Massimo Leone

Summary

Affiliation: Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Cluster headache sine headache: two new cases in one family
    M Leone
    Carlo Besta Neurological Institute, Milano, Italy
    Cephalalgia 22:12-4. 2002
  2. doi request reprint Success, failure, and putative mechanisms in hypothalamic stimulation for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache
    Massimo Leone
    Department of Neurology, Headache Centre and Pain Neuromodulation Unit, Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Pain 154:89-94. 2013
  3. doi request reprint From neuroimaging to patients' bench: what we have learnt from trigemino-autonomic pain syndromes
    Massimo Leone
    Neuromodulation Unit and Neurological Department, Headache Centre, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 33:S99-102. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Therapeutic neurostimulation in chronic headaches: problems of patient selection
    Massimo Leone
    Headache Centre, National Neurological Institute IRCCS Foundation C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 29:S59-61. 2008
  5. doi request reprint Costs of hypothalamic stimulation in chronic drug-resistant cluster headache: preliminary data
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, National Neurological Institute C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:S43-7. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Deep brain stimulation and cluster headache
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, C Besta National Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, I 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 26:s138-9. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Cluster-tic syndrome resolved by removal of pituitary adenoma: the first case
    M Leone
    Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy
    Cephalalgia 24:1088-9. 2004
  8. doi request reprint Influence of trigger factors on the efficacy of almotriptan as early intervention for the treatment of acute migraine in a primary care setting: the START study
    Massimo Leone
    Pain Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology, Headache Center, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Via Celoria 11, Milan, Italy
    Expert Rev Neurother 10:1399-408. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint Strategies for the treatment of autonomic trigeminal cephalalgias
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, National Neurological Institute C Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 25:S167-70. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Selective vs. complete family interview for detecting those affected by familial cluster headache
    M Leone
    Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Cephalalgia 24:938-9. 2004

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. ncbi request reprint Cluster headache sine headache: two new cases in one family
    M Leone
    Carlo Besta Neurological Institute, Milano, Italy
    Cephalalgia 22:12-4. 2002
    ..Cluster headache sine headache should be considered as a subtype of the cluster headache syndrome...
  2. doi request reprint Success, failure, and putative mechanisms in hypothalamic stimulation for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache
    Massimo Leone
    Department of Neurology, Headache Centre and Pain Neuromodulation Unit, Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Pain 154:89-94. 2013
    ....
  3. doi request reprint From neuroimaging to patients' bench: what we have learnt from trigemino-autonomic pain syndromes
    Massimo Leone
    Neuromodulation Unit and Neurological Department, Headache Centre, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 33:S99-102. 2012
    ..In contrast, hypothalamic activation may serve as a crucial area in terminating rather than triggering attacks. It also could lead to a central condition facilitating initiation of TAC attacks...
  4. doi request reprint Therapeutic neurostimulation in chronic headaches: problems of patient selection
    Massimo Leone
    Headache Centre, National Neurological Institute IRCCS Foundation C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 29:S59-61. 2008
    ..We also propose that only completely drug-resistant (as opposed to partially drug-resistant) patients be considered for neurostimulation unless there are other indications...
  5. doi request reprint Costs of hypothalamic stimulation in chronic drug-resistant cluster headache: preliminary data
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, National Neurological Institute C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:S43-7. 2009
    ..These preliminary results indicate that hypothalamic stimulation is associated with marked reduction of direct costs in the management of complete drug-resistant chronic CH...
  6. ncbi request reprint Deep brain stimulation and cluster headache
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, C Besta National Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, I 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 26:s138-9. 2005
    ..The procedures were well tolerated with no significant adverse events. Hypothalamic DBS is an efficacious and safe procedure to relieve otherwise intractable CCH and SUNCT...
  7. ncbi request reprint Cluster-tic syndrome resolved by removal of pituitary adenoma: the first case
    M Leone
    Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy
    Cephalalgia 24:1088-9. 2004
  8. doi request reprint Influence of trigger factors on the efficacy of almotriptan as early intervention for the treatment of acute migraine in a primary care setting: the START study
    Massimo Leone
    Pain Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology, Headache Center, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Via Celoria 11, Milan, Italy
    Expert Rev Neurother 10:1399-408. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Strategies for the treatment of autonomic trigeminal cephalalgias
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, National Neurological Institute C Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 25:S167-70. 2004
    ..SUNCT is commonly described as drug resistant. Recent studies report that lamotrigin may be the drug of choice for SUNCT...
