Adriano Lazzarin

Summary

Affiliation: San Raffaele Scientific Institute
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. pmc Raltegravir in treatment naive patients
    F Cossarini
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milano, Italy
    Eur J Med Res 14:22-9. 2009
  2. pmc Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in HIV infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Francesca Ferretti
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy
    BMC Infect Dis 11:343. 2011
  3. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of enfuvirtide in patients infected with drug-resistant HIV-1 in Europe and Australia
    Adriano Lazzarin
    Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, San Raffaele Vita Salute University, Milan, Italy
    N Engl J Med 348:2186-95. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Enfuvirtide: the first HIV fusion inhibitor
    Adriano Lazzarin
    Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20127 Milano, Italy
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 6:453-64. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of TMC125 (etravirine) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in DUET-2: 24-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Adriano Lazzarin
    Vita Salute, San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    Lancet 370:39-48. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Lamivudine monotherapy in HIV-1-infected patients harbouring a lamivudine-resistant virus: a randomized pilot study (E-184V study)
    Antonella Castagna
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 20:795-803. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint The 118I reverse transcriptase mutation is the only independent genotypic predictor of virologic failure to a stavudine-containing salvage therapy in HIV-1-infected patients
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:447-52. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Redistribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants resistant to protease inhibitors after a protease inhibitor-sparing regimen
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:545-54. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Ability of different lopinavir genotypic inhibitory quotients to predict 48-week virological response in highly treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    J Med Virol 78:1537-41. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Rate of cirrhosis progression reduced in HIV/HCV co-infected non-responders to anti-HCV therapy
    Anna De Bona
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Universita Vita Salute, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 30:259-64. 2007

Detail Information

Publications147 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Raltegravir in treatment naive patients
    F Cossarini
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milano, Italy
    Eur J Med Res 14:22-9. 2009
    ..Only time and experience, however, will tell us whether raltegravir will maintain its promises in the long run...
  2. pmc Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in HIV infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Francesca Ferretti
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy
    BMC Infect Dis 11:343. 2011
    ..In the context of HIV infection, R.equi infection (rhodococcosis) is regarded as an opportunistic disease, and its outcome is influenced by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  3. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of enfuvirtide in patients infected with drug-resistant HIV-1 in Europe and Australia
    Adriano Lazzarin
    Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, San Raffaele Vita Salute University, Milan, Italy
    N Engl J Med 348:2186-95. 2003
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Enfuvirtide: the first HIV fusion inhibitor
    Adriano Lazzarin
    Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20127 Milano, Italy
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 6:453-64. 2005
    ..Targeting viral fusion or entry will hopefully provide respite for patients who have limited treatment options following the emergence of multi-drug resistance...
  5. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of TMC125 (etravirine) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in DUET-2: 24-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Adriano Lazzarin
    Vita Salute, San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    Lancet 370:39-48. 2007
    ..The aim of DUET-2 is to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of TMC125 in treatment-experienced patients...
  6. ncbi request reprint Lamivudine monotherapy in HIV-1-infected patients harbouring a lamivudine-resistant virus: a randomized pilot study (E-184V study)
    Antonella Castagna
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 20:795-803. 2006
    ..We compared the immunological and clinical outcomes of lamivudine monotherapy and complete therapy interruption in the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients harbouring lamivudine-resistant virus...
  7. ncbi request reprint The 118I reverse transcriptase mutation is the only independent genotypic predictor of virologic failure to a stavudine-containing salvage therapy in HIV-1-infected patients
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:447-52. 2006
    ..0001). The multivariable analysis showed that the 118I mutation (P = 0.04) was the only independent genotypic predictor of failing on a stavudine- containing highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  8. ncbi request reprint Redistribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants resistant to protease inhibitors after a protease inhibitor-sparing regimen
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:545-54. 2005
    ..In highly PI-experienced patients, a PI-sparing regimen may lead to a reduction, no change, or increase in the number of PI mutations. The reduction is negligible in most cases...
  9. ncbi request reprint Ability of different lopinavir genotypic inhibitory quotients to predict 48-week virological response in highly treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    J Med Virol 78:1537-41. 2006
    ..All of the GIQs were independent predictors of the 48-week virological response. The predictive value of the GIQ for lopinavir/ritonavir may vary depending on the algorithm used to score drug resistance...
