Stephen D Skaper

Summary

Affiliation: University of Padova
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Ion channels on microglia: therapeutic targets for neuroprotection
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 10:44-56. 2011
  2. doi request reprint The P2X7 purinergic receptor: from physiology to neurological disorders
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    FASEB J 24:337-45. 2010
  3. pmc P2X(7) Receptors as a Transducer in the Co-Occurrence of Neurological/Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Disorders: A Hypothesis
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol 2009:545263. 2009
  4. pmc P2X(7) Receptors in Neurological and Cardiovascular Disorders
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol 2009:861324. 2009
  5. doi request reprint Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring disease-modifying agent in neuropathic pain
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131, Padua, Italy
    Inflammopharmacology 22:79-94. 2014
  6. doi request reprint Glia and mast cells as targets for palmitoylethanolamide, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective lipid mediator
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo Egidio Meneghetti 2, 35131, Padova, Italy
    Mol Neurobiol 48:340-52. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Intracellular ion channel CLIC1: involvement in microglia-mediated β-amyloid peptide(1-42) neurotoxicity
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo E Meneghetti, 2, 35131, Padova, Italy
    Neurochem Res 38:1801-8. 2013
  8. pmc Mast cell-glia axis in neuroinflammation and therapeutic potential of the anandamide congener palmitoylethanolamide
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo Egidio Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:3312-25. 2012
  9. pmc Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo Egidio Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:3193-200. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Microglia and mast cells: two tracks on the road to neuroinflammation
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    FASEB J 26:3103-17. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi request reprint Ion channels on microglia: therapeutic targets for neuroprotection
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 10:44-56. 2011
    ....
  2. doi request reprint The P2X7 purinergic receptor: from physiology to neurological disorders
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    FASEB J 24:337-45. 2010
    ....
  3. pmc P2X(7) Receptors as a Transducer in the Co-Occurrence of Neurological/Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Disorders: A Hypothesis
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol 2009:545263. 2009
    ..However, a positive outcome would encourage the further development of P2X(7) receptor antagonists and their application to limit the co-occurrence of neurological, psychiatric, and cardiovascular disorders...
  4. pmc P2X(7) Receptors in Neurological and Cardiovascular Disorders
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol 2009:861324. 2009
    ..In this context, the P2X(7) receptor may be viewed as a gateway of communication between the nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems...
  5. doi request reprint Palmitoylethanolamide, a naturally occurring disease-modifying agent in neuropathic pain
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131, Padua, Italy
    Inflammopharmacology 22:79-94. 2014
    ..Collectively, the findings presented here propose that palmitoylethanolamide merits further consideration as a disease-modifying agent for controlling inflammatory responses and related chronic and neuropathic pain. ..
  6. doi request reprint Glia and mast cells as targets for palmitoylethanolamide, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective lipid mediator
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo Egidio Meneghetti 2, 35131, Padova, Italy
    Mol Neurobiol 48:340-52. 2013
    ..These actions may be mediated by PEA acting through "receptor pleiotropism," i.e., both direct and indirect interactions of PEA with different receptor targets, e.g., cannabinoid CB2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha...
  7. doi request reprint Intracellular ion channel CLIC1: involvement in microglia-mediated β-amyloid peptide(1-42) neurotoxicity
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo E Meneghetti, 2, 35131, Padova, Italy
    Neurochem Res 38:1801-8. 2013
    ....
  8. pmc Mast cell-glia axis in neuroinflammation and therapeutic potential of the anandamide congener palmitoylethanolamide
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo Egidio Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:3312-25. 2012
    ....
  9. pmc Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Largo Egidio Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:3193-200. 2012
    ..The volume will conclude with discussions that address the proposed therapeutic applications of targeting the ECS for the treatment of neurodegeneration, pain and mental illness...
  10. doi request reprint Microglia and mast cells: two tracks on the road to neuroinflammation
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    FASEB J 26:3103-17. 2012
    ..We conclude by considering the therapeutic potential of treating systemic inflammation or blockade of signaling pathways from the periphery to the brain in such settings...