  10. ncbi request reprint Selective vs. complete family interview for detecting those affected by familial cluster headache
    M Leone
    Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Cephalalgia 24:938-9. 2004
    ..We found only one new first-degree relative with cluster headache (1/40 = 2.5%). The selective interview may be used with confidence as a means of investigating the hereditary component of cluster headache...
  11. doi request reprint Cluster headache: pharmacological treatment and neurostimulation
    Massimo Leone
    Pain Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology and Headache Centre, Besta Neurological Institute, Milan, Italy
    Nat Clin Pract Neurol 5:153-62. 2009
    ..The rationale, study results and selection criteria for neurostimulation procedures are also summarized, as are the disadvantages of these procedures...
  12. doi request reprint Lessons from 8 years' experience of hypothalamic stimulation in cluster headache
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, Neurology Department III, Fodazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Cephalalgia 28:787-97; discussion 798. 2008
    ..The technique is shedding further light on the pathophysiology of the disease, and is also providing clues to functioning of the hypothalamus itself...
  13. ncbi request reprint Neuroimaging and pain: a window on the autonomic nervous system
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, C Besta National Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, I 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 27:S134-7. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic stimulation for intractable cluster headache: long-term experience
    Massimo Leone
    Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Neurology 67:150-2. 2006
    ..There are no persistent side effects. Hypothalamic stimulation is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated alternative to surgery for chronic patients with drug-refractory CH...
  15. ncbi request reprint Deep brain stimulation in headache
    Massimo Leone
    Department of Neurology and Headache Centre, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milano, Italy
    Lancet Neurol 5:873-7. 2006
    ..In some patients, stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter induced headache with migrainous features, indicating a pathophysiological link between neuromodulation of certain brain structures and headache...
  16. ncbi request reprint Acute hypothalamic stimulation and ongoing cluster headache attacks
    M Leone
    Department of Neurology and Headache Centre, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milano, Italy
    Neurology 67:1844-5. 2006
    ..1%). Acute hypothalamic stimulation is not effective in resolving ongoing CH attacks, suggesting that hypothalamic stimulation acts by complex mechanisms in CH prevention...
  17. doi request reprint Epidemiology of fixed unilateral headaches
    M Leone
    Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Cephalalgia 28:8-11. 2008
    ..The high frequency of side shift in chronic cluster headache should be considered when proposing surgical treatment for severe intractable forms of the disease...
  18. ncbi request reprint Functional neuroimaging and headache pathophysiology: new findings and new prospects
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 28:S108-13. 2007
    ..New insights into mechanisms of head pain have emerged thanks to neuroimaging obtained in experimentally induced headaches, and during peripheral and central neurostimulation...
  19. ncbi request reprint Deep brain stimulation in craniofacial pain: seven years' experience
    G Bussone
    Headache Centre, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 28:S146-9. 2007
    ..Hypothalamic stimulation is an effective, safe and well tolerated treatment for chronic drug-refractory CH. It appears as a valid alternative to destructive surgical modalities, and has the additional advantage of being reversible...
  20. ncbi request reprint Long-term follow-up of bilateral hypothalamic stimulation for intractable cluster headache
    M Leone
    Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milano Italy
    Brain 127:2259-64. 2004
    ..After 42 months (left) and 31 months (right) of follow-up, the patient remains crisis free without the need for pharmacological prophylaxis...
  21. ncbi request reprint Deep brain stimulation to relieve drug-resistant SUNCT
    Massimo Leone
    Department of Neurology and Headache Centre, Milano, Italy
    Ann Neurol 57:924-7. 2005
    ..We report the first patient with SUNCT in whom severe intractable pain (70 per day) was well controlled by electrode implant to and continuous stimulation of the posterior inferior hypothalamus. Ann Neurol 2005;57:925-927...
  22. doi request reprint Drug-resistant primary headache patients undergoing surgical therapies: how should we assess outcomes?
    Massimo Leone
    Department of Neurology, Neuromodulation Unit, Headache Centre, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 31:S93-4. 2010
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Deep brain stimulation in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias
    Massimo Leone
    Headache Center, Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology, Fondazione I R C C S Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurotherapeutics 7:220-8. 2010
    ..Infection, transient loss of consciousness, and micturition syncope have been reported, but treatment interruption usually is not required...
  24. doi request reprint Neuromodulation in drug-resistant primary headaches: what have we learned?