  10. ncbi request reprint Rate of cirrhosis progression reduced in HIV/HCV co-infected non-responders to anti-HCV therapy
    Anna De Bona
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Universita Vita Salute, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 30:259-64. 2007
    ..024), and altered ALP values (p = 0.012). Peg-IFN therapy seems to slow down the rate of cirrhosis progression also in HIV/HCV co-infected patients nonresponders to anti-HCV therapy, in comparison with untreated patients...
  11. doi request reprint Viro-immunological dynamics in HIV-1-infected subjects receiving once-a-week emtricitabine to delay treatment change after failure: a pilot randomised trial
    Alessandro Soria
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Virol 47:253-7. 2010
    ..In HIV-1-infected patients harbouring the M184V mutation (M184V), lamivudine monotherapy leads to a smaller decrease in CD4 percentages (CD4%) than treatment interruption, possibly due to the reduced fitness of the mutated virus...
  12. ncbi request reprint The NIQ of lopinavir is predictive of a 48-week virological response in highly treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected subjects treated with a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimen
    Antonella Castagna
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    Antivir Ther 9:537-43. 2004
    ..To investigate the normalized inhibitory quotient (NIQ) of lopinavir (LPV) as a predictor of 48-week virological responses to a lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV)-containing regimen in highly treatment-experienced patients...
  13. ncbi request reprint Favorable outcome of ex-vivo purging of monocytes after the reintroduction of treatment after interruption in patients infected with multidrug resistant HIV-1
    Hamid Hasson
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Infectious Diseases Clinic, Milano, Italy
    J Med Virol 79:1640-9. 2007
    ..021). A consistent decrease of HIV DNA load in CD14+ purified cells was observed only in treatment interruption + MYP patients. These data suggest that MYP can improve the immunological and virological response to treatment interruption...
  14. ncbi request reprint Steady-state pharmacokinetics of atazanavir given alone or in combination with saquinavir hard-gel capsules or amprenavir in HIV-1-infected patients
    Elena Seminari
    Infectious Disease Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita Salute University, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20122 Milan, Italy
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 61:545-9. 2005
    ..The aim of this pilot study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of atazanavir (ATV) when given in combination with amprenavir (APV) or saquinavir hard-gel capsules (SQV) to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients...
  15. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of atazanavir Ctrough, atazanavir genotypic inhibitory quotient, and baseline HIV genotype as predictors of a 24-week virological response in highly drug-experienced, HIV-infected patients treated with unboosted atazanavir
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 28:119-25. 2005
    ..In conclusion, the number of ATV resistance mutations is the only correlate to virological response through 24 weeks of treatment with unboosted atazanavir 400 mg once daily...
  16. ncbi request reprint Prognostic significance of JC virus DNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    Simona Bossolasco
    Division of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Clin Infect Dis 40:738-44. 2005
    ..Although one-half of patients with this disease will survive, the outcome is unpredictable at diagnosis, and prognostic markers are needed...
  17. ncbi request reprint Predictors of sustained response to therapy resumption after treatment interruption in HIV-infected patients failing antiretroviral therapy
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    J Med Virol 72:181-6. 2004
    ..A sustained virologic response to therapy resumption after treatment interruption can be achieved in the setting of virologic failure. An evaluation of clinical history may help to identify the patients who are more likely to respond...
  18. doi request reprint Predicting the magnitude of short-term CD4+ T-cell recovery in HIV-infected patients during first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Antonella Castagna
    Infectious Diseases Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Antivir Ther 15:165-75. 2010
    ..The extent of short-term CD4(+) T-cell recovery in patients tolerating first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and attaining undetectable HIV RNA levels is inadequately defined...
  19. ncbi request reprint Selective increase in serum IgE following enfuvirtide administration in HIV-1 infected multidrug resistant patients
    Hamid Hasson
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 29:223-30. 2006
    ..The immunological response associated with ENF treatment is accompanied by a selective increase in IgE levels. Determination of IgE could be used in the monitoring ISRs associated with ENE..
  20. ncbi request reprint Resistance to amprenavir before and after treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir in highly protease inhibitor-experienced HIV patients
    Hamid Hasson
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 18:123-7. 2004
    ..Treatment with LPV/r can select for the 50 V mutation. In this setting, significant differences in the inference of the amprenavir phenotype from genotype were observed when using different algorithms...
  21. doi request reprint Survival of HIV-1 infected multidrug-resistant patients recycling enfuvirtide after a previous failure
    Francesca Cossarini
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:179-84. 2009
    ..We evaluated long-term survival in multidrug-resistant patients recycling ENF after a previous failure...
