotective mechanism in PD...
  3. ncbi request reprint Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia with hypoplastic corpus callosum, multisystem degeneration and ubiquitinated eosinophilic granules
    K Wakabayashi
    Brain Disease Research Center, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 101:69-73. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that this is an example of a family with autosomal recessive FSP with thin corpus callosum, and that maldevelopment of the corpus callosum and substantia nigra is a characteristic feature of the disease...
  4. ncbi request reprint Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in synucleinopathies, tauopathies and other neurodegenerative proteinopathies of the brain
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 120:1-12. 2010
    ..Further elucidation and characterization of PNS lesions will have implications for intravital biopsy diagnosis in neurodegenerative proteinopathy, particularly in Parkinson's disease...
  5. ncbi request reprint Primary intracranial solitary leptomeningeal glioma: a report of 3 cases
    K Wakabayashi
    Brain Science Reseach Center, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Clin Neuropathol 21:206-13. 2002
    ..The other patient with glioblastoma developed a metastasis to the femur 39 months after craniotomy. A definitive diagnosis can be made by careful radiological assessment and histopathological examination...
  6. ncbi request reprint Lewy bodies in Betz cells of the motor cortex in a patient with Parkinson's disease
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 105:189-92. 2003
    ..Considering the significant loss of neurons in the predilection sites for LBs, it is possible that in this patient, the motor cortex was also involved in the disease process of PD...
  7. ncbi request reprint Pathological heterogeneity in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 24:79-86. 2004
    ..Moreover, several neurodegenerative disorders can underlie CBD. This pathological heterogeneity leads to difficulty in the clinical and pathological diagnosis of both disorders...
  8. ncbi request reprint The Lewy body in Parkinson's disease: molecules implicated in the formation and degradation of alpha-synuclein aggregates
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 27:494-506. 2007
    ..Recent studies have suggested that oligomers and protofibrils of alpha-synuclein are cytotoxic, and that LBs may represent a cytoprotective mechanism in PD...
  9. ncbi request reprint Cellular pathology in multiple system atrophy
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Japan
    Neuropathology 26:338-45. 2006
    ..These two degenerative processes might synergistically cause neuronal depletion in MSA...
  10. ncbi request reprint Immunocytochemical localization of synphilin-1, an alpha-synuclein-associated protein, in neurodegenerative disorders
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 103:209-14. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that abnormal accumulation of synphilin-1 is specific for brain lesions in which alpha-synuclein is a major component...
  11. ncbi request reprint Co-localization of beta-peptide and phosphorylated tau in astrocytes in a patient with corticobasal degeneration
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 26:66-71. 2006
    ..This phenomenon implies that phagocytosis of Abeta coincides with production of phosphorylated tau in the same reactive astrocytes...
  12. ncbi request reprint Ubiquitinated neuronal inclusions in the neostriatum in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia--a study of 60 patients 31 to 87 years of age
    K Wakabayashi
    Brain Disease Research Center, Niigata University, Japan
    Clin Neuropathol 20:47-52. 2001
    ..Recently, similar inclusions were reported to occur in the neostriatum in a case of ALS-D. We, therefore, immunohistochemically examined the neostriatum from 60 patients with ALS and 60 control subjects...
  13. ncbi request reprint An autopsy case of early ("minimal change") olivopontocerebellar atrophy (multiple system atrophy-cerebellar)
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, 036 8562, Hirosaki, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 110:185-90. 2005
    ..Moreover, alpha-synuclein accumulation was more severe in the neurites than in the cytoplasm or nucleus. This case demonstrates the early pattern of brain pathology in MSA-cerebellar (olivopontocerebellar atrophy)...
  14. pmc Synphilin-1-binding protein NUB1 is colocalized with nonfibrillar, proteinase K-resistant α-synuclein in presynapses in Lewy body disease
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 70:879-89. 2011
    ..Biochemical analyses showed that NUB1 coexists with abnormal α-synuclein in the brain of DLB patients. These findings suggest that NUB1 along with abnormal α-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Lewy body disease...
