E Bergamini

Summary

Affiliation: University of Pisa
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Autophagy: a cell repair mechanism that retards ageing and age-associated diseases and can be intensified pharmacologically
    Ettore Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Mol Aspects Med 27:403-10. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Targets for antiageing drugs
    Ettore Bergamini
    University of Pisa, Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 9:77-82. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint The third European congress on biogerontology: the biogerontological basis of preventive medicine and geriatric practice
    E Bergamini
    Dept de Patalogia sperimentale Biotechnologie Mediche, Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento of the University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, Pisa 56126, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 38:1213-6. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint The role of autophagy in aging: its essential part in the anti-aging mechanism of caloric restriction
    Ettore Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale Scuola Medica, Via Roma 55, 56123 Pisa, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1114:69-78. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint The protection of rat liver autophagic proteolysis from the age-related decline co-varies with the duration of anti-ageing food restriction
    G Cavallini
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, Via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 36:497-506. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Age-related changes in the autophagic proteolysis of rat isolated liver cells: effects of antiaging dietary restrictions
    A Donati
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia ed Epidemiologia, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:B375-83. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Ageing and oxidative stress: a role for dolichol in the antioxidant machinery of cell membranes?
    E Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Pisa, Italy
    J Alzheimers Dis 6:129-35. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Effects of ageing and increased haemolysis on the levels of dolichol in rat spleen
    B Dini
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, University of Pisa, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, Via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 37:99-105. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint The role of macroautophagy in the ageing process, anti-ageing intervention and age-associated diseases
    E Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, University of Pisa, Scuola Medica, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2392-404. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Effects of low-dose VOSO(4) on age-related changes in glucose homeostasis in rats
    V De Tata
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Via Roma, 55 Scuola Medica, 56100, Pisa, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 398:169-75. 2000

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. ncbi request reprint Autophagy: a cell repair mechanism that retards ageing and age-associated diseases and can be intensified pharmacologically
    Ettore Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Mol Aspects Med 27:403-10. 2006
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Targets for antiageing drugs
    Ettore Bergamini
    University of Pisa, Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 9:77-82. 2005
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint The third European congress on biogerontology: the biogerontological basis of preventive medicine and geriatric practice
    E Bergamini
    Dept de Patalogia sperimentale Biotechnologie Mediche, Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento of the University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, Pisa 56126, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 38:1213-6. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint The role of autophagy in aging: its essential part in the anti-aging mechanism of caloric restriction
    Ettore Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale Scuola Medica, Via Roma 55, 56123 Pisa, Italy
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1114:69-78. 2007
    ..It is concluded that the pharmacologic intensification of autophagy (PISA treatment) has anti-aging effects and might prove to be a big step toward retardation of aging and prevention of age-associated diseases in humans...
  5. ncbi request reprint The protection of rat liver autophagic proteolysis from the age-related decline co-varies with the duration of anti-ageing food restriction
    G Cavallini
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, Via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 36:497-506. 2001
    ..It is concluded that the data are compatible with the hypothesis that AP and improved membrane maintenance might be involved in the antiageing mechanism of CR...
  6. ncbi request reprint Age-related changes in the autophagic proteolysis of rat isolated liver cells: effects of antiaging dietary restrictions
    A Donati
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia ed Epidemiologia, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:B375-83. 2001
    ..It is suggested that improved liver autophagy and lysosomal degradation might be part of the antiaging mechanisms of DR...
  7. ncbi request reprint Ageing and oxidative stress: a role for dolichol in the antioxidant machinery of cell membranes?
    E Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Pisa, Italy
    J Alzheimers Dis 6:129-35. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Effects of ageing and increased haemolysis on the levels of dolichol in rat spleen
    B Dini
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, University of Pisa, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, Via Roma 55, 56126, Pisa, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 37:99-105. 2001
    ..Free-radical mediated decomposition of dolichol by phagocytic cells during erythrophagocytosis might be involved in the process...
  9. ncbi request reprint The role of macroautophagy in the ageing process, anti-ageing intervention and age-associated diseases
    E Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, University of Pisa, Scuola Medica, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2392-404. 2004
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Effects of low-dose VOSO(4) on age-related changes in glucose homeostasis in rats
    V De Tata
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Via Roma, 55 Scuola Medica, 56100, Pisa, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 398:169-75. 2000
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Effect of aging and anti-aging caloric restriction on the endocrine regulation of rat liver autophagy
    Alessio Donati
    Universita di Pisa, Centro di Ricerca Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Roma 55, Pisa, Italy 56126
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 63:550-5. 2008
    ..Both DR and EOD maintain the sensitivity to glucagon at juvenile levels, whereas only EOD can fully maintain response to insulin. It is concluded that changes in the sensitivity to glucagon may have a role in the aging process...