    Massimo Leone
    Headache Centre Neurology Department, National Neurological Institute IRCCS Foundation C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 32:S23-6. 2011
    ..We have proposed that only patients suffering from daily neurovascular headaches in the last 1-2 years, with complete drug-resistance should be proposed for invasive procedures...
  25. ncbi request reprint Management of chronic cluster headache
    Massimo Leone
    Pain Neuromodulation Unit, Department of Neurology, Headache Center, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milano, Italy
    Curr Treat Options Neurol 13:56-70. 2011
    ..Hypothalamic stimulation is more invasive and can be performed only in specialist neurosurgical centers. Published experience suggests that about 60% of patients with chronic CH obtain long-term benefit with hypothalamic stimulation...
  26. ncbi request reprint Chronic cluster headache: new and emerging treatment options
    Massimo Leone
    Centro Cefalee, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Carlo Besta, Via Caloria 11, 20133 Milano, Italy
    Curr Pain Headache Rep 8:347-52. 2004
    ..Among these, the novel approach based on hypothalamic deep brain stimulation is one of the most promising...
  27. doi request reprint Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS). Surgical technique and prevention of late electrode migration
    Angelo Franzini
    Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 151:861-5; discussion 865. 2009
    ..The careful description of the surgical steps may contribute to a standardization of the procedure and make the interpretation of results easier even if obtained in series of patients operated on by different authors...
  28. doi request reprint Vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant daily chronic migraine with depression: preliminary data
    Alberto Proietti Cecchini
    Headache Centre, National Neurological Institute IRCCS C Besta Foundation, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:S101-4. 2009
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus for treatment of chronic intractable cluster headaches: first reported series
    Angelo Franzini
    Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta, Milan, Italy
    Neurosurgery 52:1095-9; discussion 1099-101. 2003
    ..To describe the results of deep brain stimulation of the ipsilateral posterior hypothalamus for the treatment of drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches (CHs). A technique for electrode placement is reported...
  30. doi request reprint Neuromodulation in treatment of refractory headaches
    Angelo Franzini
    Neurological Institute Foundation C Besta, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 29:S65-8. 2008
    ..According to us, the refinement of surgical techniques and of metabolic and functional brain neuroradiological investigations will lead to a refinement of the therapeutical strategies in such patients...
  31. doi request reprint Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome: a novel speculative physiopathological hypothesis and a novel patch method in a series of 28 consecutive patients
    Angelo Franzini
    Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy
    J Neurosurg 112:300-6. 2010
    ..The authors propose a novel physiopathological theory of SIH based on some anatomical considerations about the spinal venous drainage system...
  32. doi request reprint Feasibility of simultaneous vagal nerve and deep brain stimulation in chronic cluster headache: case report and considerations
    Angelo Franzini
    Department of Neurosurgery, National Neurological Institute C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:S137-9. 2009
    ....
  33. doi request reprint Chronic daily headache in the adults: differential diagnosis between symptomatic Chiari I malformation and spontaneous intracranial hypotension
    Eliana Mea
    Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 32:S291-4. 2011
    ..Hydrocephalus and low-intracranial pressure syndrome should be ruled out in patients showing tonsillar herniation in an MRI study and consulting due to daily headache...
  34. doi request reprint Long-term experience of neuromodulation in TACs
    Alberto Proietti Cecchini
    National Neurological Institute IRCCS Foundation C Besta, Headache Centre, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 29:S62-4. 2008
    ..Although the outcomes are encouraging, the invasive nature of the technique and the occurrence of rare but major adverse events have suggested a safer peripheral approach with occipital nerve stimulation (ONS)...
  35. doi request reprint Headache attributed to spontaneous intracranial hypotension
    Eliana Mea
    Department of Neurology Unit of Pain Neuromodulation Fondazione, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 29:S164-5. 2008
    ..The IHS criteria for headache attributed to SIH could not classify the headache in most of our SIH patients. A revision of the IHS criteria for headache attributed to SIH is necessary...
  36. doi request reprint Surgical treatment of primary headaches
    Angelo Franzini
    Department of Neurosurgery, Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 33:S131-5. 2012
    ..In this paper, the authors summarize the most recent surgical procedures used to treat severe and pharmaco-resistant cranial painful conditions, along with brief descriptions of the results obtained in the several published so far...
  37. doi request reprint Cluster headache: what has changed since 1999?
    Massimo Leone
    Department of Neurology, Headache Centre and Pain Neuromodulation Unit, C Besta Neurological Institute and Foundation, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 34:S71-3. 2013
    ..Taken together, there is now sufficient body of evidence indicating that CH and TACs can be regarded as a unique headache spectrum-syndrome, due to involvement of specific brain areas...