  15. ncbi request reprint Alpha-synuclein accumulates in Purkinje cells in Lewy body disease but not in multiple system atrophy
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62:812-9. 2003
    ..No such inclusions were observed in MSA, tauopathies, or controls. These findings indicate that Purkinje cells are also the victims of a-synuclein pathology in PD and DLB, but not in MSA...
  16. ncbi request reprint Accumulation of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein in the brain and peripheral ganglia of patients with multiple system atrophy
    Makoto Nishie
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, 036 8562, Hirosaki, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 107:292-8. 2004
    ..Thus, the widespread accumulation of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein in both glial and neuronal cells is a pathological feature in patients suffering from MSA...
  17. doi request reprint Hippocampal sclerosis with four-repeat tau-positive round inclusions in the dentate gyrus: a new type of four-repeat tauopathy
    Yasuo Miki
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 117:713-8. 2009
    ..It is likely that this case is a new variant of 4-repeat tauopathy presenting with hippocampal sclerosis...
  18. doi request reprint Abnormal tau deposition in neurons, but not in glial cells in the cerebral tissue surrounding arteriovenous malformation
    Tomoya Kon
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 32:267-71. 2012
    ..The present findings indicate that abnormal tau deposition can occur in neurons, but not in glial cells, of the affected cerebral cortex surrounding AVM...
  19. ncbi request reprint Alpha-synuclein pathology affecting Bergmann glia of the cerebellum in patients with alpha-synucleinopathies
    Yue Shan Piao
    Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1 757 Asahimachi, 951 8585 Niigata, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 105:403-9. 2003
    ..These findings indicate that, although not frequently, Bergmann glia of the cerebellum are also the targets of alpha-synuclein pathology in alpha-synucleinopathies such as PD, DLBD and MSA...
  20. doi request reprint p62/sequestosome 1 binds to TDP-43 in brains with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    J Neurosci Res 90:2034-42. 2012
    ..Our results suggest that the interaction of TDP-43 and p62 is disrupted and may participate in the pathogenesis of TDP-43 proteinopathy...
  21. doi request reprint Ubiquitin-related proteins in neuronal and glial intranuclear inclusions in intranuclear inclusion body disease
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Pathol Int 62:407-11. 2012
    ..05). These findings suggest that proteins related to ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation are involved in the formation of INI in INIBD...
  22. ncbi request reprint Frontotemporal dementia with co-occurrence of astrocytic plaques and tufted astrocytes, and severe degeneration of the cerebral white matter: a variant of corticobasal degeneration?
    Chun Feng Tan
    Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, 1 757 Asahimachi, 951 8585, Niigata, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 109:329-38. 2005
    ..In conclusion, the possibility that these two cases represent a new neuropathological phenotype of non-familial FTD rather than simply a variant of CBD cannot be completely excluded...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effects of interleukin-1beta on hippocampal glutamate and GABA releases associated with Ca2+-induced Ca2+ releasing systems
    Gang Zhu
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Epilepsy Res 71:107-16. 2006
    ..These results indicate that hyperactivation of IL-1beta leads to imbalance between glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission via toxic overload response of Ca2+ influx and CICR...
  24. pmc TRIM9, a novel brain-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase, is repressed in the brain of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neurobiol Dis 38:210-8. 2010
    ..These results suggest that TRIM9 plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal functions and participates in pathological process of Lewy body disease through its ligase activity...
  25. ncbi request reprint TDP-43-immunoreactive neuronal and glial inclusions in the neostriatum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia
    Haixin Zhang
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki, 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 115:115-22. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that the neostriatum is also involved in the disease process of ALS with and without dementia...
  26. doi request reprint Maturation process of TDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with and without dementia
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki, 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 116:193-203. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that there are differences in the formation process between skein-like and round inclusions, despite the antigenic and ultrastructural similarities...