  12. ncbi request reprint Insulin secretory function is impaired in isolated human islets carrying the Gly(972)-->Arg IRS-1 polymorphism
    Piero Marchetti
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Metabolic Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Diabetes 51:1419-24. 2002
    ..These alterations may account for the increased predisposition to type 2 diabetes in individuals carrying the Gly(972)-->Arg amino acid polymorphism of IRS-1...
  13. ncbi request reprint Towards an understanding of the anti-aging mechanism of caloric restriction
    Gabriella Cavallini
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Scuola Medica, Via Roma 55 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Curr Aging Sci 1:4-9. 2008
    ..I.S.A. treatment) by the stimulation of autophagy might prove to be a big step towards retardation of aging and prevention of age-associated diseases in humans...
  14. ncbi request reprint Anti-aging effects of anti-lipolytic drugs
    Alessio Donati
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale sull Invecchiamento, Universita di Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 39:1061-7. 2004
    ..Speculation is that transiently lower plasma insulin levels might stimulate the anti-aging cell-repair mechanism autophagy, which has longer lasting effects on cell housekeeping...
  15. ncbi request reprint Stimulation of macroautophagy can rescue older cells from 8-OHdG mtDNA accumulation: a safe and easy way to meet goals in the SENS agenda
    Alessio Donati
    Center for Research on Biology and Pathology of Aging, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Rejuvenation Res 9:408-12. 2006
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Prolonged exposure to free fatty acids has cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects on human pancreatic islets: evidence that beta-cell death is caspase mediated, partially dependent on ceramide pathway, and Bcl-2 regulated
    Roberto Lupi
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Diabetes 51:1437-42. 2002
    ..The cytostatic action is likely to be due to the FFA-induced reduction of intraislet glucose metabolism, and the proapoptotic effects are mostly caspase mediated, partially dependent on ceramide pathway, and possibly Bcl-2 regulated...
  17. doi request reprint Methods for inducing and monitoring liver autophagy relative to aging and antiaging caloric restriction in rats
    Alessio Donati
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Universita di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Methods Enzymol 452:441-55. 2009
    ..The effects of aging on autophagic proteolysis and on amino acid and hormone control can also be assessed by measuring the rate of the 3-methyladenine-sensitive valine released from isolated liver cells incubated in vitro...
  18. ncbi request reprint The anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction may involve stimulation of macroautophagy and lysosomal degradation, and can be intensified pharmacologically
    E Bergamini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, University of Pisa, Scuola Medica, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Biomed Pharmacother 57:203-8. 2003
    ..It is shown that the life-long weekly administration of an anti-lipolytic drug may decrease glucose and insulin levels and stimulate autophagy and intensify anti-ageing effects of submaximal CR...
  19. ncbi request reprint The antilipolytic agent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole inhibits insulin release in response to both nutrient secretagogues and cyclic adenosine monophosphate agonists in isolated rat islets
    P Masiello
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Metabolism 51:110-4. 2002
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint The fate of dolichol in rat cells and tissues
    Gabriella Cavallini
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Biogerontology 4:347-51. 2003
    ..No significant net redistribution of D was observed from the transplanted older heart to liver and tissues of younger recipients. In conclusion, phagocytosis appears to be the only process resulting in the disposal of tissue D...
  21. ncbi request reprint Evidence for selective mitochondrial autophagy and failure in aging
    Gabriella Cavallini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Universita di Pisa, Via Roma 55, Pisa 56126, Italy
    Autophagy 3:26-7. 2007
    ..Together, these data provide indirect evidence that 8-OHdG might accumulate in a small pool of mitochondria with increasing age rather than be degraded by the autophagic machinery selectively...
  22. ncbi request reprint The age-related accumulation of dolichol in rat liver may correlate with expectation of life
    Chiara Dolfi
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Biogerontology 4:113-8. 2003
    ..The conclusion is that assay of the quantity of dolichol in the liver tissue may be used as a marker of the biological age of the animal and therefore as an important biomarker of ageing...
  23. doi request reprint Deficiency and supplementation of PUFA in the diet have similar effects on the age-associated changes in rat-plasma cholesterol levels
    Sara Straniero
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Universita di Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Mech Ageing Dev 129:759-62. 2008
    ..Surprisingly, both diets counteracted the age-associated changes in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides similarly and benefits were already visible in adult rats...
