Carlo Selmi

Summary

Affiliation: University of Milan
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Less travelled roads in clinical immunology and allergy: drug reactions and the environmental influence
    Carlo Selmi
    University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 45:1-5. 2013
  2. ncbi request reprint Autoimmunity and cancer
    M I Sara Achenza
    Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 13:29-40. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Serum autoantibodies for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune liver diseases
    Maria I S Achenza
    Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:717-29. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Heritability versus the role of the environment in autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, USA
    J Autoimmun 39:249-52. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Mechanisms of environmental influence on human autoimmunity: a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences expert panel workshop
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, USA
    J Autoimmun 39:272-84. 2012
  6. doi request reprint The long-term marriage between autoimmunity and internal medicine: a homage to Manuel Carlos Dias
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 43:207-10. 2012
  7. pmc X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma
    C Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Genome Center and MIND Institute, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 169:253-62. 2012
  8. pmc Primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjögren's syndrome: autoimmune epithelitis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    J Autoimmun 39:34-42. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Autoimmunity in 2011
    Carlo Selmi
    Clinical Immunology, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via A Manzoni 113, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 43:194-206. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Cutting-edge issues in autoimmunity and allergy of the digestive system
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 42:265-8. 2012

Detail Information

Publications110 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Less travelled roads in clinical immunology and allergy: drug reactions and the environmental influence
    Carlo Selmi
    University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 45:1-5. 2013
    ..More importantly, we are convinced that these discussions will be of interest also to basic scientists for the numerous translational implications. ..
  2. ncbi request reprint Autoimmunity and cancer
    M I Sara Achenza
    Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 13:29-40. 2012
    ..The present article will critically review the available evidence on the common mechanisms and epidemiology underlying the risk of cancer in patients with autoimmune disease...
  3. doi request reprint Serum autoantibodies for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune liver diseases
    Maria I S Achenza
    Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:717-29. 2012
    ..The present review article will critically discuss the available evidence on the use of autoantibody findings in the diagnosis or management of autoimmune liver disease...
  4. doi request reprint Heritability versus the role of the environment in autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, USA
    J Autoimmun 39:249-52. 2012
    ..The results of the workshop discussion are summarized in the articles found in this issue of the Journal of Autoimmunity...
  5. doi request reprint Mechanisms of environmental influence on human autoimmunity: a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences expert panel workshop
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, USA
    J Autoimmun 39:272-84. 2012
    ....
  6. doi request reprint The long-term marriage between autoimmunity and internal medicine: a homage to Manuel Carlos Dias
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 43:207-10. 2012
    ..We are convinced that these discussions are likely of interest to basic scientists and clinicians alike for the proposed translational applications...
  7. pmc X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma
    C Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Genome Center and MIND Institute, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 169:253-62. 2012
    ..In conclusion, we propose that X chromosome genes with different methylation profiles in monozygotic twin pairs may constitute candidates for SSc susceptibility...
  8. pmc Primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjögren's syndrome: autoimmune epithelitis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    J Autoimmun 39:34-42. 2012
    ..Dissection of the genetic predispositions for both diseases and especially the molecular basis of effector mechanisms, will become critical elements in developing new therapies...
  9. doi request reprint Autoimmunity in 2011
    Carlo Selmi
    Clinical Immunology, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via A Manzoni 113, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 43:194-206. 2012
    ..While our understanding of T regulatory and Th17 cells has significantly increased in 2011, it is of note that most of the proposed lines of evidence identify potential targets for future treatments and should not be overlooked...
  10. doi request reprint Cutting-edge issues in autoimmunity and allergy of the digestive system
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 42:265-8. 2012
    ..e., the need for serum biomarkers and the role of vitamin D. Other common themes characterize the etiology and effector mechanisms of these and other autoimmune diseases and are discussed in each cutting-edge overview...
  11. doi request reprint The X chromosome and the sex ratio of autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Autoimmun Rev 11:A531-7. 2012
    ..As a result we may hypothesize that more than one mechanism may contribute to the female susceptibility to tolerance breakdown while the possibility that unknown factors may indeed protect men from AID should not be overlooked...
  12. doi request reprint The worldwide gradient of autoimmune conditions
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Italy
    Autoimmun Rev 9:A247-50. 2010
    ..The ultimate goal is thus to define whether geoepidemiology should be considered a new challenge for autoimmunologists...