  27. doi request reprint Keap1 is localized in neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in various neurodegenerative diseases
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 72:18-28. 2013
    ..Our pathologic and biochemical results suggest a molecular basis for stress response to be involved in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions observed in several neurodegenerative diseases...
  28. doi request reprint Autophagic adapter protein NBR1 is localized in Lewy bodies and glial cytoplasmic inclusions and is involved in aggregate formation in α-synucleinopathy
    Saori Odagiri
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki, 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 124:173-86. 2012
    ..Immunoblot analysis showed that the level of NBR1 was significantly increased by 2.5-fold in MSA, but not in DLB. These findings suggest that NBR1 is involved in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions in α-synucleinopathy...
  29. ncbi request reprint Listeria monocytogenes induces the expression of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I
    Tadaatsu Imaizumi
    Vascular Biology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036 8562, Japan
    Microbiol Immunol 50:811-5. 2006
    ..Both heat-killed L. monocytogenes and live L. monocytogenes induced the expression of RIG-I in cultured RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cells in vitro. RIG-I may also be involved in innate immunity against Listeria infection...
  30. doi request reprint Proteinase K-resistant alpha-synuclein is deposited in presynapses in human Lewy body disease and A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 120:145-54. 2010
    ..Considering that native alpha-synuclein is a soluble protein localized to the presynaptic terminals, our findings suggest that PK-resistant alpha-synuclein may disturb the neurotransmission in alpha-synucleinopathies...
  31. ncbi request reprint [Pathology of neuronal and glial alpha-synucleinopathies]
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    No To Shinkei 57:667-82. 2005
  32. ncbi request reprint Relationship among alpha-synuclein accumulation, dopamine synthesis, and neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease substantia nigra
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:808-15. 2006
    ..Therefore, the decrease of TH immunoreactivity in pigmented neurons demonstrated here can be considered to represent a cytoprotective mechanism in PD...
  33. ncbi request reprint 15-Deoxy-D12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibits CX3CL1/fractalkine expression in human endothelial cells
    Tadaatsu Imaizumi
    Departments of Vascular Biology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Japan
    Immunol Cell Biol 80:531-6. 2002
    ..The data suggest that 15d-PGJ2 regulates inflammatoryreactions, at least in part, through the inhibition of fractalkineexpression and leucocyte traffic through the endothelium...
  34. doi request reprint Brain expression level and activity of HDAC6 protein in neurodegenerative dementia
    Saori Odagiri
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 430:394-9. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that the induced level of HDAC6 in the brain is insufficient for manifestation of its activity in FTLD-TDP and MSA...
  35. doi request reprint Autophagy-related proteins (p62, NBR1 and LC3) in intranuclear inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Cell Biology and Histology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 522:134-8. 2012
    ..2%), DRPLA (5.5%) and INIBD (13.2%) and negative for LC3 in MJD, DRPLA and INIBD, except for one case of INIBD. These findings suggest that autophagy-lysosome pathway is not involved in the formation/degradation of NIIs...
  36. ncbi request reprint Neuropathology with clinical correlations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: 102 autopsy cases examined between 1962 and 2000
    Yue Shan Piao
    Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Brain Pathol 13:10-22. 2003
    ..The present findings may be helpful for designing further studies on the mechanisms underlying the development of ALS...
  37. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor by heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes in macrophages
    Fuyuki Sato
    Department of Pathology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 354:608-12. 2007
    ..monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). VEGF is thought to be involved in inflammatory reactions induced by L. monocytogenes infection...
  38. doi request reprint Widespread occurrence of eosinophilic neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in an asymptomatic adult: a novel ubiquitin-negative filamentous inclusion
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 30:648-53. 2010
    ..This inclusion seems to represent a new type of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusion...