  11. doi request reprint The neurotrophin family of neurotrophic factors: an overview
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:1-12. 2012
    ..This chapter will provide an overview of neurotrophin biology, their receptors, and signaling pathways...
  12. doi request reprint Neuronal growth-promoting and inhibitory cues in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:13-22. 2012
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Culture of neonatal rodent microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from cortex and spinal cord
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:67-77. 2012
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Central nervous system neuron-glia co-culture models
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:79-89. 2012
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Culture and characterization of rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:91-101. 2012
    ..This chapter presents a detailed protocol for the preparation of rat mesencephalic cell cultures and their application to evaluating the neuroprotective action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor...
  16. doi request reprint Rodent retinal ganglion cell cultures
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:117-29. 2012
    ..Cultures of purified RGCs thus represent an excellent tool for the study of optic nerve cell trophic responsiveness, in terms of both survival and axonal regeneration...
  17. doi request reprint Culture of purified glial cell populations from optic nerve
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:131-45. 2012
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Isolation and culture of rat cone photoreceptor cells
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:147-58. 2012
    ..In addition, we describe a protocol for the purification and culture of retinal pigmented epithelial cells from postnatal rat...
  19. doi request reprint Compartmented chambers for studying neurotrophic factor action
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:213-22. 2012
    ..This system recapitulates the selective stimulation of neuron terminals that occurs in vivo following release of target-derived neurotrophins...
  20. doi request reprint [³H]serotonin release assay using antigen-stimulated rat peritoneal mast cells
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:333-41. 2012
    ....
  21. doi request reprint Culture of rat retina pigmented epithelial cells
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:159-66. 2012
    ..The following chapter describes a protocol for the purification and culture of retinal pigmented epithelial cells from postnatal rat...
  22. ncbi request reprint Peptide mimetics of neurotrophins and their receptors
    S D Skaper
    University of Padova Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, Largo E Meneghetti 2, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Curr Pharm Des 17:2704-18. 2011
    ..The latter will encompass both receptor-directed as well as intracellular signalling approaches...
  23. ncbi request reprint Transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Italy
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 9:455-70. 2010
    ..This article will provide an overview of the genetics underlying PD and HD, the animal models developed, and their potential utility to the study of disease pathophysiology...
  24. doi request reprint Oligodendrocytes are a novel source of amyloid peptide generation
    Stephen D Skaper
    Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK
    Neurochem Res 34:2243-50. 2009
    ..Disturbances of APP processing and/ or synthesis in oligodendrocytes may account for some myelin disorders observed in Alzheimer's disease and other senile dementias...
  25. ncbi request reprint MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 deficiency in microglia inhibits pro-inflammatory mediator release and resultant neurotoxicity. Relevance to neuroinflammation in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease
    Ainsley A Culbert
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow CM19 5AW, Essex, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 281:23658-67. 2006
    ..Our data propose a role for MK2 in AD brain pathology, for which neuroinflammation involving cytokines and chemokines and overt neuronal loss have been documented...
  26. ncbi request reprint Astrocyte-microglia cooperation in the expression of a pro-inflammatory phenotype
    Massimo Barbierato
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 12:608-18. 2013
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Excitatory amino acid induced oligodendrocyte cell death in vitro: receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms
    Claudia Rosin
    Neuro Cell Sciences, Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, Harlow, Essex, UK
    J Neurochem 90:1173-85. 2004
    ..Glutamate toxicity may conceivably be operative in neuropathological conditions that disrupt neuronal/oligodendrocyte interactions in axons, e.g. multiple sclerosis and ischaemia-reperfusion injury...
  28. ncbi request reprint MEK inhibition exacerbates ischemic calcium imbalance and neuronal cell death in rat cortical cultures
    Davide Franceschini
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow CM19 5AW, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 553:18-27. 2006
    ..These data suggest that in this ischemic model the MAPK/ERK pathway might exert a regulatory effect on calcium entry independent from gene expression...