  38. doi request reprint When should "chronic migraine" patients be considered "refractory" to pharmacological prophylaxis?
    Domenico D'Amico
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, C Besta Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 29:S55-8. 2008
    ..However before a definition of "refractory" chronic migraine can become established, generally accepted diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines for this condition need to be developed...
  39. ncbi request reprint Behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of transformed migraine with analgesic overuse: outcome at 3 years
    Licia Grazzi
    Headache Center, National Neurological Institute C Besta, Milan, Italy
    Headache 42:483-90. 2002
    ..To determine whether combined treatment using medication and biofeedback would be more effective than drug treatment alone for treating transformed migraine complicated by analgesic overuse...
  40. doi request reprint Targeting the brain: considerations in 332 consecutive patients treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) for severe neurological diseases
    Angelo Franzini
    Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 33:1285-303. 2012
    ..The balance of DBS in severe neurological disease is strongly positive even if further investigations and studies are needed to search for new applications and refine the selection criteria for the actual indications...
  41. doi request reprint Pathophysiology of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias
    Massimo Leone
    Headache Centre, Neuromodulation Unit and Neurological Department, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Lancet Neurol 8:755-64. 2009
    ..Hypothalamic activation might play a part in terminating rather than triggering attacks, and might also give rise to a central permissive state, allowing attacks to take place...
  42. ncbi request reprint Coexistence of TACS and trigeminal neuralgia: pathophysiological conjectures
    Massimo Leone
    Departments of Neurology and Headache, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Headache 46:1565-70. 2006
    ..We report on 2 patients in whom trigeminal neuralgia coexists with the TACs paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT...
  43. pmc Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation in the treatment of chronic cluster headache
    Massimo Leone
    Headache Centre, Neuromodulation and Neurological Department, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milano, Italy
    Ther Adv Neurol Disord 3:187-95. 2010
    ..Hypothalamus implantation is associated with a small risk of intracerebral haemorrhage and must be performed by an expert neurosurgical team, in selected patients...
  44. ncbi request reprint Headache and intracranial hypotension: neuroradiological findings
    L Chiapparini
    Department of Neuroradiology, National Neurological Institute C Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 25:S138-41. 2004
    ..Neuroimaging studies are, therefore, essential for suggesting and confirming the diagnosis...
  45. ncbi request reprint Update on neurosurgical treatment of chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and atypical facial pain with deep brain stimulation of posterior hypothalamus: results and comments
    G Broggi
    Department of Neurosurgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 28:S138-45. 2007
    ..DBS of the posterior hypothalamus produced a significant and marked reduction of pain bouts in CH patients and in the SUNCT patient. The attempts to treat atypical facial pain in three patients failed...
  46. doi request reprint Development and validation of a patient self-assessed questionnaire on satisfaction with communication of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis
    A Solari
    Neuroepidemiology Unit, Foundation IRCCS Neurological Institute C Besta, Milan, Italy
    Mult Scler 16:1237-47. 2010
    ..We describe the development and clinical validation of a patient self-administered tool assessing the quality of multiple sclerosis diagnosis disclosure...
  47. doi request reprint Treatment of alterations in CSF dynamics
    E Mea
    Neurological Institute C Besta IRCCS Foundation, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 32:S117-20. 2011
    ..The most relevant clinical features, the expected MRI findings, and the therapeutic options regarding both conditions are discussed...
  48. ncbi request reprint Platelet levels of dopamine are increased in migraine and cluster headache
    Giovanni D'Andrea
    Headache Centre, Villa Margherita Hospital, Arcugnano, VI, Italy
    Headache 46:585-91. 2006
    ..To measure plasma and platelet levels of dopamine in patients with migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and cluster headache...
  49. ncbi request reprint Double blind comparison of lithium and verapamil in cluster headache prophylaxis
    G Bussone
    Headache Centre, C. Besta Neurological Institute of Milan, Italy
    Headache 30:411-7. 1990
    ..Both the drugs tested here may exert their effect by restoring a normal inhibitory tone to the pain modulating pathways from the trigemino-vascular system, a circuit putatively implicated in CCH...
  50. doi request reprint Sphenopalatine endoscopic ganglion block in cluster headache: a reevaluation of the procedure after 5 years
    Carlotta Pipolo
    Unit of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Department, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 31:S197-9. 2010
    ..This paper is intended as an update on the technique as well as a comparison in effectiveness to our prior approach...
