R Manfredi

Summary

Affiliation: University of Bologna
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. ncbi Limited access to hospitalization in an Italian infectious disease ward
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Med Mal Infect 34:144-7. 2004
  2. ncbi Prospective, open-label comparative study of liver toxicity in an unselected population of HIV-infected patients treated for the first time with efavirenz or nevirapine
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    HIV Clin Trials 6:302-11. 2005
  3. ncbi Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Cancer Detect Prev 30:20-3. 2006
  4. ncbi [The role of a novel antiretroviral class (fusion inhibitors) in the treatment of advanced HIV infection. Preliminary experience with enfuvirtide]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Universita degli Studi di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 96:124-30. 2005
  5. ncbi [Screening of adult patients with fever of unknown origin. A prospective study on the role of primary cytomegalovirus infection]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Divisione di Malattie Infettive, Università di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 97:79-84. 2006
  6. ncbi Primary cytomegalovirus infection in otherwise healthy adults with Fever of unknown origin: a 3-year prospective survey
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Infection 34:87-90. 2006
  7. ncbi Prospective comparison of first-line nelfinavir therapy versus nelfinavir introduction in rescue antiretroviral regimens
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 17:105-14. 2003
  8. ncbi Multiple, severe lung infiltrates due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis: Spontaneous resolution after a two-year follow-up
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 38:469-73. 2006
  9. ncbi [HIV disease, antiretroviral treatment and the liver--emerging problems]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universita degli Studi di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 94:149-53. 2003
  10. ncbi True gynecomastia in congenitally HIV-infected children treated with antiretroviral agents
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Chemother 16:303-5. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications135 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Limited access to hospitalization in an Italian infectious disease ward
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Med Mal Infect 34:144-7. 2004
    ....
  2. ncbi Prospective, open-label comparative study of liver toxicity in an unselected population of HIV-infected patients treated for the first time with efavirenz or nevirapine
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    HIV Clin Trials 6:302-11. 2005
    ....
  3. ncbi Disseminated, lethal prostate cancer during human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting with non-specific features. Open questions for urologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Cancer Detect Prev 30:20-3. 2006
    ....
  4. ncbi [The role of a novel antiretroviral class (fusion inhibitors) in the treatment of advanced HIV infection. Preliminary experience with enfuvirtide]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Universita degli Studi di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 96:124-30. 2005
    ..The management of the very frequent site injection reactions represents an adjunctive problem in the treatment of these multi-problematic patients...
  5. ncbi [Screening of adult patients with fever of unknown origin. A prospective study on the role of primary cytomegalovirus infection]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Divisione di Malattie Infettive, Università di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 97:79-84. 2006
    ..5%) were found to have a primary Cytomegalovirus infection...
  6. ncbi Primary cytomegalovirus infection in otherwise healthy adults with Fever of unknown origin: a 3-year prospective survey
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Infection 34:87-90. 2006
    ..Primary cytomegalovirus disease is probably still underestimated or missed in common clinical practice, and further prevalence studies should be performed, in particular in the setting of fever of under-determined origin (FUO) in adults...
  7. ncbi Prospective comparison of first-line nelfinavir therapy versus nelfinavir introduction in rescue antiretroviral regimens
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 17:105-14. 2003
    ....
  8. ncbi Multiple, severe lung infiltrates due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis: Spontaneous resolution after a two-year follow-up
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 38:469-73. 2006
    ..Moreover, this extraordinary episode resolved spontaneously within the 2-y follow-up, as documented by bronchoalveolar lavage, culture, high-resolution CT scans, and scintigraphic examination...
  9. ncbi [HIV disease, antiretroviral treatment and the liver--emerging problems]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universita degli Studi di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 94:149-53. 2003
    ....
  10. ncbi True gynecomastia in congenitally HIV-infected children treated with antiretroviral agents
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Chemother 16:303-5. 2004
    ..We report the first two cases of true gynecomastia observed in prepubertal congenitally-infected boys, and clinical, antiretroviral, metabolic, hormonal, virological, and immunological aspects...