  13. pmc Genomic variants associated with primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Translational Medicine, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
    Genome Med 2:5. 2010
    ..The aim of this present work is to critically review the numerous studies dedicated to revealing genetic associations in PBC, and to predict the potential for future studies based on these data...
  14. doi request reprint The X in sex: how autoimmune diseases revolve around sex chromosomes
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, University of Milan, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 22:913-22. 2008
    ..Taken together, sex chromosome changes might constitute the common trait of autoimmunity...
  15. ncbi request reprint Genetic variants of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis: association with disease severity
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Milan, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Microbiology, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:1150-5. 2003
    ....
  16. doi request reprint Autoimmunity in 2010
    Carlo Selmi
    Autoimmunity and Metabolism Unit, Department of Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Italy
    Autoimmun Rev 10:725-32. 2011
    ..The present article is aimed at reviewing the articles that were published over the past year in the major autoimmunity and immunology journals...
  17. doi request reprint Autoimmunity in 2009
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Italy
    Autoimmun Rev 9:795-800. 2010
    ....
  18. pmc Infectious agents and xenobiotics in the etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, University of Milan, Italy
    Dis Markers 29:287-99. 2010
    ..Several risk factors have been suggested to be associated with PBC, including exposure to infectious agents and chemical xenobiotics that will be critically discussed in the present review article...
  19. ncbi request reprint What is hot in autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Acta Reumatol Port 34:580-8. 2009
    ..For this reason a comprehensive yet brief review of the published reports encompassing all aspects of autoimmunity will prove helpful to basic scientist and clinicians alike to prompt new research directions...
  20. doi request reprint Experimental evidence on the immunopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Translational Medicine, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
    Cell Mol Immunol 7:1-10. 2010
    ..Most recently, several murine models have been reported, including genetically determined models as well as models induced by immunization with xenobiotics and bacteria...
  21. doi request reprint Nutrition, geoepidemiology, and autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
    Autoimmun Rev 9:A267-70. 2010
    ..Our current knowledge on the beneficial impact of nutrition on autoimmunity prompts us to encourage the search for evidence-based nutrition to support the everyday diet choices of patients...
  22. doi request reprint A new year in autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, University of Milan, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1173:239-42. 2009
    ..The take-home message from these readings is that autoimmunity ultimately becomes a uniform scenario in which similarities between conditions significantly outnumber differences in terms of pathogenesis and mechanisms...
  23. doi request reprint Novel challenges for the allergist
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Medicine, Autoimmunity and Metabolism Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via A Manzoni 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 41:1-3. 2011
    ..In particular, the impact of new data in genomics, environmental factors through epigenetics and proteomics will be reviewed and critically discussed...
  24. ncbi request reprint T-cell receptor polymorphism in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Divisione di Medicina Interna, Dipartimento di Medicina, Chirurgia e Odontoiatria, Universita degli Studi, Polo San Paolo di Milano
    Ann Ital Med Int 18:149-53. 2003
    ..1 +/- 1.2 vs 5.7 +/- 1.2 in non-heterozygous). Our data suggest that TCR constant beta-2 polymorphism does not play a key role in modulating the multifactorial etiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis...
  25. ncbi request reprint Innate immunity and primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, University of Milan, and Division of Internal Medicine and Liver Unit, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, Milan, Italy
    Curr Mol Med 9:45-51. 2009
    ..We suggest that future therapeutic efforts in PBC will depend heavily on understanding the nature of this innate immune responses and methodology to blunt their cytotoxicity...
  26. pmc Apotopes and the biliary specificity of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Ana Lleo
    Division of Rheumatology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Hepatology 49:871-9. 2009
    ....
  27. doi request reprint Impaired indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase production contributes to the development of autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Sabine Oertelt-Prigione
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Autoimmunity 41:92-9. 2008
    ..In conclusion, we submit that an impaired IDO induction characterizes PBC and might represent a contributing factor in disease pathogenesis in association with several specific defects in the target tissue...
  28. ncbi request reprint Phylogenetic and immunological definition of four lipoylated proteins from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, implications for primary biliary cirrhosis
    Kerstien A Padgett
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California School of Medicine, GBSF, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, California 95616, USA
    J Autoimmun 24:209-19. 2005
    ..In conclusion, our data provide a high degree of confidence that N. aromaticivorans may potentiate the breakdown of self tolerance in genetically susceptible individuals...