  22. ncbi request reprint Comparison of a commercial and an in-house T cell-based assay for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Paola Mantegani
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 30:291-4. 2007
    ..The results showed an almost complete concordance between the two assays, confirming that our restricted but highly selected pool of peptides is sufficient to detect tuberculosis infection...
  23. ncbi request reprint Boosted or unboosted atazanavir as a simplification of lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimens
    Antonella Castagna
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 36:239-49. 2013
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Switching to unboosted atazanavir improves glucose tolerance in highly pretreated HIV-1 infected subjects
    Monica Guffanti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy
    Eur J Endocrinol 156:503-9. 2007
    ..To evaluate the 24-week effects on glucose tolerance of switching from a protease inhibitor (PI)-based to an unboosted atazanavir-including regimen in highly pretreated HIV-1 infected subjects with metabolic alterations...
  25. ncbi request reprint Escape of monocyte-derived dendritic cells of HIV-1 infected individuals from natural killer cell-mediated lysis
    Silvana Tasca
    Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Diagnostica e Ricerca San Raffaele S p A, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 17:2291-8. 2003
    ..To verify whether the in vitro sensitivity of immature dendritic cells (iDC) to lysis by autologous natural killer (NK) cells from HIV-infected individuals might be correlated with HIV disease progression...
  26. ncbi request reprint Does cyclosporin A affect CCR5 and CXCR4 expression in primary HIV-1-infected patients?
    Priscilla Biswas
    Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 72:433-41. 2007
    ..A longitudinal study of the coreceptors' expression in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with primary HIV infection (PHI) was performed...
  27. doi request reprint Raltegravir, maraviroc, etravirine: an effective protease inhibitor and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen for salvage therapy in HIV-infected patients with triple-class experience
    Silvia Nozza
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Italy
    AIDS 24:924-8. 2010
    ..Although long-term safety needs further study, this protease inhibitor and nucleoside analogue-sparing regimen showed sustained efficacy...
  28. ncbi request reprint Long-term virological effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on cerebrospinal fluid and relationship with genotypic resistance
    Arabella Bestetti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy
    J Neurovirol 10:52-7. 2004
    ..Virological failure in CSF was associated with failure to respond in plasma and onset of new drug resistance mutations in both compartments...
  29. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 replication capacity and genotype changes in patients undergoing treatment interruption or lamivudine monotherapy
    Nicola Gianotti
    Divisione di Malattie Infettive, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    J Med Virol 80:201-8. 2008
    ..The de-selection of the 184V mutation predicts independently a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio...
  30. doi request reprint Changes in darunavir/r resistance score after previous failure to tipranavir/r in HIV-1-infected multidrug-resistant patients
    Vincenzo Spagnuolo
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 50:192-5. 2009
    ..To evaluate changes in resistance to tipranavir/r (TPV/r) and darunavir/r (DRV/r) in patients who had failed a TPV/r-including regimen...
  31. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral genotypic resistance in plasma RNA and whole blood DNA in HIV-1 infected patients failing HAART
    Annalisa Saracino
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
    J Med Virol 80:1695-706. 2008
    ..Therefore, in some cases DNA plus RNA genotyping might assist in choosing more accurately subsequent antiretroviral regimens...
  32. doi request reprint Unexpected dramatic increase in CD4+ cell count in a patient with AIDS after enfuvirtide treatment despite persistent viremia and resistance mutations
    Alessandro Soria
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Med Virol 80:937-41. 2008
    ..A complex interplay of viral and host factors, including the control of X4 viruses and proviral burden, may favor immune restoration with HIV neutralizing activity, despite persistent viremia...
  33. ncbi request reprint Impact of a treatment including tenofovir plus didanosine on the selection of the 65R mutation in highly drug-experienced HIV-infected patients
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 18:2205-8. 2004
    ..After a median of 26 weeks of treatment, two patients (10%) selected the 65R mutation. These results support the hypothesis that NEM hinder the selection of this mutation...
  34. ncbi request reprint Comparison of a rule-based algorithm with a phenotype-based algorithm for the interpretation of HIV genotypes in guiding salvage regimens in HIV-infected patients by a randomized clinical trial: the mutations and salvage study
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinica di Malattie Infettive, Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1470-80. 2006
    ..There is still considerable uncertainty as to the best algorithm for interpreting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotyping results...