  11. ncbi Dual Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans fungaemia in an AIDS presenter: a unique disease association in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Med Microbiol 51:1135-7. 2002
    ....
  12. ncbi HIV disease and advanced age: an increasing therapeutic challenge
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Drugs Aging 19:647-69. 2002
    ..Antiretroviral drug dosage adjustment to take into account underlying pathological conditions or other pharmacological treatments is another emerging issue...
  13. ncbi Bladder carcinoma and HIV infection during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: A rare, but intriguing association. Two case reports and literature review
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 38:566-70. 2006
    ..No relationship was found with the very favourable underlying HIV-related virological and immunological status, and the present 8-12-month follow-up did not show disease relapses...
  14. ncbi Gabexate mesilate and/or octreotide in human immunodeficiency virus-associated pancreatic abnormalities
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16:1791-4. 2002
    ....
  15. ncbi A novel antiretroviral class (fusion inhibitors) in the management of HIV infection. Present features and future perspectives of enfuvirtide (T-20)
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Curr Med Chem 13:2369-84. 2006
    ....
  16. ncbi Role of Mycobacterium xenopi disease in patients with HIV infection at the time of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Comparison with the pre-Haart period
    Roberto Manfredi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 83:319-28. 2003
    ....
  17. ncbi Multiple opportunistic AIDS-associated disorders strictly related to immunodeficiency levels, in a girl with congenital HIV infection
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 14:638-9. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi [Limitation of access to an infectious disease ward due to lack of compatible hospital room. A four-year survey, and relevant observations]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Università Alma Mater Studiorum, Ospedale Policlinico S Orsola, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 95:463-6. 2004
    ..This occurrence happened in nearly 25% of patients trasferred from our Hospital from the year 2000...
  19. ncbi Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of AIDS-related Mycobacterium kansasii infection during the HIV pandemic: an 11-year follow-up study
    R Manfredi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum, Bologna, Italy
    HIV Med 5:431-6. 2004
    ..Optimal diagnosis and timely treatment of atypical mycobacteriosis, and especially Mycobacterium kansasii disease, remain a serious challenge for clinicians engaged in the management of the immunocompromised host...
  20. ncbi Severe pneumococcal meningitis heralding a deep hypogammaglobulinaemia related to common variable immunodeficiency, at the age of 27 years
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 36:756-8. 2004
    ..Clinicians should maintain an elevated suspicion for congenital immunodeficiency, especially when observing adult patients with a negligible prior history...
  21. ncbi A decade surveillance study of Mycobacterium xenopi disease and antimicrobial susceptibility levels in a reference teaching hospital of northern Italy: HIV-associated versus non-HIV-associated infection
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
    HIV Clin Trials 5:206-15. 2004
    ....
  22. ncbi Severe staphylococcal knee arthritis responding favourably to linezolid, after glycopeptide-rifampicin failure: a case report and literature review
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 37:513-7. 2005
    ..From a clinical viewpoint, the introduction of a 2-week i.v. linezolid followed by 1 further week of oral linezolid led to complete clinical and microbiological cure, and an unexpected functional success...
  23. ncbi Chron's disease, rare association with selective IgA immunodeficiency, and development of life-threatening bacterial infections
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 36:523-4. 2004
    ..This unexpected association of a chronic bowel inflammatory syndrome with prominent IgA abnormalities and severe bacterial infection deserves careful attention by physicians faced with young patients with Chron's disease...
  24. ncbi HIV infection and advanced age emerging epidemiological, clinical, and management issues
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
    Ageing Res Rev 3:31-54. 2004
    ..Moreover, epidemiological figures need an increased focus on older age, while clinical trials specifically targeting on the elderly population are mandatory to have reliable data on all aspects of HAART administration in advanced age...
  25. ncbi Changing epidemiology of hepatitis A in the Bologna metropolitan area, northern Italy: importance of counselling and prophylactic measures for the male homo/bisexual population
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Clin Microbiol Infect 11:845-8. 2005
    ..0032). There is a need to re-emphasise targeted educational programmes and anti-HAV vaccination for at-risk subjects...
