E Spina

Summary

Affiliation: University of Messina
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Clinical significance of pharmacokinetic interactions between antiepileptic and psychotropic drugs
    Edoardo Spina
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Epilepsia 43:37-44. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Clinically significant drug interactions with antidepressants in the elderly
    Edoardo Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Messina, Italy
    Drugs Aging 19:299-320. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint No effect of reboxetine on plasma concentrations of clozapine, risperidone, and their active metabolites
    E Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 23:675-8. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone during combined treatment with paroxetine
    E Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Centers of Mental Health, Azienda USL 5, Messina, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 23:223-7. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Relationship between plasma risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations and clinical response in patients with schizophrenia
    E Spina
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:238-43. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Plasma concentrations of clozapine and its major metabolites during combined treatment with paroxetine or sertraline
    E Spina
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario di Messina, Italy
    Pharmacopsychiatry 33:213-7. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Relationship between plasma concentrations of clozapine and norclozapine and therapeutic response in patients with schizophrenia resistant to conventional neuroleptics
    E Spina
    Centers of Mental Health, Azienda USL 5, Messina, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 148:83-9. 2000
  8. ncbi request reprint The effect of lamotrigine augmentation of clozapine in a sample of treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
    R Zoccali
    Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Italy
    Schizophr Res 93:109-16. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant drugs and seizure susceptibility: from in vitro data to clinical practice
    F Pisani
    Institute of Neurological and Neurosurgical Sciences, First Neurological Clinic, Messina, Italy
    Epilepsia 40:S48-56. 1999
  10. ncbi request reprint Prescribing patterns of antiepileptic drugs in Italy: a nationwide population-based study in the years 2000-2005
    R Savica
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Anesthesiology, University of Messina, Italy
    Eur J Neurol 14:1317-21. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. ncbi request reprint Clinical significance of pharmacokinetic interactions between antiepileptic and psychotropic drugs
    Edoardo Spina
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Epilepsia 43:37-44. 2002
    ..Apart from careful clinical observation, serum level monitoring of AEDs and psychotropic drugs can be useful in determining the need for dosage adjustments, especially if there is any change in seizure control, or possible toxicity...
  2. ncbi request reprint Clinically significant drug interactions with antidepressants in the elderly
    Edoardo Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Messina, Italy
    Drugs Aging 19:299-320. 2002
    ..Among other newer antidepressants, nefazodone is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and its combination with substrates of this isoform should be avoided...
  3. ncbi request reprint No effect of reboxetine on plasma concentrations of clozapine, risperidone, and their active metabolites
    E Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 23:675-8. 2001
    ..These findings indicate that reboxetine has minimal effects on the metabolism of clozapine and risperidone and may be added safely to patients receiving maintenance treatment with these two antipsychotics...
  4. ncbi request reprint Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone during combined treatment with paroxetine
    E Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Centers of Mental Health, Azienda USL 5, Messina, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 23:223-7. 2001
    ..Careful clinical observation and possibly monitoring of plasma risperidone levels may be useful whenever paroxetine is co-administered with risperidone...
  5. ncbi request reprint Relationship between plasma risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentrations and clinical response in patients with schizophrenia
    E Spina
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 153:238-43. 2001
    ..Evaluation of relationships between serum antipsychotic drug concentrations and clinical response may provide valuable information for rational dosage adjustments. For risperidone, this relationship has been little investigated to date...
  6. ncbi request reprint Plasma concentrations of clozapine and its major metabolites during combined treatment with paroxetine or sertraline
    E Spina
    Institute of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario di Messina, Italy
    Pharmacopsychiatry 33:213-7. 2000
    ..While sertraline may be added safely to patients on maintenance treatment with clozapine, careful clinical observation and monitoring of plasma clozapine levels may be useful whenever paroxetine is coadministered with clozapine...
  7. ncbi request reprint Relationship between plasma concentrations of clozapine and norclozapine and therapeutic response in patients with schizophrenia resistant to conventional neuroleptics
    E Spina
    Centers of Mental Health, Azienda USL 5, Messina, Italy
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 148:83-9. 2000
    ..Monitoring plasma clozapine concentrations may play a useful role in the management of patients with schizophrenia, but information on the relationship between the plasma levels of the drug and response is still controversial...
  8. ncbi request reprint The effect of lamotrigine augmentation of clozapine in a sample of treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
    R Zoccali
    Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Italy
    Schizophr Res 93:109-16. 2007
    ..The findings provide evidence that lamotrigine augmentation of clozapine treatment is well tolerated and may be proposed as an effective therapeutic strategy to improve outcome in treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
  9. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant drugs and seizure susceptibility: from in vitro data to clinical practice
    F Pisani
    Institute of Neurological and Neurosurgical Sciences, First Neurological Clinic, Messina, Italy
    Epilepsia 40:S48-56. 1999
    ..Finally, exploring the mechanisms through which ADs modulate neuronal excitability might open new possibilities in antiepileptic drug development...