  35. doi request reprint Cross-resistance profile of the novel integrase inhibitor Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) using clonal viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir
    Filippo Canducci
    Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Laboratory of Virology and Microbiology, Milan, Italy
    J Infect Dis 204:1811-5. 2011
    ..However, viruses with mutation Q148R associated with secondary mutations and the combination Q148H+G140S were instead associated with a reduced level of susceptibility to dolutegravir in vitro...
  36. ncbi request reprint Ganciclovir is associated with low or undetectable Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-related primary central nervous system lymphoma
    Simona Bossolasco
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
    Clin Infect Dis 42:e21-5. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ganciclovir on EBV DNA replication in patients with HIV-related PCNSL...
  37. ncbi request reprint Four-year outcome of a PI and NRTI-sparing salvage regimen: maraviroc, raltegravir, etravirine
    Silvia Nozza
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 37:145-51. 2014
    ..301), lymphocytes (p=0.207) and creatinine (p<0.0001). In highly treatment-experienced patients the maraviroc, raltegravir and etravirine combination is associated with a good long-term efficacy and safety profile...
  38. pmc Perturbation of the natural killer cell compartment during primary human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection primarily involving the CD56 bright subset
    Paola Mantegani
    Division of Immunology, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    Immunology 129:220-33. 2010
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers - APRI and Forns - are associated with liver stiffness in HIV-monoinfected patients receiving antiretroviral drugs
    Hamid Hasson
    Department of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Liver Int 33:1113-20. 2013
    ....
  40. doi request reprint Risk of type 2 diabetes among HIV-infected and healthy subjects in Italy
    Laura Galli
    Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Eur J Epidemiol 27:657-65. 2012
    ....
  41. doi request reprint Immune recovery and T cell subset analysis during effective treatment with maraviroc
    Francesca Cossarini
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:2474-8. 2012
    ..Patients treated with maraviroc frequently show high CD4+ T cell increases. The aim of this study was to detail the characteristics of maraviroc-induced immune recovery...
  42. doi request reprint Ten-year survival among HIV-1-infected subjects with AIDS or non-AIDS-defining malignancies
    Vincenzo Spagnuolo
    Infectious Diseases Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Int J Cancer 130:2990-6. 2012
    ..5% ± 14.5% vs. 40.0% ± 12.7%; log-rank test: p = 0.005). Despite the better cancer prognosis during the post-HAART era, the 10-year survival of HIV-infected subjects with an ADM or NADM is poor...
  43. doi request reprint Residual viraemia does not influence 1 year virological rebound in HIV-infected patients with HIV RNA persistently below 50 copies/mL
    Nicola Gianotti
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:213-7. 2012
    ..It is currently debated whether patients with residual viraemia are at higher risk of virological failure than those attaining <1 HIV RNA copy/mL. We therefore investigated the effect of residual viraemia on virological rebound...
  44. ncbi request reprint Post-Kala-Azar dermal leishmaniasis in an HIV-1-infected woman: recovery after amphotericin B following failure of oral miltefosine
    Monica Guffanti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 79:715-8. 2008
    ..The skin lesions did not recover after treatment with oral miltefosine at 100 mg/day for five cycles of 28 days but responded to treatment with liposomal amphotericin B...
  45. ncbi request reprint In vivo dynamics of the K103N mutation following the withdrawal of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 28:319-26. 2005
    ..This suggests that the K103N mutation per se has little impact on viral fitness in vivo...
  46. ncbi request reprint Anti-hepatitis C virus treatment may prevent the progression of liver fibrosis in non-responder human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients
    Caterina Sagnelli
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy Experimental Medicine and Surgery F Magrassi e A Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    Braz J Infect Dis 18:164-9. 2014
    ..To evaluate changes in liver histology in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection non-responders to a suboptimal Interferon+Ribavirine regimen...
  47. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis C virus populations in the plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cerebrospinal fluid of HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected patients
    Sabrina Bagaglio
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 19:S151-65. 2005
    ..Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has occasionally been associated with diseases of the central nervous system, thus suggesting that the virus has a direct effect on cerebral function...
  48. ncbi request reprint Nitric oxide production in HIV-1 infected patients receiving intermittent cycles of interleukin-2 and antiretrovirals
    Donato Torre
    Department of Infectious Diseases, General Hospital, Viale Borri 57, 21100 Varese, Italy
    HIV Clin Trials 5:146-51. 2004
    ..Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator potentially responsible for some of the AEs caused by IL-2...