  26. ncbi Efavirenz versus nevirapine in current clinical practice: a prospective, open-label observational study
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 35:492-502. 2004
    ....
  27. ncbi Advanced acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) during HAART-treated HIV disease, manifesting initially as a thyroid mass
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Malpighi General Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 37:781-3. 2005
    ..A such favourable clinical response to acute, advanced myelogenous leukaemia with an insidious recognition is considered infrequent, especially in the setting of HIV disease...
  28. ncbi A case-control study of HIV-associated pancreatic abnormalities during HAART era. Focus on emerging risk factors and specific management
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Eur J Med Res 9:537-44. 2004
    ..The epidemiological and clinical features of HIV-associated pancreatic abnormalities are expected to change after HAART introduction...
  29. ncbi High-risk dysmetabolism disorders associated with HAART-treated HIV disease, and reimbursement of lipid-lowering drugs, in a clinical and a socio-economic perspective
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimetal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS Rev 7:155-60. 2005
    ....
  30. ncbi A re-emerging class of antimicrobial agents: streptogramins (quinupristin/dalfopristin) in the management of multiresistant gram-positive nosocomial cocci in hospital setting
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Mini Rev Med Chem 5:1075-81. 2005
    ....
  31. ncbi AIDS-associated Cryptococcus infection before and after the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: emerging management problems
    Roberto Manfredi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 22:449-52. 2003
    ..Clinical suspicion for HIV-associated cryptococcosis should be maintained in immunocompromised subjects. The introduction of HAART has led to significant clinical and laboratory changes of HIV-related cryptococcosis...
  32. ncbi Severe Candida albicans panophthalmitis treated with all available and potentially effective antifungal drugs: fluconazole, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 38:950-1. 2006
    ....
  33. ncbi A prospective comparison of the two main indications of efavirenz in 2001 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens: first-line versus salvage use
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:723-9. 2002
    ..To determine the efficacy of efavirenz introduction in first-line HAART compared with salvage multidrug regimens...
  34. ncbi The use of efavirenz as a part of late rescue antiretroviral treatment
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    HIV Clin Trials 2:413-20. 2001
    ..Because rescue antiretroviral strategies are increasingly needed, patients' response to a late salvage treatment including efavirenz plus a novel protease inhibitor (PI), with or without at least one novel nucleoside analogue, was assessed...
  35. ncbi Dual nucleoside analogue treatment in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a single-centre cross-sectional survey
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 48:299-302. 2001
    ....
  36. ncbi [Economic burden and clinical course of HIV infection and AIDS today: how the variation of natural history, available treatments, and strictly related costs play a role in needs of health care]
    R Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Università Alma Mater, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 92:648-54. 2001
    ....
  37. ncbi A new syndrome of long-term idiopathic, severe CD4+ lymphocytopenia: isolated paraparesis and conjunctival ischemic microangiopathy
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 18:33-7. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi Lack of change in the distribution of AIDS-defining opportunistic diseases and the related degree of immunodeficiency during the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:410-3. 2001
    ..Even in recent years, the large majority of patients newly diagnosed with AIDS have not been able to take advantage of HAART prior to diagnosis of their disease...
  39. ncbi Limits of deep salvage antiretroviral therapy with nelfinavir plus either efavirenz or nevirapine, in highly pre-treated patients with HIV disease
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, I 40138, Bologna, Italy
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 17:511-6. 2001
    ..However, the concurrent change of nucleoside analogues significantly improves treatment outcome...
  40. ncbi Enterobacter spp. infections complicating the course of HIV disease
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    J Chemother 13:195-201. 2001
    ..Despite the unpredictable antibiotic susceptibility profile of these organisms, HIV-related Enterobacter spp. disease may be properly managed through rapid identification and timely and appropriate antimicrobial treatment...
  41. ncbi Gynecomastia associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    Ann Pharmacother 35:438-9. 2001
    ..To report four cases of HIV-associated gynecomastia diagnosed during treatment with nucleoside analogs with or without protease inhibitors...
  42. ncbi Carpal tunnel syndrome in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: other case reports
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    Rheumatol Int 21:81-3. 2001
    ..In our patients, carpal tunnel syndrome occurred in apparent absence of all presumed risk factors of this disease and metabolic abnormalities potentially related to HIV protease inhibitor administration...