  24. ncbi request reprint Effects of life-long exercise on circulating free fatty acids and muscle triglyceride content in ageing rats
    Michela Novelli
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, B M I E, University of Pisa, Via Roma, 55 Scuola Medica, Pisa I 56126, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 39:1333-40. 2004
    ..Forced training or moderate food restriction appear slightly less effective than voluntary exercise in preventing age-dependent alterations in nutrient distribution and/or utilization...
  25. doi request reprint Stimulation of autophagy by antilipolytic drugs may rescue rodents from age-associated hypercholesterolemia
    Sara Straniero
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Universita di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Rejuvenation Res 12:77-84. 2009
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Accumulation of dolichol in older tissues satisfies the proposed criteria to be qualified a biomarker of aging
    Ilaria Parentini
    Centro di Ricerca di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Via Roma 55 Scuola Medica, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60:39-43. 2005
    ..In this article, we show applications to the study of host-graft interaction and detection of gender-related differences in biological age, and we discuss mechanism(s) of accumulation...
  27. ncbi request reprint In vivo effect of an antilipolytic drug (3,5'-dimethylpyrazole) on autophagic proteolysis and autophagy-related gene expression in rat liver
    Alessio Donati
    Centro di ricerca di Biologia e Patologia, dell Invecchiamento, dell Università di Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 366:786-92. 2008
    ..In conclusion, antilipolytic drugs may induce both autophagic proteolysis and higher expression of an autophagy-related gene and the effect on autophagy gene expression might not be secondary to the stimulation of autophagic proteolysis...
  28. ncbi request reprint Dolichol levels in younger and older rat hearts heterotopically transplanted in younger recipients
    Gabriella Cavallini
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia, University of Pisa, Italy
    Lipids 37:913-6. 2002
    ..No changes in D were observed in recipients' tissues. It is concluded that dolichol is not redistributed via circulation from the transplanted heart to the tissues and liver of the younger recipient...
  29. ncbi request reprint Ageing-related changes in the in vivo function of rat liver macroautophagy and proteolysis
    Alessandra Del Roso
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento dell Università di Pisa, 56123, Pisa, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 38:519-27. 2003
    ..Data may support the hypothesis that ad libitum feeding accelerates the rate of ageing by raising insulin plasma levels and suppressing autophagy and membrane maintenance, and that calorie restriction may break this vicious circle...
  30. pmc Science fact and the SENS agenda. What can we reasonably expect from ageing research?
    Huber Warner
    Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, CA, USA
    EMBO Rep 6:1006-8. 2005
  31. ncbi request reprint Insulin, food restriction and the extension of lifespan: the mechanism of longevity
    Ettore Bergamini
    Eur J Endocrinol 150:95. 2004
  32. ncbi request reprint Caloric restrictions affect some factors involved in age-related hypercholesterolemia
    Chiara Martini
    Department of Biology, University of Rome Roma Tre, 446 Viale Marconi, 00146 Rome, Italy
    J Cell Biochem 101:235-43. 2007
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms underlying the impaired regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in aged rat liver
    Valentina Pallottini
    Department of Biology, University Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy
    Mech Ageing Dev 125:633-9. 2004
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that a different arrangement of the HMG-CoA reductase membrane domain in aged rats is a cause of reductase deregulation...
  34. ncbi request reprint Modified HMG-CoA reductase and LDLr regulation is deeply involved in age-related hypercholesterolemia
    Valentina Pallottini
    Department of Biology, University of Rome Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy
    J Cell Biochem 98:1044-53. 2006
    ..The SREBP-2 in particular seems to be committed in multiple way to gene transcription. The obtained data represent a good contribution to explain the age-related hypercholesterolemia...
  35. ncbi request reprint Peripheral lymphocyte 8-OHdG levels correlate with age-associated increase of tissue oxidative DNA damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. Protective effects of caloric restriction
    Federica I Wolf
    Institute of General Pathology and Giovanni XXIII Cancer Research Center, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L go F Vito, 1 Rome, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 40:181-8. 2005
    ..Immunohistochemistry might be exploited as a rapid and simple techniques for measuring lymphocytes oxidative DNA damage in large scale studies...
  36. ncbi request reprint Molecular mechanisms of calorie restriction's protection against age-related sclerosis
    Elena Chiarpotto
    Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Torino, Italy
    IUBMB Life 58:695-702. 2006
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Calorie restriction protects against age-related rat aorta sclerosis
    Laura Castello
    Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Italy
    FASEB J 19:1863-5. 2005
    ..The protection exerted by CR against fibrosclerosis might be due to a decrease of oxidative stress, with consequent decreased MAPK activity and down-regulation of AP-1 activation and of TGFbeta1 expression and signaling...