  49. ncbi request reprint Electrocardiographic changes in HIV-infected, drug-experienced patients being treated with atazanavir
    Nicola Gianotti
    Divisione di Malattie Infettive, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 21:1648-51. 2007
    ..The electrocardiographic monitoring of patients treated with atazanavir seems advisable...
  50. pmc Comparison of an in-house and a commercial RD1-based ELISPOT-IFN-gamma assay for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Paola Mantegani
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20127, Milano, Italy
    Clin Med Res 4:266-72. 2006
    ..TB) assay for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection and the efficacy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and ELISPOT assay in detecting latent TB infection (LTBI)...
  51. ncbi request reprint Naive HIV/HCV-coinfected patients have higher intrahepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines than coinfected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy
    Giovanni Sitia
    Infectious Disease Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Antivir Ther 11:385-9. 2006
    ..Together, these results suggest that HIV infection may exacerbate the immune-mediated inflammatory response in the liver of patients chronically infected with HCV and antiretroviral therapy may prevent this effect...
  52. ncbi request reprint Resistance profiles after different periods of exposure to a first-line antiretroviral regimen in a Cameroonian cohort of HIV type-1-infected patients
    Alessandro Soria
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Antivir Ther 14:339-47. 2009
    ..We investigated the factors associated with resistance after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the absence of virological monitoring...
  53. pmc Detection of DNA of lymphotropic herpesviruses in plasma of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: frequency and clinical significance
    Francesco Broccolo
    Division of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:1222-8. 2002
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis of a direct involvement of HHV-8 replication in KS pathogenesis, thus emphasizing the usefulness of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests to monitor HHV-8 infection...
  54. ncbi request reprint Immunomodulatory effects of bovine colostrum in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    Priscilla Biswas
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, Lab of Clinical Immunology Clinic of Infectious Diseases
    New Microbiol 30:447-54. 2007
    ..BC could also represent an inexpensive therapeutic tool in prevention and treatment of several human microbial infections, including influenza...
  55. doi request reprint Clinical, virologic, and immunologic outcomes in lymphoma survivors and in cancer-free, HIV-1-infected patients: a matched cohort study
    Vincenzo Spagnuolo
    Infectious Disease Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Cancer 119:2710-9. 2013
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Management of HIV infection after triple class failure
    Francesca Cossarini
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 36:23-39. 2013
    ....
  57. pmc Selected pool of peptides from ESAT-6 and CFP-10 proteins for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Paolo Scarpellini
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3469-74. 2004
    ..27%), opening new possibilities for diagnosis and screening of tuberculosis. Moreover, the test allowed us to distinguish individuals infected with M. tuberculosis from those vaccinated with BCG...
  58. pmc An in-house RD1-based enzyme-linked immunospot-gamma interferon assay instead of the tuberculin skin test for diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Luigi Codecasa
    Villa Marelli Institute, Lombardy Regional Reference Centre for Tuberculosis, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1944-50. 2006
    ..0001). Our in-house ELISPOT assay based on a restricted pool of highly selected peptides is more accurate than TST for identifying individuals with latent TB infection and could improve chemoprophylaxis for the control of TB...
  59. ncbi request reprint Leishmania infection can hamper immune recovery in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients
    Nicola Gianotti
    Division of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 31:435-8. 2008
    ..A new drop in CD4+ cell count was observed when Leishmania DNA turned out again to be positive, but treatment with liposomal amphotericin-B restored immune recovery...
  60. ncbi request reprint Immunological basis for IgE hyper-production in enfuvirtide-treated HIV- positive patients
    Samuele E Burastero
    Unit of Leukocyte Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Immunol 26:168-76. 2006
    ..The hyper-IgE production in ENF-treated patients is associated with the in vitro induction of a type-2 phenotype in CD4 T cells...
  61. pmc Long-lasting CCR5 internalization by antibodies in a subset of long-term nonprogressors: a possible protective effect against disease progression
    Claudia Pastori
    Infectious Diseases Clinic, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20127 Milan, Italy
    Blood 107:4825-33. 2006
    ..Induction of anti-CCR5 Abs could be relevant to vaccine design and therapeutics...
  62. ncbi request reprint Real versus virtual phenotype to guide treatment in heavily pretreated patients: 48-week follow-up of the Genotipo-Fenotipo di Resistenza (GenPheRex) trial
    Francesco Mazzotta
    Department of Infectious Diseases, S M Annunziata Hospital, ASL Firenze, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 32:268-80. 2003
    ..Several factors should be considered to take better advantage of resistance testing, including treatment history, clinical status, and patients' ability to adhere to treatment...