  29. pmc Analysis and application of European genetic substructure using 300 K SNP information
    Chao Tian
    Rowe Program in Human Genetics, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 4:e4. 2008
    ..The results provide further insight into European population genetic substructure and show that this information can be used for improving error rates in association testing of candidate genes and in replication studies of WGA scans...
  30. pmc Quality of life and everyday activities in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Hepatology 46:1836-43. 2007
    ..Nevertheless, patients with PBC suffer significantly more than controls from a variety of symptoms that are beyond the immediate impact of liver failure and affect their lifestyle, personal relationships, and work activities...
  31. pmc The consequences of apoptosis in autoimmunity
    Ana Lleo
    Division of Rheumatology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    J Autoimmun 31:257-62. 2008
    ..We herein review the known mechanisms for regulating the uptake of the products of apoptosis in the development of autoimmunity...
  32. ncbi request reprint Altered monocyte responses to defined TLR ligands in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis
    Tin Ky Mao
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Hepatology 42:802-8. 2005
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint A sensitive bead assay for antimitochondrial antibodies: Chipping away at AMA-negative primary biliary cirrhosis
    Sabine Oertelt
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Hepatology 45:659-65. 2007
    ..CONCLUSION: The development of this assay reflects the potential for automated detection with rapid and reliable assaying and further highlights the diminished number of truly AMA-negative PBC patients...
  34. pmc Autophagy: highlighting a novel player in the autoimmunity scenario
    Ana Lleo
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Autoimmun 29:61-8. 2007
    ..We review herein the role of autophagy in immune function and its possible contribution to breakdown of tolerance and development of autoimmunity...
  35. ncbi request reprint Genetic polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 9 influence the immune response to CpG and contribute to hyper-IgM in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Kentaro Kikuchi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Autoimmun 24:347-52. 2005
    ..Interestingly, however, despite the functional association, there is no difference in the distribution of TLR9 genotypes between patients and controls. Our data emphasize the importance of dissecting the innate immune response in PBC...
  36. pmc Epigenetic investigation of variably X chromosome inactivated genes in monozygotic female twins discordant for primary biliary cirrhosis
    Michelle M Mitchell
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California at Davis, CA, USA
    Epigenetics 6:95-102. 2011
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint X monosomy in female systemic lupus erythematosus
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Division of Internal Medicine and Liver Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, University of Milan, Via di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1110:84-91. 2007
    ..3960, SLE vs. HCs, Student's t-test), thus suggesting that a different mechanism of immune deregulation might be predominant in the female population of patients with SLE...
  38. doi request reprint Treatment with PEG-interferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C increases neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis
    Alessia Giorgini
    Division of Internal Medicine, San Paolo School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1173:847-57. 2009
    ..In conclusion, the innate immune cell activity is enhanced in patients with CHC during antiviral treatment and returns to normal after its discontinuation thus possibly playing a role in their susceptibility to infections...
  39. doi request reprint Chocolate at heart: the anti-inflammatory impact of cocoa flavanols
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Mol Nutr Food Res 52:1340-8. 2008
    ..Accordingly, rigorous controlled human studies with adequate follow-up and with the use of critical dietary questionnaires are needed to determine the effects of flavanols on the major endpoints of cardiovascular health...
  40. doi request reprint Female predominance and X chromosome defects in autoimmune diseases
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Division of Internal Medicine and Hepatobiliary Immunopathology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milan, Italy
    J Autoimmun 33:12-6. 2009
    ..Taken together, sex chromosome changes might constitute the common trait of the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases...
  41. ncbi request reprint Genetics and geoepidemiology of primary biliary cirrhosis: following the footprints to disease etiology
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Internal Medicine, San Paolo School of Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
    Semin Liver Dis 25:265-80. 2005
    ..We also submit possible interpretations of data, new developments and theories, and attempt to indicate directions for future research efforts...
  42. ncbi request reprint Genetic polymorphisms influencing xenobiotic metabolism and transport in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis
    Yasuhiko Kimura
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    Hepatology 41:55-63. 2005
    ..In conclusion, genetic polymorphisms of CYP 2D6 and 2E1, PXR, and MDR1 do not appear to play a role in the onset of PBC...