  39. ncbi request reprint Demonstration of alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in neuronal and glial cytoplasm in normal human brain tissue using proteinase K and formic acid pretreatment
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki, Japan
    Exp Neurol 176:98-104. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that a significant amount of alphaS is also present in the neuronal and glial cytoplasm in the normal human brain...
  40. ncbi request reprint Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylates synphilin-1 in vitro
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 23:199-202. 2003
    ..Therefore, phosphorylation of synphilin-1 may play an important role in the function of this protein in the brain...
  41. ncbi request reprint Interferon-gamma upregulates retinoic acid-inducible gene-I in human pericardial mesothelial cells
    Masaharu Hatakeyama
    Department of Surgery, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Acta Cardiol 62:553-7. 2007
    ..We have addressed the expression of RIG-I in pericardial mesothelial cells...
  42. doi request reprint Immunohistochemical analysis of Marinesco bodies, using antibodies against proteins implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy and aggresome formation
    Saori Odagiri
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neuropathology 32:261-6. 2012
    ..These findings suggest that proteins related to ubiquitination, proteasomal degradation and autophagy are involved in the formation or disaggregation of MBs...
  43. doi request reprint Accumulation of histone deacetylase 6, an aggresome-related protein, is specific to Lewy bodies and glial cytoplasmic inclusions
    Yasuo Miki
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 31:561-8. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that accumulation of HDAC6 is specific to α-synucleinopathy and that both LBs and GCIs may represent cytoprotective responses to sequester toxic proteins...
  44. ncbi request reprint Involvement of Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ releasing system in interleukin-1beta-associated adenosine release
    Gang Zhu
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Eur J Pharmacol 532:246-52. 2006
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint alpha-Synuclein pathology in the neostriatum in Parkinson's disease
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 115:453-9. 2008
    ..001). These findings suggest that intrinsic neostriatal neurons degenerate through alphaS aggregation during PD progression...
  46. doi request reprint Rats harboring S284L Chrna4 mutation show attenuation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAergic transmission and exhibit the nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy phenotype
    Gang Zhu
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Institute of Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    J Neurosci 28:12465-76. 2008
    ..The currently available genetically engineered animal models of epilepsy are limited to mice; thus, our transgenic rats offer another dimension to the epilepsy research field...
  47. doi request reprint Alteration of biochemical and pathological properties of TDP-43 protein by a lipid mediator, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2)
    Hai Xin Zhang
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Exp Neurol 222:296-303. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) is an endogenous modifier of TDP-43 protein in TDP-43 proteinopathy...
  48. ncbi request reprint Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I mediates RANTES/CCL5 expression in U373MG human astrocytoma cells stimulated with double-stranded RNA
    Hidemi Yoshida
    Department of Vascular Biology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neurosci Res 58:199-206. 2007
    ..We conclude that RIG-I may be involved in immune reactions against viral infection, at least in part, through the regulation of RANTES expression in astrocytes...
  49. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-1 induces tau phosphorylation and morphological changes in cultured human astrocytes
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Molecular Biology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neuroreport 14:413-7. 2003
    ..The early tau phosphorylation induced by IL-1alpha might create a plastic environment for morphological changes in astrocytes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Reciprocal accumulation of beta-synuclein in alpha-synuclein lesions in multiple system atrophy
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuroreport 14:1783-6. 2003
    ..Thus, neuronal alpha-synuclein inclusions appear to occur only rarely in neurons in which beta-synuclein accumulates. These findings support the possibility that beta-synuclein is a negative regulator of alpha-synuclein aggregation...
  51. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-1beta enhances the angiotensin-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 through angiotensin receptor upregulation in human astrocytes
    Hidemi Yoshida
    Department of Vascular Biology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Brain Res 1073:38-47. 2006
    ..We conclude that IL-1beta increases angiotensin II-induced PAI-1 secretion by astrocytes through the induction of AT1, and the enhanced secretion of PAI-1 may modulate functions of plasminogen activators in the nervous system...