  10. ncbi request reprint Prescribing patterns of antiepileptic drugs in Italy: a nationwide population-based study in the years 2000-2005
    R Savica
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Anesthesiology, University of Messina, Italy
    Eur J Neurol 14:1317-21. 2007
    ..An increasing use of AEDs has been recently observed over a 6-year period in Italian general practice, mostly explained by newer compounds used for conditions other than epilepsy...
  11. ncbi request reprint Quetiapine versus clozapine: a preliminary report of comparative effects on dopaminergic psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease
    L Morgante
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria, I 98125 Messina, Italy
    Neurol Sci 23:S89-90. 2002
    ..No differences were found between clozapine and quetiapine at each assessment time. The UPDRS score decreased significantly ( p<0.05) in the clozapine group, while was almost unchanged in the quetiapine group...
  12. doi request reprint Prescribing pattern of anti-Parkinson drugs in Southern Italy: cross-sectional analysis in the years 2003-2005
    Gianluca Trifiro
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Pharmacology Unit, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord 14:420-5. 2008
    ..A high proportion of APD users (15-20%) received only one prescription during the study period...
  13. ncbi request reprint Ziprasidone and amisulpride effectively treat negative symptoms of schizophrenia: results of a 12-week, double-blind study
    Jean Pierre Olie
    Department of Mental Health and Therapy, Sainte Anne Hospital, Paris, France
    Int Clin Psychopharmacol 21:143-51. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Short-term memory loss associated with rosuvastatin
    Laura Galatti
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Pharmacotherapy 26:1190-2. 2006
    ..During the following year, the patient remained free from neuropsychiatric disturbances. Clinicians should be aware of possible adverse cognitive reactions during statin therapy, including rosuvastatin...
  15. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant drugs: prevalence, incidence and indication of use in general practice of Southern Italy during the years 2003-2004
    Gianluca Trifiro
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Pharmacology Unit, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:552-9. 2007
    ..To estimate 1-year prevalence, 1-year incidence and indication of use of antidepressant (AD) drug treatment in general practice of Southern Italy during the years 2003-2004...
  16. ncbi request reprint Effect of adjunctive lamotrigine treatment on the plasma concentrations of clozapine, risperidone and olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder
    Edoardo Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 28:599-602. 2006
    ..The modest elevation in plasma olanzapine concentration, possibly due to inhibition of UGT1A4-mediated olanzapine glucuronidation, is unlikely to be of clinical significance...
  17. ncbi request reprint Metabolic drug interactions with newer antipsychotics: a comparative review
    Edoardo Spina
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina and IRCCS Neurological Center Bonino Pulejo, Messina, Italy, and Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 100:4-22. 2007
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Co-prescriptions with itraconazole and fluconazole as a signal for possible risk of drug-drug interactions: a four-year analysis from Italian general practice
    Laura Galatti
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Torre Biologica Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, Messina, Italy
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:422-8. 2007
    ..To determine the prevalence of concomitant use of drugs potentially responsible for interactions among itraconazole and fluconazole users in general practice...
  19. ncbi request reprint Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with second-generation antidepressants: an update
    Edoardo Spina
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Clin Ther 30:1206-27. 2008
    ..Rather, concern about drug interactions with second-generation antidepressants is based on their in vitro potential to inhibit > or = 1 CYP isozyme...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effect of topiramate on plasma concentrations of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine in patients with psychotic disorders
    Gaetana Migliardi
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Clin Neuropharmacol 30:107-13. 2007
    ..To investigate the effect of topiramate on the steady-state plasma concentrations of the second-generation antipsychotics--clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine--in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder...
  21. ncbi request reprint Use and tolerability of newer antipsychotics and antidepressants: a chart review in a paediatric setting
    Marianna Alacqua
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Pharmacology Unit, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Pharm World Sci 30:44-50. 2008
    ..To analyse the prescribing pattern and the safety profile of different atypical antipsychotics and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during the years 2002-2003 in paediatric setting...
  22. ncbi request reprint Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms
    Giovanni Polimeni
    Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo, Messina, Italy
    Ann Pharmacother 41:1315-7. 2007
    ..To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy...