  43. ncbi request reprint From bases to basis: linking genetics to causation in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, San Paolo School of Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:401-10. 2005
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Primary biliary cirrhosis: solving the enigma
    Alessia Giorgini
    Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, San Paolo School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1051:185-93. 2005
    ..In this review, available data and current theories regarding the immunomediated pathogenesis of PBC will be described...
  45. ncbi request reprint X chromosome monosomy: a common mechanism for autoimmune diseases
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, San Paolo School of Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 175:575-8. 2005
    ..These data highlight the thesis that chromosome instability is common to women with SSc and AITD and that haploinsufficiency for X-linked genes may be a critical factor for the female predominance of autoimmune diseases...
  46. ncbi request reprint Mitochondrial antigens as targets of cellular and humoral auto-immunity in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Yasunori Ichiki
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, TB192, Davis, CA, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 28:83-91. 2005
    ..This article reviews the current reports regarding the auto-immune reaction against mitochondrial auto-antigens in PBC...
  47. ncbi request reprint Lack of immunological or molecular evidence for a role of mouse mammary tumor retrovirus in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 95616, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:493-501. 2004
    ..Recent observations, including a pilot clinical trial, have suggested that a human mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) causes primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). We attempted to confirm such data...
  48. ncbi request reprint Primary biliary cirrhosis: does X mark the spot?
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, TB 192 One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Autoimmun Rev 3:493-9. 2004
    ..Such observations appear independent from the degree of cholestasis and specific for PBC. In this review we discuss the implications of these findings and their immunological implications...
  49. ncbi request reprint The enigma of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 28:73-81. 2005
    ....
  50. doi request reprint Serum autoantibodies: a road map for the clinical hepatologist
    Francesca Meda
    Division of Internal Medicine and Liver Unit, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Autoimmunity 41:27-34. 2008
    ..The target of this review article is therefore, to illustrate the current knowledge and available experimental evidence to guide the diagnostic and prognostic decision making in autoimmune and viral chronic liver diseases...
  51. doi request reprint The role of environmental factors in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, University of Milan, Rozzano, Milan 20089, Italy
    Trends Immunol 30:415-20. 2009
    ..Several risk factors have been suggested to be associated with PBC, including exposure to infectious agents and chemical xenobiotics. This review will attempt to place such factors in perspective...
  52. pmc The autoimmunity of primary biliary cirrhosis and the clonal selection theory
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Immunol Cell Biol 89:70-80. 2011
    ..This article will review the current knowledge on PBC etiology and pathogenesis in light of the clonal selection theory developments...
  53. pmc Update on primary biliary cirrhosis
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Division of Internal Medicine and Hepatobiliary Immunopathology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Italy
    Dig Liver Dis 42:401-8. 2010
    ..In this review, we critically summarize the most recent data on the aetiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis, discuss the latest theories and developments, and suggest directions for future research...
  54. ncbi request reprint Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis react against a ubiquitous xenobiotic-metabolizing bacterium
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Hepatology 38:1250-7. 2003
    ..aromaticivorans is a candidate for the induction of PBC...
  55. doi request reprint Anti-mitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Clin Liver Dis 12:173-85, ix. 2008
    ..Anti-nuclear antibodies have been associated repeatedly with more severe disease and are helpful tools in the management of patients who have PBC, particularly those lacking AMA...
  56. ncbi request reprint Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the new epidemic and the need for novel nutritional approaches
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Med Food 10:563-5. 2007
    ..In this article we will attempt to put these concepts in perspective to highlight the need for future research including the use of medicinal food...
  57. doi request reprint The effects of Spirulina on anemia and immune function in senior citizens
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Cell Mol Immunol 8:248-54. 2011
    ..Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in older subjects. We encourage large human studies to determine whether this safe supplement could prove beneficial in randomized clinical trials...
  58. pmc Liver involvement in subjects with rheumatic disease
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Medicine and Autoimmunity and Metabolism Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, University of Milan, Via A Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano MI, Italy
    Arthritis Res Ther 13:226. 2011
    ..We review herein the data on the role of the liver in the clinical management of systemic rheumatic diseases...