  43. ncbi Epidemiology and microbiology of cellulitis and bacterial soft tissue infection during HIV disease: a 10-year survey
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Cutan Pathol 29:168-72. 2002
    ..Cellulitis and soft tissue infection are underestimated complications of HIV disease...
  44. ncbi Long-term maintenance antiretroviral therapy with saquinavir hard gel, after voluntary abandonment of successful induction HAART
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy
    J Chemother 14:185-8. 2002
    ....
  45. ncbi Emergence of amphotericin B-resistant Cryptococcus laurentii meningoencephalitis shortly after treatment for Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis in a patient with AIDS
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 20:227-32. 2006
    ..All epidemiologic, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic implications are discussed on the basis of the evolving characteristics of opportunism in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  46. ncbi American cutaneous leishmaniasis as a rare imported disease in Europe: a case report favourably treated with antimonial derivatives
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi General Hospital, Italy
    Eur J Epidemiol 17:793-5. 2001
    ....
  47. ncbi [Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and their relationship with sexual behaviour and condom use, in a cohort of teenagers referring to a STD centre. A nine-year, prospective study]
    R Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universit degli Studi di Bologna, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 9:147-53. 2001
    ..Besides their diagnostic and therapeutic role, STD centres are able to carry out permanent monitoring of STD, as a starting point to plan adequate information campaigns and specific prevention strategies...
  48. ncbi [HIV infection and AIDS in advanced age. Epidemiological and clinical issues, and therapeutic and management problems]
    R Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universita degli Studi Alma Mater, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 12:152-73. 2004
    ....
  49. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection: epidemiology, natural history, therapeutic options and clinical management
    G Verucchi
    Dept of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, via G Massarenti 11, I 40138, Bologna, Italy
    Infection 32:33-46. 2004
    ..Available data show that the sustained virological response rates in coinfected persons treated with standard IFN plus ribavirin range from 18-40%, and several studies with pegylated IFN plus ribavirin are ongoing...
  50. pmc HIV disease among immigrants coming to Italy from outside of the European Union: a case-control study of epidemiological and clinical features
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital, Italy
    Epidemiol Infect 127:527-33. 2001
    ..0001), and the shorter mean duration of antiretroviral treatment (11.1 +/- 2.2 months of immigrants vs. 16.2 +/- 6.7 months of controls; P < 0.0001)...
  51. ncbi [Pathogenic role of Acinetobacter spp during HIV infection]
    R Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universit degli Studi di Bologna, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Infez Med 9:43-51. 2001
    ..Notwithstanding the high drug resistance profile of the majority of isolated organisms, a timely diagnosis and a treatment based on in vitro assays, contribute to avoid recurrences and potentially life-threatening complications...
  52. ncbi Cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with HIV-1 infection
    L Calza
    Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Nephrologic Diseases, Section of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 20:683-9. 2009
    ....
  53. ncbi Another emerging event occurring during HIV infection treated with any antiretroviral therapy: frequency and role of gynecomastia
    R Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universita degli Studi di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 12:51-9. 2004
    ..The frequent association with metabolic abnormalities suggests some common ethiologic pathway with other HAART-related disturbances...
  54. ncbi The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia and CMV disease is reduced by highly active antiretroviral therapy
    S Varani
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, Italy
    Eur J Epidemiol 16:433-7. 2000
    ..001, t test)...
  55. doi Efficacy and tolerability of a fosamprenavir-ritonavir-based versus a lopinavir-ritonavir-based antiretroviral treatment in 82 therapy-naïve patients with HIV-1 infection
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 19:541-4. 2008
    ..5% vs. 25.6% and 69.8% vs. 43.6%, respectively; P < 0.01). In subjects with virological failure, no viral protease resistance mutations were detected by genotype analysis...
  56. ncbi [Hyperlactacidemia during antiretroviral therapy: frequency and clinical-therapeutic correlations]
    R Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum, Policlinico S Orsola, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 14:33-6. 2006
    ..Our case-control study on an extensive, single centre population treated for HIV infection provides novel insights on these emerging issues, reported and discussed on the basis of the most recently published findings...