  38. ncbi request reprint Effects of dietary restriction on age-related changes in the phospholipid fatty acid composition of various rat tissues
    Ilaria Tamburini
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento, Pisa, Italy
    Aging Clin Exp Res 16:425-31. 2004
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Age-related changes of cholesterol and dolichol biosynthesis in rat liver
    Maria Marino
    Department of Biology, University Roma Tre, V le Marconi 446, 00146, Rome, Italy
    Mech Ageing Dev 123:1183-9. 2002
    ..In addition, the liver of aged rats maintains the capability to regulate its Chol content and to modify Chol delivery into the blood...
  40. ncbi request reprint Low level dietary restriction retards age-related dolichol accumulation
    Gabriella Cavallini
    Aging Clin Exp Res 14:152-4. 2002
  41. ncbi request reprint Changes in dolichol and pentosidine levels in the age-mismatched heterotopically transplanted rat heart
    Gabriella Cavallini
    Department of Experimental Pathology, The University of Genova, Italy
    Biogerontology 5:383-8. 2004
    ....
  42. doi request reprint Age-related changes in endothelin-1 receptor subtypes in rat heart
    Silvia Del Ry
    CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biochemistry, Pisa, Italy
    Exp Aging Res 34:251-66. 2008
    ..These findings indicate an alteration in ET-1 cardiac receptors associated with aging, mainly due to a variation in the receptor subtype distribution...
  43. ncbi request reprint Autophagy and aging: the importance of maintaining "clean" cells
    Ana Maria Cuervo
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    Autophagy 1:131-40. 2005
    ..Dietary caloric restriction and antilipolytic agents have been proven to efficiently stimulate autophagy in old rodents. These and other possible experimental restorative efforts are discussed...
  44. ncbi request reprint 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase deregulation and age-related hypercholesterolemia: a new role for ROS
    Valentina Pallottini
    Department of Biology, University of Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy
    Mech Ageing Dev 126:845-51. 2005
    ..Thus, our data show full correlation between ROS production and increased HMGCoAR activity. The possible therapeutic implications of these results are discussed...
  45. ncbi request reprint Age-related HMG-CoA reductase deregulation depends on ROS-induced p38 activation
    Valentina Pallottini
    Department of Biology, University of Rome Roma Tre, Viale Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy
    Mech Ageing Dev 128:688-95. 2007
    ..Thus, in this work, we have performed a study of HMG-CoAR by analyzing the enzymes involved in its short-term regulation, namely, AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)...
  46. ncbi request reprint Dolichol: an essential part in the antioxidant machinery of cell membranes?
    Ettore Bergamini
    Biogerontology 4:337-9. 2003
  47. ncbi request reprint In response to: "Is there an antiaging medicine?"
    Ettore Bergamini
    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58:483. 2003
  48. ncbi request reprint Low-level caloric restriction rescues proteasome activity and Hsc70 level in liver of aged rats
    Mara A Bonelli
    Sezione di Patologia Molecolare ed Immunologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy
    Biogerontology 9:1-10. 2008
    ..In conclusion, the results presented in this work show that a mild CR can have beneficial effects on liver function of aging rats because is adequate to counteract the decrease of proteasome function and Hsc70 chaperone level...
  49. ncbi request reprint Effect of a caloric restriction regimen on the angiogenic capacity of aorta and on the expression of endothelin-1 during ageing
    Floriana Facchetti
    Department of Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Milan, Italy
    Exp Gerontol 42:662-7. 2007
    ..Interestingly, the mRNA ET-1 levels as well as ET-1 expression in aorta sprouting decreases both in middle and in aged animals. Mild and severe caloric restriction regimens prevents ET-1 changes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Effect of increasing age on tissue dolichol levels in ad libitum fed and food-restricted rats
    Gabriella Cavallini
    Dipartimento di Patologia Sperimentale, Biotecnologie Mediche, Infettivologia e Epidemiologia University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
    Biogerontology 4:341-5. 2003
    ..In conclusion, these data show that the quantity of dolichol in the hepatic tissue might be used as a marker of the biological age of the animal...
  51. ncbi request reprint Effects of oxidative stress on the Dolichol content of isolated rat liver cells
    Monica Guarini
    Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale di Biologia e Patologia dell Invecchiamento dell Università di Pisa, Italy
    Free Radic Res 41:1283-8. 2007
    ..In conclusion, an increase in oxidative stress possibly caused a rapid degradation of dolichol by the same (unknown) mechanism responsible for the breakdown of Ubiquinone isoprenoid chains...