  59. ncbi request reprint Preferential X chromosome loss but random inactivation characterize primary biliary cirrhosis
    Monica Miozzo
    Medical Genetics Unit, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Hepatology 46:456-62. 2007
    ....
  60. doi request reprint Is autoimmunity a matter of sex?
    Ana Lleo
    Division of Internal Medicine and Liver Unit, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
    Autoimmun Rev 7:626-30. 2008
    ..We review herein the most recent data on the mechanisms proposed for the female predominance. We also attempt to determine whether observed sex ratios are in fact the result of sex-biased awareness in case-finding studies...
  61. pmc Human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms in Italian primary biliary cirrhosis: a multicenter study of 664 patients and 1992 healthy controls
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Department of Internal Medicine, Istituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Hepatology 48:1906-12. 2008
    ..We suggest that a large whole-genome approach is required to identify further genetic elements contributing to the loss of tolerance in this disease...
  62. ncbi request reprint Genes and goals: an approach to microarray analysis in autoimmunity
    Sabine Oertelt
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Autoimmun Rev 4:414-22. 2005
    ..We also emphasize how, once potential chromosome regions or pathways are identified, specific array design will be a powerful resource when used on large and representative populations...
  63. pmc The epigenetics of autoimmunity
    Francesca Meda
    Department of Medicine and Hepatobiliary Immunopathology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Cell Mol Immunol 8:226-36. 2011
    ..We herein discuss what we currently know and what we expect will come in the next future. Ultimately, epigenetic treatments already being used in oncology may soon prove beneficial also in autoimmune diseases...
  64. ncbi request reprint Interferon alpha and its contribution to autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, 451 E Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6510, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 7:451-6. 2006
    ..Future approaches to IFNalpha modulation as a therapeutic strategy for use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases are also discussed...
  65. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Clin Gastroenterol 38:264-71. 2004
    ..In this review, the available data regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis will be described and discussed...
  66. doi request reprint Late-onset autoimmunity: the paradigm of primary biliary cirrhosis--a mini-review
    Samuel M Siegel
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, Calif CA 95616, USA
    Gerontology 54:193-201. 2008
    ..In this review, we will place the epidemiology of primary biliary cirrhosis in the context of its clinical features and treatment as well as emphasize the future directions to further understand the immunobiology of this disease...
  67. ncbi request reprint The X chromosome and systemic sclerosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Curr Opin Rheumatol 18:601-5. 2006
    ..e. monosomy rates and inactivation patterns) in autoimmunity. We will review herein the most recent data on the role of the X chromosome in systemic sclerosis onset and discuss the potential implications...
  68. ncbi request reprint The immunological milieu of the liver
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Semin Liver Dis 27:129-39. 2007
    ..Herein we review the available data on immune responses in the liver with particular emphasis on the unique structural and functional features of this "lymphoid" organ...
  69. ncbi request reprint Decreased serum leptin levels in primary biliary cirrhosis: a link between metabolism and autoimmunity?
    Roman Rieger
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1051:211-7. 2005
    ..However, further studies are warranted to further characterize the functions of leptin during the natural history of autoimmunity...
  70. doi request reprint The chemical pathway to primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Internal Medicine and Liver Unit, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 36:23-9. 2009
    ..We will review the available evidence in this intriguing and rapidly growing field of research and critically discuss its potential implications...
  71. doi request reprint Skewing of X chromosome inactivation in autoimmunity
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Division of Internal Medicine and Liver Unit, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Autoimmunity 41:272-7. 2008
    ..Future efforts will help to identify specific X chromosome regions containing candidate genes for disease susceptibility...
  72. pmc The prevalence, incidence and natural history of primary sclerosing cholangitis in an ethnically diverse population
    Elaine Toy
    Department of Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA
    BMC Gastroenterol 11:83. 2011
    ..Current epidemiological data are limited to studies of predominantly Caucasian populations. Our aim was to define the epidemiology of PSC in a large, ethnically diverse US population...
  73. pmc Polymorphism of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 and systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension
    Bianca Marasini
    Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Humanitas Clinical Institute, University of Milan, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Clin Dev Immunol 12:275-9. 2005
    ..Further, the 249I allele might be associated with susceptibility to SSc...
  74. pmc The unfinished business of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Internal Medicine and Liver Unit, San Paolo Hospital School of Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
    J Hepatol 49:451-60. 2008
    ..However, this research has still not led to successful translation for specific therapy...