  57. ncbi Rosuvastatin for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia in HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitors: a pilot study
    Leonardo Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS 19:1103-5. 2005
    ..01). In our small pilot study, rosuvastatin was found to be effective for the treatment of PI-associated hyperlipidaemia, in association with a favourable tolerability profile, without significant clinical or laboratory adverse events...
  58. ncbi Clinical and microbiological survey of Serratia marcescens infection during HIV disease
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 19:248-53. 2000
    ..organisms. In fact, a rapid diagnosis and an adequate and timely treatment can avoid disease relapses and mortality...
  59. ncbi Role of gancyclovir and HAART administration in the treatment of a rare complication of HIV disease: cytomegalovirus-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    J Chemother 13:575-7. 2001
    ....
  60. ncbi [HIV genotypic mutation selectively induced by the protease inhibitor nelfinavir at codon 30. Case series and consequences for antiretroviral management]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Università degli Studi Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 10:151-6. 2002
    ....
  61. ncbi First-line efavirenz versus lopinavir-ritonavir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy for naive patients
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS 18:2331-3. 2004
    ..Randomized studies comparing these two recommended first-line treatments are warranted, particularly from a pharmacoeconomic viewpoint...
  62. ncbi Frequency, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical and bacteriological features of enterococcal disease in patients with HIV infection in a decade survey
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, Ospedale Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi
    New Microbiol 25:179-86. 2002
    ..1% of lethal cases among our septic patients)...
  63. ncbi Disseminated histoplasmosis with atypical cutaneous lesions in an Italian HIV-infected patient: another autochtonous case
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    HIV Med 4:145-8. 2003
    ..Our patient represents the fifth autochtonous case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis described in Italy...
  64. ncbi Voriconazole proves effective in long-term treatment of a cerebral cryptococcoma in a chronic nephropathic HIV-negative patient, after fluconazole failure
    S Sabbatani
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Mycopathologia 158:165-71. 2004
    ..A cerebral cryptococcoma in a chronic nephropathic HIV-negative subject with homocystinuria, completely cured with neurosurgery and voriconazole after fluconazole failure, is described...
  65. ncbi An active microbiological surveillance project at an Italian teaching hospital: microbial isolates, recent epidemiological trends, major clinical concerns, and antimicrobial susceptibility rates during a four-year period
    R Manfredi
    Divisione di Malattie Infettive, Alma Mater Studiorum Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 17:219-27. 2009
    ....
  66. ncbi Associated actinomycosis and rhinopharyngeal adenocarcinoma during HIV infection: diagnostic and therapeutic issues
    Sergio Sabbatani
    Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 16:164-72. 2008
    ....
  67. ncbi A puzzling microbiological and clinical discrepancy in the management of acute, severe skin-soft tissue and joint staphylococcal infection. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to glycopeptides, versus in vivo clinical efficacy of linezolid alone
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 14:157-64. 2006
    ..When managing severe multiresistant gram-positive infections, in vitro activity should be carefully evaluated against expected drug penetration rates into the relevant infectious tissues...
  68. ncbi Nevirapine versus efavirenz in 742 patients: no link of liver toxicity with female sex, and a baseline CD4 cell count greater than 250 cells/microl
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS 20:2233-6. 2006
    ....
  69. ncbi Statins and fibrates for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART
    Leonardo Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    AIDS 17:851-9. 2003
    ..The aim of our work is to evaluate the role of statins and fibrates in the management of hyperlipidaemia in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  70. ncbi [Problems in the management of HIV infection in clinical practice. Patients still on dual therapy 8 years after the introduction of HAART]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Universita degli Studi di Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 94:506-7. 2003
    ..Three representative case reports are described, and their implications discussed on the ground of current guidelines of antiretroviral therapy and common clinical practice...
  71. ncbi Linezolid in the treatment of severe central nervous system infections resistant to recommended antimicrobial compounds
    Sergio Sabbatani
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Infez Med 13:112-9. 2005
    ..Three representative case reports (two brain abscesses and one post-surgical meningitis) are presented and discussed in light of the current literature: in all these cases, salvage linezolid treatment proved resolutory...