  52. ncbi request reprint Upregulation of alpha-synuclein by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 in human macrophages
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Pathol Int 52:572-7. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that the function of alpha-synuclein is not exclusive to the nervous system and that alpha-synuclein may play a role in inflammatory processes and immune responses...
  53. ncbi request reprint Accumulation of the sigma-1 receptor is common to neuronal nuclear inclusions in various neurodegenerative diseases
    Yasuo Miki
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 34:148-58. 2014
    ..Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by neuronal nuclear inclusions might utilize the ER-related degradation machinery as a common pathway for the degradation of aberrant proteins. ..
  54. doi request reprint ALS-associated protein FIG4 is localized in Pick and Lewy bodies, and also neuronal nuclear inclusions, in polyglutamine and intranuclear inclusion body diseases
    Tomoya Kon
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki
    Neuropathology 34:19-26. 2014
    ..These findings suggest that FIG4 is not incorporated in TDP-43 inclusions and that it may have a common role in the formation or degradation of neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in several neurodegenerative diseases...
  55. doi request reprint Endosomal sorting related protein CHMP2B is localized in Lewy bodies and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in α-synucleinopathy
    Satoshi Tanikawa
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 527:16-21. 2012
    ..These findings suggest that endosomal and autophagic pathway is associated with degradation or formation of α-synuclein aggregates in α-synucleinopathy...
  56. ncbi request reprint Pick's disease: alpha- and beta-synuclein-immunoreactive Pick bodies in the dentate gyrus
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 104:455-61. 2002
    ....
  57. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical localization of NUB1, a synphilin-1-binding protein, in neurodegenerative disorders
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 114:365-71. 2007
    ..These findings indicate that the abnormal accumulation of NUB1 is specific for alpha-synucleinopathy lesions. However, yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that NUB1 did not directly interact with alpha-synuclein...
  58. doi request reprint Incipient intranuclear inclusion body disease in a 78-year-old woman
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 31:188-93. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that INIBD may occur in non-demented elderly individuals and that oligodendrocyte is also involved in the disease process of INIBD...
  59. doi request reprint Enhancement of native and phosphorylated TDP-43 immunoreactivity by proteinase K treatment following autoclave heating
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki Department of Pathology, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research CBBR, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, Niigata, Japan
    Neuropathology 31:401-4. 2011
    ..This retrieval method is the best of immunohistochemical techniques for demonstrating TDP-43 pathology, especially in the neuropil...
  60. doi request reprint Patients homozygous and heterozygous for SNCA duplication in a family with parkinsonism and dementia
    Takeshi Ikeuchi
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1 Asahimachi, Niigata 951 8585, Japan
    Arch Neurol 65:514-9. 2008
    ..Multiplication of the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) (OMIM 163890) has been identified as a causative mutation in hereditary Parkinson disease or dementia with Lewy bodies...
  61. doi request reprint Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I is induced by interferon-gamma and regulates CXCL11 expression in HeLa cells
    Ei Yuzawa
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki, 036 8562, Japan
    Life Sci 82:670-5. 2008
    ..Immunohistochemical studies revealed the RIG-I expression in the normal human endometrium, suggesting a possible role of RIG-I in human reproductive organs...
  62. doi request reprint Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with pallido-nigro-luysian degeneration: a TDP-43 immunohistochemical study
    Yasuo Miki
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 30:149-53. 2010
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Hypoglycemic encephalopathy with extensive lesions in the cerebral white matter
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 26:147-52. 2006
    ..Since the cerebral blood flow is reported to be decreased during severe hypoglycemia, the present findings suggest that white matter lesions and boundary-zone infarctions may develop primarily in uncomplicated hypoglycemia...
  64. doi request reprint Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by Aspergillus arteritis without angiographic abnormalities
    Yasuo Miki
    Department of Neurology, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan
    Neuropathology 32:566-9. 2012
    ..Aggressive and continuous antifungal therapy is absolutely necessary in suspected cases of invasive aspergillosis of the CNS, even if angiography is negative and therapeutic markers of aspergillosis are normal...