  23. doi request reprint Estimating the effects of co-medications on plasma olanzapine concentrations by using a mixed model
    Sheila Botts
    College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, United States
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:1453-8. 2008
    ..Other limitations were the small sample size of some drug sub-samples and the lack of testing for plasma olanzapine metabolites...
  24. ncbi request reprint The pharmacology and safety of paliperidone extended-release in the treatment of schizophrenia
    Edoardo Spina
    Universiy of Messina, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 6:651-62. 2007
    ..Safety data from elderly patients appear to be promising. Due to negligible hepatic biotransformation, paliperidone ER is unlikely to be involved in clinically significant metabolic drug-drug interactions...
  25. ncbi request reprint Sertindole: pharmacological and clinical profile and role in the treatment of schizophrenia
    Edoardo Spina
    University of Messina, Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4:629-38. 2008
    ..Sertindole is a second-generation antipsychotic recently reintroduced in the market for the treatment of schizophrenia after a reevaluation of its risks and benefits...
  26. doi request reprint Risk of stroke with typical and atypical anti-psychotics: a retrospective cohort study including unexposed subjects
    Emilio Sacchetti
    University Psychiatric Unit, Brescia University School of Medicine and Department of Mental Health, Brescia Spedali Civili, Italy
    J Psychopharmacol 22:39-46. 2008
    ..46 times for atypicals. Clinicians should be cautious in prescribing phenotiazines and butyrophenones in elderly patients, since the risk for stroke would seem comparable or even greater than with atypicals...
  27. ncbi request reprint Venlafaxine-induced urinary incontinence resolved after switching to sertraline
    Giovanni Polimeni
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Italy
    Clin Neuropharmacol 28:247-8. 2005
    ..Further studies need to be carried out to clarify the pharmacologic differences between dual and selective 5-HT and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on lower urinary tract function...
  28. ncbi request reprint Influence of CYP2C9, 2C19 and 2D6 genetic polymorphisms on the steady-state plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine
    Maria G Scordo
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Italy
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 97:296-301. 2005
    ..05). These results suggest that CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms contribute to the interindividual variability in fluoxetine pharmacokinetics at steady-state...
  29. ncbi request reprint Effect of fluvoxamine on plasma risperidone concentrations in patients with schizophrenia
    Concetta D'Arrigo
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario di Messina, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 52:497-501. 2005
    ..However, higher doses of fluvoxamine may elevate plasma risperidone levels, presumably as a result of a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of fluvoxamine on CYP2D6-and/or CYP3A4-mediated 9-hydroxylation of risperidone...
  30. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of risperidone metabolism by fluoxetine in patients with schizophrenia: a clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interaction
    Edoardo Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 22:419-23. 2002
    ..This interaction may lead to toxic plasma risperidone concentrations. In addition to careful clinical observation, monitoring plasma risperidone levels may be of value in patients given adjunctive therapy with fluoxetine...
  31. ncbi request reprint Plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine: sources of variability and preliminary observations on relations with clinical response
    Giovanna Jannuzzi
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit and University of Pavia, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 24:616-27. 2002
    ..In addition, a considerable variability was found in the enantiomers' concentrations associated with a favorable therapeutic response...
  32. ncbi request reprint Olanzapine augmentation of paroxetine-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Giuseppina D'Amico
    Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 27:619-23. 2003
    ..Our findings confirm the results of previous studies and indicate that the addition of olanzapine to ongoing treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) may be beneficial in some patients unresponsive to SRI monotherapy...
  33. ncbi request reprint Lack of a pharmacokinetic interaction between mirtazapine and the newer antipsychotics clozapine, risperidone and olanzapine in patients with chronic schizophrenia
    Rocco Zoccali
    Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 48:411-4. 2003
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Metabolic drug interactions with new psychotropic agents
    Edoardo Spina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol 17:517-38. 2003
    ..This information is essential for rational prescribing and may guide selection of an appropriate compound which is less likely to interact with already taken medication(s)...
  35. ncbi request reprint The effect of mirtazapine augmentation of clozapine in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study
    Rocco Zoccali
    Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Int Clin Psychopharmacol 19:71-6. 2004
    ..These findings suggest a potential role for mirtazapine as an augmentation strategy in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
  36. ncbi request reprint Risperidone treatment of children with autistic disorder: effectiveness, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic implications
    Antonella Gagliano
    University of Messina, Gazzi Messina, Italy
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:39-47. 2004
    ..In particular, risperidone appears to be effective in treating aggressiveness, hyperactivity, irritability, stereotypies, social withdrawal, and lack of interests...
  37. ncbi request reprint Determination of olanzapine in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection
    Concetta D'Arrigo
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 28:388-93. 2006
    ..00% to 1.24%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification for olanzapine were 2 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The method is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring...