  75. doi request reprint The etiology mystery in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Dig Dis 28:105-15. 2010
    ..Several murine models have been recently reported and include genetically determined ones as well as models induced by immunization with chemicals and bacteria...
  76. doi request reprint Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis do not show post-exercise depression of cortical excitability
    Gabriella Cerri
    Department of Human Physiology, Universita degli Studi, Milan, Italy
    Clin Neurophysiol 121:1321-8. 2010
    ..TMS was utilized herein to investigate if unique cortical excitability changes discriminate women with PBC from healthy controls...
  77. ncbi request reprint Antinuclear antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, San Paolo School of Medicine, University of Milan, Italy
    Semin Liver Dis 25:298-310. 2005
    ..In recent years, the clinical significance of ANA in PBC has been widely investigated and data indicate that, unlike AMAs, PBC-specific ANAs correlate with disease severity and may therefore be a marker of poor prognosis...
  78. ncbi request reprint Frequency of monosomy X in women with primary biliary cirrhosis
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Department of Internal Medicine University of Milan, Via di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan, Italy
    Lancet 363:533-5. 2004
    ..050 (95% CI 0.046-0.055) in women with PBC, 0.032 (0.028-0.036) in those with chronic hepatitis C, and 0.028 (0.025-0.032) in controls. We suggest that haploinsufficiency for specific X-linked genes leads to female susceptibility to PBC...
  79. pmc Clinical features and management of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Andrea Crosignani
    Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Polo Universitario, Ospedale San Paolo, Via di Rudini 8, Milano 20142, Italy
    World J Gastroenterol 14:3313-27. 2008
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma decades after pregnancy
    Pietro Invernizzi
    Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, San Paolo School of Medicine, University of Milan, Via di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan, Italy
    Hum Genet 110:587-91. 2002
    ..This finding has practical implications for non-invasive prenatal diagnoses based on maternal blood, and may be considered for possible pathophysiological correlations...
  81. ncbi request reprint Thyroid dysfunction in women with systemic sclerosis
    Bianca Marasini
    Rheumatology Unit, Humanitas Clinical Institute, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1108:305-11. 2007
    ..2, 95% CI 1.2-14.3, P = 0.035). SSc is not independently associated with an increased risk of thyroid dysfunction, but antithyroid peroxidase antibodies may identify a subset of patients at risk of developing thyroid dysfunction...
  82. pmc Immune-mediated bile duct injury: The case of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Carlo Selmi, Pietro Invernizzi, Division of Internal Medicine and Hepatobiliary Immunopathology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano 20089, Italy
    World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol 1:118-28. 2010
    ..We are convinced that the application of the most recent molecular techniques will soon provide developments in PBC etiology and pathogenesis with likely implications in diagnostics and therapeutics...
  83. pmc Environmental pathways to autoimmune diseases: the cases of primary biliary cirrhosis and multiple sclerosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Medicine and Autoimmunity and Metabolism Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan, Italy
    Arch Med Sci 7:368-80. 2011
    ....
  84. doi request reprint Surgical resection versus laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and Child-Pugh class a liver cirrhosis
    Roberto Santambrogio
    USD di Chirurgia Epato bilio pancreatica, Ospedale Classificato San Giuseppe, Milanocuore SpA, Milan, Italy
    Ann Surg Oncol 16:3289-98. 2009
    ..We thus compared HR or LRFA for short- and long-term outcomes in patients with a single HCC nodule and Child-Pugh class A liver cirrhosis...
  85. doi request reprint The therapeutic potential of epigenetics in autoimmune diseases
    Maria De Santis
    Autoimmunity and Metabolism Unit, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Italy
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 42:92-101. 2012
    ..The most prominent evidence on the association between environment and autoimmunity has been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus, but similar mechanisms were proposed in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes...
  86. doi request reprint Primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Department of Translational Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Lancet 377:1600-9. 2011
    ..Although not a cure, treatment can slow disease progression and delay the need for liver transplantation. However, some patients do not respond adequately to ursodeoxycholic acid and might need alternative therapeutic approaches...
  87. ncbi request reprint Genetic polymorphisms of transforming growth factor beta-1 promoter and primary biliary cirrhosis in Japanese patients
    Kentaro Kikuchi
    Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 213 8507, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1110:15-22. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the TGF-beta1 promoter gene SNPs are not associated with disease susceptibility or progression in Japanese patients with PBC...