  65. doi request reprint Dysfunction of extrasynaptic GABAergic transmission in phospholipase C-related, but catalytically inactive protein 1 knockout mice is associated with an epilepsy phenotype
    Gang Zhu
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 340:520-8. 2012
    ..Consequently, the effect of DZP on PRIP-1 knockout mice was reduced. Dysfunction of extrasynaptic GABAergic transmission probably is involved in the epileptic phenotype of PRIP-1 knockout mice...
  66. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical comparison of alpha- and beta-synuclein in adult rat central nervous system
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Brain Res 941:118-26. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the distribution of alphaS-positive neurons is similar to that of intraneuronal inclusions in alphaS transgenic animals as well as in human alpha-synucleinopathies...
  67. ncbi request reprint Parkin is expressed in vascular endothelial cells
    Wakako Tamo
    Department of Vascular Biology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 419:199-201. 2007
    ..Expression of parkin in HUVEC was not altered with tunicamycin treatment, which exerts unfolded protein stress on cells. We conclude that parkin is expressed in VEC, and that unfolded protein stress may not regulate its expression...
  68. doi request reprint Clinical availability of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease
    Yasuo Miki
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 469:357-9. 2010
    ..The skin remains to be a promising tissue to be examined for the premortem diagnosis of PD...
  69. doi request reprint Decreased cystatin C immunoreactivity in spinal motor neurons and astrocytes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68:1200-6. 2009
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Effects of ryanodine receptor activation on neurotransmitter release and neuronal cell death following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Epilepsy Res 65:59-70. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that intracellular Ca(2+) release via the RyR might be one of the mechanisms involved in KA-induced neuronal cell death...
  71. ncbi request reprint Disseminated intraparenchymal microgranulomas in the brainstem in central nervous system sarcoidosis
    Makoto Nishie
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 25:361-4. 2005
    ..Neither granulomas nor lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the leptomeninges. The present case was considered to be a peculiar type of neurosarcoidosis, that is, "sarcoid brainstem encephalitis"...
  72. doi request reprint Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I is constitutively expressed and involved in IFN-gamma-stimulated CXCL9-11 production in intestinal epithelial cells
    Shogo Kawaguchi
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki, 036 8562, Japan
    Immunol Lett 123:9-13. 2009
    ..In conclusion, RIG-I might regulate the gut barrier function in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions...
  73. ncbi request reprint Cerebellar cortical tau pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration
    Yue Shan Piao
    Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1 757 Asahimachi, Niigata 951 8585, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 103:469-74. 2002
    ..In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel tau pathology that affects Purkinje cells and Bergmann's glia in patients with PSP and CBD, indicating that the cerebellar cortex can be involved in the disease processes in PSP and CBD...
  74. ncbi request reprint Hydranencephaly with extensive periventricular necrosis and numerous ectopic glioneuronal nests
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 24:315-9. 2004
    ..These lesions date later than hydranencephaly. Considering that numerous glioneuronal nests were found in the present case, it is likely that the encephaloclastic process developed toward the end of gestation...
  75. ncbi request reprint [Pathology of basal ganglia in neurodegenerative diseases]
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neu ropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Brain Nerve 61:429-39. 2009
    ..In this article, we review the present understanding of histopathological features of basal ganglia lesions in protein conformation disorders, including tauopathy, alpha-synucleinopathy, and TDP-43 proteinopathy...
  76. ncbi request reprint Late-onset frontotemporal dementia with a novel exon 1 (Arg5His) tau gene mutation
    Shintaro Hayashi
    Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
    Ann Neurol 51:525-30. 2002
    ..Thus, we consider that the Arg5His mutation is an authentic tau gene abnormality responsible for the patient's tau pathology and late-onset dementia...