  72. ncbi [Nocardiosis as the first opportunistic disease in a patient with missed HIV infection. Pathomorphism of presentation, clinical course, and evolution]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Università Alma Mater Studiorum, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 97:262-5. 2006
    ....
  73. ncbi Reversal of major genotypic tipranavir mutations under long-term treatment with tipranavir/ritonavir itself with very limited optimized background, during deep salvage antiretroviral therapy
    Sergio Sabbatani
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Curr HIV Res 7:311-3. 2009
    ....
  74. ncbi [Reduction of antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis in infections of the genitourinary tract]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive e Sezione di Microbiologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Universita degli Studi di Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, Azienda Ospedaliera, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 93:681-2. 2002
    ..As a result, penicillin , ampicillin, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin may still represent first-line agents in our area when community-acquired urinary tract enterococcal infections is of concern, pending in vitro susceptibility studies...
  75. doi Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinaemia and metabolic syndrome among 755 adult patients with HIV-1 infection
    L Calza
    Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Nephrologic Diseases, Section of Infectious Diseases, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 22:43-5. 2011
    ..5% and 9.1%, respectively. A longer exposure to antiretroviral therapy and a diagnosis of lipodystrophy syndrome were significantly associated with both metabolic disturbances...
  76. ncbi Diffuse skin spread of HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis: cumbersome diagnostic and therapeutic issues
    R Manfredi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Aging and Nephrologic Diseases, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 143:339-46. 2008
    ..v. pentamidine isethionate together with oral paromomycin led to a slow, but complete cure of both visceral leishmaniasis and its related skin dissemination, in absence of adverse events and long-term disease relapses...
  77. ncbi [The health professional in the dental/oral field and exposure to risk of infection: epidemiology and prevention]
    R Manfredi
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione Malattie Infettive, Ama Mater Studiorum Università degli Studi di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy
    G Ital Med Lav Ergon 29:11-20. 2007
    ..Epidemiological issues and specific risk factors are treated systematically, together with all available, recommended chemoprophylactic and immunological prophylactic strategies...
  78. ncbi Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and multiple brain abscesses in an immunocompetent host. Favorable response to combination linezolid-meropenem treatment
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater StudiorumUniversity of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Chemother 18:331-3. 2006
  79. doi A very particular case of long-term non-progressor: nineteen consecutive years of follow-up in the absence of any detectable HIV-1 viraemia
    R Manfredi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 19:784-5. 2008
    ....
  80. doi Abacavir-induced reaction with fever and severe skin rash in a patient tested human leukocyte antigen-B*5701 negative
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 20:276-7. 2009
    ..Similar reports suggest that not all severe abacavir-induced adverse events occur as a result of classic hypersensitivity reactions, and can present also in HLA-B*5701-negative patients...
  81. ncbi Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa sacro-iliitis in a previously healthy patient
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    J Med Microbiol 51:620-2. 2002
    ..The first case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sacro-iliitis is described, which occurred in a previously healthy young man, without history of prior traumatic events, hospitalisation or chronic underlying disease...
  82. ncbi Pentamidine isethionate as treatment and secondary prophylaxis for disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis during HIV infection: case report
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    J Chemother 13:653-7. 2001
    ....
  83. ncbi Merkel cell carcinoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 11, 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Br J Dermatol 146:895-8. 2002
    ..A case of this cutaneous malignancy, characterized by a short-term local recurrence and systemic fatal spread in spite of surgical treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is described in a patient with advanced HIV infection...
  84. ncbi Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia as an emerging opportunistic pathogen in association with HIV infection: a 10-year surveillance study
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, via G Massarenti 11, I 40138 Bologna, Italy
    Infection 31:155-61. 2003
    ..At present very limited information is available concerning its clinical significance in the setting of HIV infection...