  63. ncbi request reprint HAART simplification with lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in HIV/HCV co-infected patients starting anti-HCV treatment: a randomised pilot study (KaMon study)
    Hamid Hasson
    Department of Infectious Diseases, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 35:469-74. 2012
    ..999) or the number of grade 3-4 AEs (p=0.146). No HIV failure was observed. The safety profile of LPV/r monotherapy was similar to that of LPV/r-based HAART, thus encouraging HAART simplification in patients receiving anti-HCV treatment...
  64. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral treatment strategies and immune reconstitution in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients with advanced disease
    Alessandro Soria
    Clinic of Infections Disease, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:S19-30. 2007
    ..Clear evidence on the optimal regimen and agents to use to target advanced HIV disease is lacking. Therefore, antiretroviral treatment for these patients has to be carefully tailored to the individual according to many variables...
  65. ncbi request reprint Antiviral activity and clinical efficacy of atazanavir in HIV-1-infected patients: a review
    Nicola Gianotti
    Division of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 30:79-88. 2007
    ....
  66. ncbi request reprint Significant link between sCD30 changes and HIV viremia in patients treated with HAART
    Priscilla Biswas
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Med Virol 78:1513-9. 2006
    ..The change in sCD30 levels from pre-therapy to the date of first viral suppression could be used to identify patients who are more likely to experience later virological rebound among those who achieve initially virological success...
  67. ncbi request reprint Liver fibrosis in HIV-positive patients with hepatitis C virus: role of persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels
    Caterina Uberti-Foppa
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:63-7. 2006
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Selective granulocyte/monocyte apheresis in the treatment of HIV-infected patients: short-term and long-term effects on immunological and virological parameters
    Alberto Beretta
    Infectious Diseases Clinic, St Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
    Perfusion 17:47-51. 2002
    ..Taken together, the results indicate that G1 apheresis could be used to improve the immunological and virological response to HAART...
  69. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of amprenavir given once or twice a day when combined with atazanavir in heavily pre-treated HIV-positive patients
    Monica Guffanti
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 17:2669-71. 2003
    ..Our preliminary results suggest that amprenavir and atazanavir could be coadministered and that amprenavir could be boosted by atazanavir without the need for ritonavir pharmaco-enhancement...
  70. ncbi request reprint Expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor in HIV-1-associated central nervous system disease
    Nicolai Sidenius
    Molecular Genetics Unit, DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
    J Neuroimmunol 157:133-9. 2004
    ..Additionally, these findings are consistent with a model in which overexpression of uPAR and overproduction of its soluble form may promote HIV replication via binding and removal of uPA from cell surface...
  71. doi request reprint Mortality of HIV-infected patients with or without cancer: comparison with the general population in Italy
    Laura Galli
    Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Antivir Ther 17:447-58. 2012
    ..HAART has reduced mortality in HIV-infected patients; however, the risk of non-AIDS-related events has increased, including cancer. We compared mortality in HIV-infected patients with or without cancer with the general population in Italy...
  72. ncbi request reprint Sequencing antiretroviral drugs for long-lasting suppression of HIV replication
    Nicola Gianotti
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 28:281-97. 2005
    ..The optimal timing for starting entry inhibitors during the course of HIV disease has not yet been fully elucidated...
  73. ncbi request reprint The appealing story of HIV entry inhibitors : from discovery of biological mechanisms to drug development
    Antonella Castagna
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Drugs 65:879-904. 2005
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Long-term glucose tolerance in highly experienced HIV-infected patients receiving nucleoside analogue-sparing regimens
    Alba Bigoloni
    aDepartment of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute bUniversità Vita Salute San Raffaele cCardiometabolic and Clinical Trials Unit, Metabolic and Cardiovascular Division, Internal Medicine Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 26:1837-40. 2012
    ..A worsening glucose tolerance was observed in highly treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients receiving effective antiretroviral therapy after virological failure...
  75. ncbi request reprint Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs
    Maria Rita Parisi
    Laboratory of Virology, AIDS Center San Luigi, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    New Microbiol 32:391-6. 2009
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint CD30 ligation differentially affects CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 replication and soluble CD30 secretion in non-Hodgkin cell lines and in gamma delta T lymphocytes
    Priscilla Biswas
    Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Scientific Institute H San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 33:3136-45. 2003
    ..In conclusion, we have delineated novel features of CD30 biology and underline the peculiar link of CD30 expression to constitutive NF-kappaB activation which is pivotal to both HIV replication and cell survival...