  29. doi request reprint Abeta(1-42) reduces synapse number and inhibits neurite outgrowth in primary cortical and hippocampal neurons: a quantitative analysis
    Nicholas A Evans
    Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Essex, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci Methods 175:96-103. 2008
    ..These effects of Abeta(1-42) on synapse number and neurite outgrowth are similar to those described within AD patient pathology and transgenic mouse models...
  30. ncbi request reprint P2X(7) receptors on microglial cells mediate injury to cortical neurons in vitro
    Stephen D Skaper
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow CM19 5AW, Essex, United Kingdom
    Glia 54:234-42. 2006
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Generation of a alpha-synuclein-based rat model of Parkinson's disease
    Alessandra Recchia
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padua, Largo Meneghetti, 2, 35131 Padua, Italy
    Neurobiol Dis 30:8-18. 2008
    ....
  32. pmc Mast cells, glia and neuroinflammation: partners in crime?
    Stephen D Skaper
    Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Largo Egidio Meneghetti 2, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy
    Immunology 141:314-27. 2014
    ..We will conclude by considering the therapeutic potential of treating systemic inflammation or blockade of signalling pathways from the periphery to the brain in such settings...
  33. doi request reprint Culture of rodent cortical and hippocampal neurons
    Laura Facci
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:49-56. 2012
    ..This chapter presents a detailed protocol for the preparation of rat and mouse cortical and hippocampal neuron cell cultures using either embryonic or postnatal tissue with enzymatic digestion...
  34. ncbi request reprint Identification of neuroprotective properties of anti-MAG antibody: a novel approach for the treatment of stroke?
    Elaine A Irving
    Neurology and GI CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow, Essex, UK
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 25:98-107. 2005
    ..Together, these data highlight the potential for the use of anti-MAG antibodies as therapeutic agents for the treatment of stroke...
  35. doi request reprint Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase and neuronal cell death
    Jane P Hughes
    Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow, UK
    Neurochem Res 35:588-97. 2010
    ..Moreover, CGN cultured from AATYK-deficient mice remained sensitive to death in K5 medium. Thus, AATYK activation may not be a physiologically relevant principal regulatory target of the GSK-3 death pathway in KCl-deprived CGN...
  36. ncbi request reprint TRPM2 is elevated in the tMCAO stroke model, transcriptionally regulated, and functionally expressed in C13 microglia
    Elena Fonfria
    Neurology and GI CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow, UK
    J Recept Signal Transduct Res 26:179-98. 2006
    ..Activation of TRPM2 in microglia during ischemic brain injury may mediate key aspects of microglial pathophysiological responses...
  37. ncbi request reprint A dimeric version of the short N-cadherin binding motif HAVDI promotes neuronal cell survival by activating an N-cadherin/fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling cascade
    Stephen D Skaper
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow CM19 5AW, Essex, UK
    Mol Cell Neurosci 26:17-23. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors protect central neurons against excitotoxicity
    Laura Facci
    Neurophysiology and Cell Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Ltd, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK
    Neuroreport 14:1467-70. 2003
    ..As GSK-3 can modulate transcriptional events, these results may provide insight into the identification of new neuroprotective targets...
  39. ncbi request reprint Dopamine D2 and D3 receptor agonists limit oligodendrocyte injury caused by glutamate oxidative stress and oxygen/glucose deprivation
    Claudia Rosin
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, Harlow, United Kingdom
    Glia 52:336-43. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that dopamine D2 and D3 receptor activation may play an important role in oligodendrocyte protection against oxidative glutamate toxicity and oxygen-glucose deprivation injury...
  40. ncbi request reprint Neuronal growth-promoting and inhibitory cues in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Neuro Cell Sciences, Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053:376-85. 2005
    ....
  41. doi request reprint Culture of rat cerebellar granule neurons and application to identify neuroprotective agents
    Laura Facci
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:23-37. 2012
    ....