  85. ncbi Osteonecrosis and highly active antiretroviral therapy during HIV infection: report of a series and literature review
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 15:385-9. 2001
    ..Five cases of osteonecrosis were observed among over 1300 patients with HIV disease. According to our experience, novel antiretroviral regimens do not represent a constant risk factor for avascular necrosis of bone during HIV infection...
  86. ncbi [Anthrax]
    L Calza
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Università Alma Mater, Policlinico S Orsola, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 92:717-26. 2001
    ..Today, after the new events in the United States, at least 17 nations are believed to have offensive biological weapon programs, and this old bacterial infection became a modern menace to world safety...
  87. ncbi Transient reversal of HIV-associated motor neuron disease following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Chemother 16:98-101. 2004
    ..A case of MND in a male HIV-infected patient with significant but transient reversal of neurological symptoms after the use of protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral regimen is described...
  88. ncbi Disorders of lipid metabolism in patients with HIV disease treated with antiretroviral agents: frequency, relationship with administered drugs, and role of hypolipidaemic therapy with bezafibrate
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Infect 42:181-8. 2001
    ..Specific guidelines for the management of disorders of lipid metabolism in HIV-infected patients are needed...
  89. ncbi Iliac osteomyelitis and gluteal muscle abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    J Med Microbiol 50:480-2. 2001
    ....
  90. ncbi [Epidemics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Most recent findings on prion disease]
    L Calza
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 92:140-9. 2001
    ..New epidemiological, clinical, histopathological and experimental data on prion diseases are reviewed, focusing our attention on the possible transmission of prion proteins from animals to humans...
  91. ncbi Switch of protease inhibitor-containing HAART in routine clinical practice: a four-year prospective observational study
    R Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 12:84-8. 2001
    ....
  92. ncbi Development of acute psychotic disorders and HIV-1 infection
    D De Ronchi
    Institute of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Bologna, Italy
    Int J Psychiatry Med 30:173-83. 2000
    ....
  93. ncbi Doxycycline and chloroquine as treatment for chronic Q fever endocarditis
    L Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Infect 45:127-9. 2002
    ..A case of chronic Q fever endocarditis is described in a patient with biological prosthetic aortic valve and aortic homograft, successfully treated with doxycycline and chloroquine for 2 years...
  94. ncbi Need to evaluate the cost effectiveness of early diagnosis and treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis in the setting of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 20:665-7. 2006
  95. ncbi [Therapeutic perspectives of linezolid in the management of infections due to multiresistant Gram-positive pathogens]
    Roberto Manfredi
    Sezione di Malattie Infettive, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica Specialistica e Sperimentale, Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Policlinico S Orsola Malpighi, Bologna
    Recenti Prog Med 98:143-54. 2007
    ....
  96. ncbi Hodgkin's disease in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Leonardo Calza
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 35:136-41. 2003
    ..In this report cases of Hodgkin's disease are described among over 1,000 HIV-infected patients referring to a tertiary care centre during a 6 y study period...
  97. ncbi Clinical ritonavir and lopinavir hypersensitivity confirmed by a specific in vitro cellular allergen stimulation test
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Curr HIV Res 5:440-2. 2007
    ....
  98. ncbi Clozapine-related agranulocytosis associated with fever of unknown origin, protective hospitalisation, and multiple adverse events related to the administration of empiric antimicrobial treatment
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:1285-9. 2007
    ....
  99. ncbi Prolonged statin administration does not act on the cell-mediated immunity of HIV-infected dyslipidemic patients treated with a steady and effective highly active antiretroviral therapy. A two-year prospective study of statin versus fibrate administration
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, Alma Mater Studiorum, S Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 20:1-9. 2006
    ....
  100. doi HIV infection and the pancreas: risk factors and potential management guidelines
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Int J STD AIDS 19:99-105. 2008
    ..single (gabexate mesilate or ocreotide) therapy. Reduced disease recurrences and a better tolerability of antiretroviral regimens, were also noticed...
  101. ncbi Associated thyreoiditis, myasthenia gravis, thymectomy, Chron's disease, and erythema nodosum: pathogenetic and clinical correlations, immune system involvement, and systemic infectious complications
    Roberto Manfredi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
    Rheumatol Int 28:1173-5. 2008
    ....