  77. pmc Role of interleukin-17A in cell-mediated protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice immunized with the fibrinogen-binding domain of clumping factor A
    Kouji Narita
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan
    Infect Immun 78:4234-42. 2010
    ..aureus infection...
  78. ncbi request reprint [Lewy body formation in Parkinson's disease: neurodegeneration or neuroprotection?]
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 48:981-3. 2008
    ..Recent studies have suggested that oligomers and protofibrils of alpha-synuclein are cytotoxic, and that pale bodies and LBs may represent a cytoprotective mechanism in PD...
  79. ncbi request reprint Expression of alpha-synuclein, the precursor of non-amyloid beta component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid, in human cerebral blood vessels
    Wakako Tamo
    Department of Vascular Biology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 326:5-8. 2002
    ..alpha-S is normally expressed in vascular cells and may play some physiological role in the vascular wall...
  80. ncbi request reprint Alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in normal and neoplastic Schwann cells
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 103:145-51. 2002
    ..No beta- or gamma-synuclein immunoreactivity was found in those cells. These results indicate that in the PNS, alpha-synuclein is a useful marker of Schwann cells and that it is not involved in tumorigenesis...
  81. ncbi request reprint [Recent progress in the research of multiple system atrophy with special references to alpha-synuclein and suprachiasmatic nucleus]
    Tetsutaro Ozawa
    Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, 1 757 Asahimachi dori, Niigata 951 8585, Japan
    No To Shinkei 54:111-7. 2002
  82. ncbi request reprint Multinucleated astrocytes in old demyelinated plaques in a patient with multiple sclerosis
    Makoto Nishie
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 24:248-53. 2004
    ..This might explain the gradual deterioration without definite relapses observed in the late stage of MS...
  83. ncbi request reprint Interferon-gamma stimulates the expression of galectin-9 in cultured human endothelial cells
    Tadaatsu Imaizumi
    Department of Vascular Biology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Japan
    J Leukoc Biol 72:486-91. 2002
    ..IFN-gamma-induced production of galectin-9 by endothelial cells may play an important role in immune responses by regulating interactions between the vascular wall and eosinophils...
  84. ncbi request reprint Impairment of host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection in liver of db/db and ob/ob mice
    Shin Ikejima
    Department of Bacteriology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Zaifu cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036 8562, Japan
    Diabetes 54:182-9. 2005
    ..Moreover, defect of MCP-1 expression in the liver may be involved in the attenuated host resistance in these mutant mice...
  85. doi request reprint Alteration of autophagosomal proteins (LC3, GABARAP and GATE-16) in Lewy body disease
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neurobiol Dis 43:690-7. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that autophagic function is impaired through alteration of Atg8 homologues in Lewy body disease...
  86. doi request reprint A case of anaplastic clear-cell ependymoma presenting with high erythropoietin concentration and 1p/19q deletions
    Kenichiro Asano
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Zaifu cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036 8562, Japan
    Brain Tumor Pathol 28:317-27. 2011
    ..4 mIU/ml. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptors were verified with immunohistochemical staining...
  87. ncbi request reprint Thalamic retrograde degeneration in the congenitally hydrocephalic rat is attributable to apoptotic cell death
    Fumiaki Mori
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Japan
    Neuropathology 22:186-93. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Hypertrophy of medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats treated with L-DOPA: implication for L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease
    Masahiko Tomiyama
    Third Department of Medicine, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 24:290-5. 2004
    ..Therefore, neuropathological changes corresponding to hypertrophy might underlie L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease...
  89. ncbi request reprint [Neurodegenerative disorders (2), System degeneration, no. 8 in series of articles: basic knowledge of neuropathology for neurosurgeons]
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, Hirosaki City, Aomori 036 8562, Japan
    No Shinkei Geka 31:216-22. 2003
  90. ncbi request reprint Oligodendrocytes within astrocytes ("emperipolesis") in the cerebral white matter in hepatic and hypoglycemic encephalopathy
    Makoto Nishie
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
    Neuropathology 26:62-5. 2006
    ..The present findings suggest that emperipolesis can occur even in chronic metabolic disorders that extensively involve the cerebral white matter...