  88. ncbi request reprint Small ubiquitin-related modifiers: A novel and independent class of autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Caroline Janka
    Heinrich Pette Institut für experimentelle Virologie und Immunologie and the Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Hepatology 41:609-16. 2005
    ....
  89. pmc Avian models with spontaneous autoimmune diseases
    Georg Wick
    Division of Experimental Pathophysiology and Immunology, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, A 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Adv Immunol 92:71-117. 2006
    ..Special emphasis is given to the new opportunities to unravel the genetic basis of these diseases in view of the recently completed sequencing of the chicken genome...
  90. ncbi request reprint The bile duct cell: a bully or a victim?
    Carlo Selmi
    Liver Transpl 11:878-80. 2005
  91. ncbi request reprint Vaccines in the 21st century: the genetic response and the innocent bystander
    Carlo Selmi
    Autoimmun Rev 4:79-81. 2005
  92. ncbi request reprint Antimitochondrial antibodies and reactivity to N. aromaticivorans proteins in Icelandic patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and their relatives
    Sigurdur Olafsson
    Department of Internal Medicine, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland
    Am J Gastroenterol 99:2143-6. 2004
    ..aromaticivorans might be the trigger of autoimmunity in PBC. No data are available on the specificity and crossreactivity of AMA in a genetically homogenous group of patients, such as the Icelandic population...
  93. ncbi request reprint Primary biliary cirrhosis in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: genetics, epigenetics, and environment
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, 95616, USA
    Gastroenterology 127:485-92. 2004
    ..Accordingly, we evaluated the concordance of PBC in a genetically defined population of twin sets and evaluated the clinical characteristics between concordant subjects...
  94. ncbi request reprint Bacteria and human autoimmunity: the case of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Curr Opin Rheumatol 16:406-10. 2004
    ..Similarly to other autoimmune diseases, microbial mediated molecular mimicry is the most widely studied trigger that may break immunologic tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis...
  95. pmc Geographic clusters of primary biliary cirrhosis
    Saif Abu-Mouch
    Hepatology Clinic, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
    Clin Dev Immunol 10:127-31. 2003
    ..Although these data are anedoctal, the study of a large number of such clusters may provide a tool to estimate the roles of genetics and environment in the induction of autoimmunity...
  96. ncbi request reprint Soluble CD40L in plasma of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis
    Sabine Oertelt
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1051:205-10. 2005
    ..24). We concluded that PBC patients do not exhibit higher plasma concentrations of sCD40L than age-matched controls, a finding common to several autoimmune diseases. Further investigation of the CD40-CD40L system is strongly encouraged...
  97. ncbi request reprint Apocalypsal versus apocryphal: the role of retroviruses in primary biliary cirrhosis
    M Eric Gershwin
    Am J Gastroenterol 99:2356-8. 2004
    ..However, there is limited objective data which can be used to support such a thesis. Until reproducible and mechanistically sound data can be offered, we suggest that pharmaceutical trials are unrealistic and should be discouraged...
  98. ncbi request reprint Common variants of the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (stromelysin) gene promoter in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Carlo Selmi
    Gastroenterology 122:247-8. 2002
  99. doi request reprint Biliary epithelial cells and primary biliary cirrhosis: the role of liver-infiltrating mononuclear cells
    Shinji Shimoda
    Department of Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Hepatology 47:958-65. 2008
    ..Furthermore, the addition of autologous LMNCs to PBC BECs led to the production of higher levels of chemokines and enhanced the expression of CD40 and HLA-DRalpha...
  100. ncbi request reprint One year in autoimmunity
    Carlo Selmi
    Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, GBSF, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Autoimmun Rev 7:85-93. 2007
    ..These data cumulatively support the hypothesis that autoimmunity is multifactorial but that specific diseases cluster together; they also continue to reflect the critical relationships between genetics and environmental triggers...
  101. ncbi request reprint The clinical significance of IgA antimitochondrial antibodies in sera and saliva in primary biliary cirrhosis
    Atsushi Tanaka
    Department of Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2 11 1, Kaga, Itabashi ku, Tokyo 173 8605, Japan
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1107:259-70. 2007
    ....