  77. ncbi request reprint Double-edged effect of Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T lymphocytes on viral expression in an in vitro model of HIV-1/mycobacteria co-infection
    Priscilla Biswas
    Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Scientific Institute H S Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Eur J Immunol 33:252-63. 2003
    ..Thus, we suggest that specific recognition of mycobacterial Ag by gamma delta T lymphocytes in co-infected individuals may modulate viral replication through the complex array of soluble factors released...
  78. pmc Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections and quantitation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis load by two real-time calibrated PCR assays
    Francesco Broccolo
    Unit of Human Virology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 41:4565-72. 2003
    ..Therefore, these assays represent a fully controlled high-throughput system for the evaluation of mycobacterial burden in clinical specimens...
  79. ncbi request reprint NF-kappa B modulates sensitivity to apoptosis, proinflammatory and migratory potential in short- versus long-term cultured human gamma delta lymphocytes
    Marina Ferrarini
    Laboratory of Tumor Immunology, Department of Oncology, Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 181:5857-64. 2008
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Oral CCR5 inhibitors: will they make it through?
    Priscilla Biswas
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 15:451-64. 2006
    ..Promising small-molecule, orally bioavailable CCR5 antagonists are under development for the treatment of HIV-1 infection...
  81. ncbi request reprint Magnitude and determinants of CD4 recovery after HAART resumption after 1 cycle of treatment interruption
    Cristina Mussini
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:588-94. 2009
    ..The extent of immune reconstitution following HAART resumption after 1 cycle of treatment interruption (TI) is not well known...
  82. ncbi request reprint Access denied? The status of co-receptor inhibition to counter HIV entry
    Priscilla Biswas
    San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Lab of Clinical Immunology, via Stamira d Ancona n 20, Milan, Italy
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 8:923-33. 2007
    ..It could be foreseen that the benefit for HIV-infected individuals derived by the use of these potential novel drugs will outweigh the costs/risks intrinsically present in every new therapeutic approach...
  83. ncbi request reprint Determination of human papillomavirus (HPV) load and type in high-grade cervical lesions surgically resected from HIV-infected women during follow-up of HPV infection
    Flavia B Lillo
    Laboratory of Virology, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Clin Infect Dis 40:451-7. 2005
    ..The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) load and the importance of multiple-strain HPV infections as biomarkers for the development of cervical disease were evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women...
  84. pmc Detection of Pneumocystis carinii and characterization of mutations associated with sulfa resistance in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects
    Anna Zingale
    Infectious Diseases Division Clinical Molecular Biology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2709-12. 2003
    ..Mutations were identified in 28 out of 70 (40%) PCR-positive specimens and were significantly more common in patients exposed to sulfa drugs (21 out of 29 [72.4%]) than in those not exposed to sulfa drugs (4 out of 35 [11.4%])...
  85. ncbi request reprint Molecular studies of cerebrospinal fluid in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated opportunistic central nervous system diseases--an update
    Paola Cinque
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy
    J Neurovirol 8:122-8. 2002
    ..g., detection of genotypic resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and in the attempt to elucidate disease epidemiology and pathogenesis...
  86. ncbi request reprint Dynamic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir-based salvage therapies
    Filippo Canducci
    Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Italy
    AIDS 23:455-60. 2009
    ..Evaluate HIV-1 subtype B integrase gene evolution in patients failing raltegravir (RAL)-based savage regimens by clonal analysis of the replicating viral quasispecies...
  87. ncbi request reprint Recombinant human growth hormone: rationale for use in the treatment of HIV-associated lipodystrophy
    Stefano Benedini
    Clinical Research Unit II, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    BioDrugs 22:101-12. 2008
    ..In this article, we discuss the origin of lipodystrophy in HIV patients, and the use of rhGH treatment (benefits and adverse effects) in HIV-related lipodystrophy...
  88. ncbi request reprint Retrospective analysis of HHV-8 viremia and cellular viral load in HIV-seropositive patients receiving interleukin 2 in combination with antiretroviral therapy
    Mauro Malnati
    Unit of Human Virology, AIDS Immunopathogenesis Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Blood 100:1575-8. 2002
    ..Thus, IL-2 therapy seems safe in most patients infected with both HIV and HHV-8, except for those with detectable HHV-8 viremia, who may not be eligible for IL-2 treatment...