  38. ncbi request reprint Antiepileptic drugs: indications other than epilepsy
    Edoardo Spina
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Italy
    Epileptic Disord 6:57-75. 2004
    ..In addition, newer AEDs appear to have a more favourable tolerability and drug interaction profile as compared to older compounds, so thus improving compliance to treatment...
  39. ncbi request reprint Cytochrome P450 polymorphisms and response to antipsychotic therapy
    Maria Gabriella Scordo
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, I 98125 Messina, Italy
    Pharmacogenomics 3:201-18. 2002
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Plasma risperidone concentrations during combined treatment with sertraline
    Edoardo Spina
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
    Ther Drug Monit 26:386-90. 2004
    ..However, higher doses of sertraline may elevate plasma risperidone levels, presumably as a result of a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of sertraline on CYP2D6-mediated 9-hydroxylation of risperidone...
  41. ncbi request reprint Quetiapine and clozapine in parkinsonian patients with dopaminergic psychosis
    Letterio Morgante
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Anesthesiology, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Italy
    Clin Neuropharmacol 27:153-6. 2004
    ..This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine and clozapine in parkinsonian patients with dopaminergic psychosis in a randomized, open-label, blinded-rater, parallel group trial...
  42. ncbi request reprint Neuropsychiatric reactions to drugs: an analysis of spontaneous reports from general practitioners in Italy
    Laura Galatti
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Torre Biologica Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 51:211-6. 2005
    ..In conclusion, the present study carried out in general practice underlines the importance of neuropsychiatric ADRs and reminds GPs to pay attention to this kind of toxicity when they prescribe pharmacological agents to their patients...
  43. ncbi request reprint Antipsychotic prescribing pattern among Italian general practitioners: a population-based study during the years 1999-2002
    Gianluca Trifiro
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pharmacology Unit, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, 98100 Messina, Italy
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 61:47-53. 2005
    ..To assess the antipsychotic use and the prevalence/incidence of antipsychotic drug users in Italy during the years 1999-2002. To estimate the persistence with antipsychotic medications, and to measure their off-label use...
  44. ncbi request reprint Plasma concentrations of risperidone and olanzapine during coadministration with oxcarbazepine
    Maria Rosaria Muscatello
    Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatric and Anesthesiological Sciences, University of Messina, Italy
    Epilepsia 46:771-4. 2005
    ..The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a treatment with OXC on plasma concentrations of the new antipsychotics risperidone and olanzapine...
  45. ncbi request reprint No association between CYP2D6 polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in an Italian population
    Maria Gabriella Scordo
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, University of Uppsala, Akademiska sjukhuset, Ing 61, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden
    Pharmacol Res 53:162-5. 2006
    ..Our results indicate that CYP2D6 polymorphism is unlikely to represent a major risk factor in susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease...
  46. ncbi request reprint Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and metabolic clearance
    Maria Gabriella Scordo
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Italy
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 72:702-10. 2002
    ..Our objective was to determine the influence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on warfarin dose requirement and metabolic clearance...
  47. doi request reprint Further evidence for the association between 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphisms and extrapyramidal side effects in male schizophrenic patients
    Arzu Gunes
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology, Uppsala University Hospital, SE 75185, Uppsala, Sweden
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 64:477-82. 2008
    ..Serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT(2C)) have regulatory effects on dopaminergic pathways in brain regions involved with EPS. Polymorphisms in the 5-HT(2C) gene (HTR2C) have been suggested to be associated with the risk of developing EPS...
  48. ncbi request reprint Improved enantioselective assay for the determination of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine enantiomers in human plasma by liquid chromatography
    Giuliana Gatti
    Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Piazza Botta 10, 27100, Pavia, Italy
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 784:375-83. 2003
    ..Standard curves are linear for each enantiomer (r(2)>/=0.992) over the range of 10-1000 ng/ml with a limit of quantification of 10 ng/ml for each enantiomer. Within-day and between-day CV% are </=10% for each enantiomer...
  49. ncbi request reprint Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in an Italian population
    Maria Gabriella Scordo
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Torre Biologica, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 50:195-200. 2004
    ..Conversely, the prevalence of CYP2D6 gene duplication among Italians resulted very high, confirming the higher frequency of CYP2D6 UM in the Mediterranean area compared to Northern Europe...
  50. ncbi request reprint Antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: associations with dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter polymorphisms
    Cüneyt Güzey
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, St Olav University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 63:233-41. 2007
    ..Little is known about the influence of polymorphisms of the dopamine and serotonin system on the risk for extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with antipsychotic drugs...