  42. doi request reprint TASTPM mice expressing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutant transgenes are sensitive to γ-secretase modulation and amyloid-β₄₂ lowering by GSM-10h
    Ishrut Hussain
    Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Ltd, Harlow, UK
    Neurodegener Dis 8:15-24. 2011
    ..Therefore, efforts have focussed on the modulation of γ-secretase activity to selectively decrease levels of Aβ₄₂ peptide while avoiding deleterious activity on Notch processing...
  43. ncbi request reprint The brain as a target for inflammatory processes and neuroprotective strategies
    Stephen D Skaper
    Neurodegeneration Research Department, Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, Harlow, Essex CM19 5 AW, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1122:23-34. 2007
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase-1 in acute neuronal death and inflammation: a strategy for neuroprotection
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Neurophysiology and Cell Sciences, Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, Harlow, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 993:217-28; discussion 287-8. 2003
    ..The hypothesis that PARPs might regulate cell fate as essential modulators of death and survival transcriptional programs is discussed with relation to nuclear factor kappaB and p53...
  45. doi request reprint Amyloid β-peptide neurotoxicity assay using cultured rat cortical neurons
    Laura Facci
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:57-65. 2012
    ..This chapter presents a detailed protocol for the preparation of rat and mouse cortical and hippocampal neuron cell cultures, using either embryonic or postnatal tissue...
  46. ncbi request reprint Alpha-synuclein and Parkinson's disease
    Alessandra Recchia
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
    FASEB J 18:617-26. 2004
    ..The available animal models of PD, each present distinct advantages and limits. Findings to date suggest that alpha-syn-based models represent a paradigm, which is closest to the human pathology...
  47. pmc TRPM2 channel opening in response to oxidative stress is dependent on activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
    Elena Fonfria
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW
    Br J Pharmacol 143:186-92. 2004
    ..64+/-0.38; 6.68+/-0.28; 4.78+/-0.05, respectively). 6. These data suggest that oxidative stress causes TRPM2 channel opening in both recombinant and endogenously expressing cell systems via activation of PARP enzymes...
  48. doi request reprint Alzheimer's disease and amyloid: culprit or coincidence?
    Stephen D Skaper
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Largo E Meneghetti, Padova, Italy
    Int Rev Neurobiol 102:277-316. 2012
    ..This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge on these factors and their possible interactions, as well as their potential for neuroprotection targets...
  49. doi request reprint Indirect immunofluorescence staining of cultured neural cells
    Massimo Barbierato
    Department of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Methods Mol Biol 846:235-46. 2012
    ..This chapter describes procedures for the application of indirect immunofluorescence staining to neural cells in culture...
  50. ncbi request reprint Amyloid beta-peptide1-42 alters tight junction protein distribution and expression in brain microvessel endothelial cells
    Sonia Marco
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, CM19 5AW Harlow, Essex, United Kingdom
    Neurosci Lett 401:219-24. 2006
    ..These data suggest that Abeta1-42 effects on tight junction protein complexes may alter blood-brain barrier integrity and contribute to the neuropathological sequelae of Alzheimer's disease...
  51. ncbi request reprint The biology of neurotrophins, signalling pathways, and functional peptide mimetics of neurotrophins and their receptors
    Stephen D Skaper
    Neurology Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development Limited, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, CM19 5AW, Harlow, Essex, UK
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 7:46-62. 2008
    ..Moreover, exciting recent data describing G-protein-coupled receptor transactivation of Trk receptors and their downstream signalling pathways raise the possibility of using small molecules to elicit neuroprotective effects...
  52. ncbi request reprint Mitogen and stress response kinase-1 (MSK1) mediates excitotoxic induced death of hippocampal neurones
    Jane P Hughes
    Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow, Essex, UK
    J Neurochem 86:25-32. 2003
    ..Together, these data indicate that MSK1 is a physiological kinase for CREB and that this activity is an essential component of activity-dependent neuronal cell death...