  89. pmc Real-time PCR assay for clinical management of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with visceral leishmaniasis
    Simona Bossolasco
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases Central Laboratory Analysis, San Raffaele Hospital, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 41:5080-4. 2003
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Stavudine or indinavir-containing regimens are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected individuals
    Anna Maria Brambilla
    Infectious Diseases Clinic, Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    AIDS 17:1993-5. 2003
    ..Older men with HIV infection should be considered at higher risk of diabetes, and caution maybe warranted in the use of both indinavir and stavudine in these patients...
  91. ncbi request reprint Pretreatment of chronic active hepatitis C in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus reduces the hepatotoxicity associated with subsequent antiretroviral therapy
    Caterina Uberti-Foppa
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Via Stamira d Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:146-52. 2003
    ..The authors also confirm that the baseline level of ALT is an important prognostic factor for increased liver damage during antiretroviral therapy...
  92. ncbi request reprint The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced immune reconstitution on development and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: study of 43 cases with review of the literature
    Paola Cinque
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy
    J Neurovirol 9:73-80. 2003
    ..Although the authors could not demonstrate a directly deleterious effect of HAART on PML progression, prompt initiation of HAART after diagnosis of PML and subsequent successful response were often associated with bad PML outcome...
  93. doi request reprint Genotypic/phenotypic patterns of HIV-1 integrase resistance to raltegravir
    Filippo Canducci
    Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, Milano, Italy
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:425-33. 2010
    ....
  94. ncbi request reprint Expression of CD4 on human peripheral blood neutrophils
    Priscilla Biswas
    Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Blood 101:4452-6. 2003
    ..Owing to their abundance in peripheral blood, CD4+ neutrophils may influence significantly the biodistribution of HIV delivering it to sites of inflammation or to additional tissue reservoirs...
  95. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma
    Simona Bossolasco
    Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
    J Neurovirol 8:432-8. 2002
    ..High CSF EBV DNA levels were found in HIV-associated brain lymphomas and the viral load can be clinically useful. High plasma EBV DNA levels might predict CNS involvement in systemic NHL...
  96. ncbi request reprint Intramyocellular lipid accumulation and reduced whole body lipid oxidation in HIV lipodystrophy
    Livio Luzi
    International Center for Assessment of the Nutritional Status and Clinical Research Unit II, Universita degli Studi di Milano, 20132 Milan, Italy
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E274-80. 2003
    ..09 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.01). In conclusion, lipodystrophy in HIV-1 patients in antiretroviral treatment is associated with intramuscular fat accumulation, which may mediate the development of the insulin resistance syndrome...
  97. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary characteristics of HIV type 1 variants resistant to protease inhibitors in the absence of drug-selective pressure
    Enzo Boeri
    Diagnostica and Ricerca San Raffaele, Laoratorio di Virologia, Centro San Luigi, I R C C S Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, 20 20127 Milan, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:1151-3. 2003
    ....
  98. pmc Direct detection of Helicobacter pylori mutations associated with macrolide resistance in gastric biopsy material taken from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects
    Paolo Scarpellini
    Infectious Diseases Division, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2234-7. 2002
    ..1%) of 46 and 2 (8.7%) of 23 samples from human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and -seronegative persons, respectively. The results of the mutational analysis fully correlated with those of the susceptibility tests...
  99. ncbi request reprint Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2, and soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals receiving intermittent cycles of interleukin 2
    Claudio Fortis
    Division of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20127 Milan, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:491-9. 2002
    ..The latter was correlated to the peak serum level of IL-2, but not to those of TNF-alpha and IL-6...
  100. pmc Coronaviridae and SARS-associated coronavirus strain HSR1
    Elisa Vicenzi
    P2 P3 Laboratories, DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina n 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:413-8. 2004
    ..Overall, the molecular and biologic characteristics of the strain HSR1 provide evidence that SARS-CoV forms a fourth genetic coronavirus group with distinct genomic and biologic features...
  101. ncbi request reprint Non-cytotoxic inhibition of HIV-1 infection by unstimulated CD8+ T lymphocytes from HIV-exposed-uninfected individuals
    Lucinda Furci
    Unit of Human Virology, DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina n 58, Milan 20132, Italy
    AIDS 16:1003-8. 2002
    ..We investigated the ability of unstimulated CD8+ T lymphocytes from EU individuals to inhibit HIV-1 infection...