  91. doi request reprint Epitope mapping of 2E2-D3, a monoclonal antibody directed against human TDP-43
    Hai Xin Zhang
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki 036 8562, Japan
    Neurosci Lett 434:170-4. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that 2E2-D3 is a useful antibody for the characterization of mouse lines transgenic for human TDP-43...
  92. ncbi request reprint Degeneration of cardiac sympathetic nerve can occur in multiple system atrophy
    Satoshi Orimo
    Department of Neurology, Kanto Central Hospital, 6 25 1 Kami Yoga, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, 158 8531, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 113:81-6. 2007
    ..Moreover, concurrent Lewy body pathology in the sympathetic ganglia might accelerate cardiac sympathetic denervation even in MSA...
  93. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein is ubiquitinated in alpha-synucleinopathy lesions
    Masato Hasegawa
    Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Organization for Medical Research, 2 1 8 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya Ku, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:49071-6. 2002
    ..These results strongly suggest that phosphorylated alpha-synuclein is targeted to mono- and diubiquitination in synucleinopathy brains, which may have implications for mechanisms of these diseases...
  94. ncbi request reprint Expression of metallothionein-III induced by hypoxia attenuates hypoxia-induced cell death in vitro
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu cho, 036 8562 Hirosaki, Japan
    Brain Res 976:125-9. 2003
    ....
  95. ncbi request reprint Degeneration of cardiac sympathetic nerve begins in the early disease process of Parkinson's disease
    Satoshi Orimo
    Department of Neurology, Kanto Central Hospital, Tokyo, Japan
    Brain Pathol 17:24-30. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that degeneration of the cardiac sympathetic nerve begins in the early disease process of PD and that it occurs before neuronal cell loss in the dorsal vagal nucleus...
  96. pmc Defective function of GABA-containing synaptic vesicles in mice lacking the AP-3B clathrin adaptor
    Fubito Nakatsu
    RIKEN Research Center for Allergy and Immunology, Kanagawa 230 0045, Japan
    J Cell Biol 167:293-302. 2004
    ..Thus, AP-3B plays a critical role in the normal formation and function of a subset of synaptic vesicles. This work adds a new aspect to the pathogenesis of epilepsy...
  97. ncbi request reprint Cardiac sympathetic denervation precedes neuronal loss in the sympathetic ganglia in Lewy body disease
    Satoshi Orimo
    Department of Neurology, Kanto Central Hospital, 6 25 1 Kami Yoga, Setagaya Ku, 158 8531, Tokyo, Japan
    Acta Neuropathol 109:583-8. 2005
    ..Decreased cardiac uptake of MIBG in Lewy body disease reflects actual cardiac sympathetic denervation, which precedes the neuronal loss in the sympathetic ganglia...
  98. ncbi request reprint [Neuropathological features in corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy]
    Koichi Wakabayashi
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Brain Science, Hirosaki University School of Medicine
    Rinsho Shinkeigaku 42:1155-7. 2002
    ..From a neuropathological viewpoint, CBD is distinct from other sporadic tauopathies...
  99. pmc NUB1 suppresses the formation of Lewy body-like inclusions by proteasomal degradation of synphilin-1
    Kunikazu Tanji
    Department of Cardiology, Unit 1101, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Am J Pathol 169:553-65. 2006
    ....
  100. ncbi request reprint Axonal alpha-synuclein aggregates herald centripetal degeneration of cardiac sympathetic nerve in Parkinson's disease
    Satoshi Orimo
    Department of Neurology, Kanto Central Hospital, 6 25 1 Kami Yoga, Setagaya Ku, 158 8531 Tokyo, Japan
    Brain 131:642-50. 2008
    ....