  51. ncbi request reprint Chronic high frequency stimulation of the posteromedial hypothalamus in facial pain syndromes and behaviour disorders
    A Franzini
    Department of Neurosurgery, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Acta Neurochir Suppl 97:399-406. 2007
    ..Finally, we also tested the same procedure in three patients with refractory atypical facial pain, but unfortunately, they did not respond to this treatment...
  52. ncbi request reprint Headache and spontaneous low cerebrospinal fluid pressure syndrome
    E Mea
    Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 28:S232-4. 2007
    ..All SIH patients suffered from headache. Early recognition of SIH may avoid dangerous worsening due to delayed diagnosis. Orthostatic headache, the main symptom, suggests the diagnosis...
  53. ncbi request reprint Spontaneous neuronal activity of the posterior hypothalamus in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias
    R Cordella
    Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 28:93-5. 2007
    ..Positioning deep brain stimulators in the posterior hypothalamus may offer a tool to better characterise the activity of this part of the brain in humans...
  54. ncbi request reprint Dural sinus thrombosis in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: Hypotheses on possible mechanisms
    Mario Savoiardo
    Department of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milano, Italy
    J Neurol 253:1197-202. 2006
    ..Other possible mechanisms seem unlikely on the grounds of both clinical presentation and MRI studies...
  55. doi request reprint Responsiveness of patient reported outcome measures in multiple sclerosis relapses: the REMS study
    A Giordano
    Unit of Neuroepidemiology, Foundation IRCCS Neurological Institute C Besta, Via Celoria, 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:1023-8. 2009
    ..To assess the responsiveness of the three most used patient reported multiple sclerosis (MS) specific questionnaires: the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS), the MS Impact Scale (MSIS-29) and the 54 item MS Quality of Life (MSQOL-54)...
  56. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation for intractable chronic cluster headache: a 3-year follow-up
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, Cerebrovascular Disease Department, C Besta National Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 24:S143-5. 2003
    ..So far other operations have been performed and the results are encouraging in terms of both pain relief and safety. The efficacy of hypothalamic electrical stimulation provides some hints into cluster headache pathophysiology...
  57. ncbi request reprint Treatment of chronic daily headache with medication overuse
    L Grazzi
    C Besta National Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 24:S125-7. 2003
    ..Clinical aspects and different therapeutic strategies for chronic daily headache patients with medication overuse are considered...
  58. ncbi request reprint Quality of life and disability in primary chronic daily headaches
    D D'Amico
    C Besta National Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, I 20133 Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 24:S97-100. 2003
    ..We also found that MIDAS and SF-36 were sensitive to clinical changes in a group of 84 patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse who completed the both questionnaires before and after treatment...
  59. ncbi request reprint Sumatriptan in the acute treatment of migraine without aura: efficacy of 50-mg dose
    F Moschiano
    Headache Centre, Neurological Institute C Besta, Milano, Italy
    Headache 37:421-3. 1997
    ..If, however, sumatriptan is ineffective at that dose it can be increased to a maximum of 100 mg...
  60. ncbi request reprint Clinical considerations on side-locked unilaterality in long-lasting primary headaches
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, Neurological Institute C. Besta, Milan, Italy
    Headache 33:381-4. 1993
    ..The high percentage of migraine cases in the side-locked unilateral group reflects the high proportion of migraine patients in the studied population...
  61. ncbi request reprint Side-locked unilaterality and pain localization in long-lasting headaches: migraine, tension-type headache, and cervicogenic headache
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, Neurological Institute C. Besta, Milan, Italy
    Headache 34:526-30. 1994
    ..Our results may contribute to a better clinical definition of long-lasting headaches...
  62. ncbi request reprint Deep brain stimulation for intractable chronic cluster headache: proposals for patient selection
    M Leone
    Headache Centre and Cerebrovascular Disease Department, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Cephalalgia 24:934-7. 2004
    ..We therefore consider it essential to propose criteria for selecting chronic cluster headache patients for hypothalamic deep brain stimulation before this procedure is undertaken at other academic medical centres...
  63. doi request reprint Painful ophthalmoplegia: a retrospective study of 23 cases
    M Curone
    Neuroscience Department, Neurological Institute Foundation C Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:S133-5. 2009
    ..The present study suggests that in the clinical practice the incidence of benign forms among the painful ophthalmoplegias is more elevate than the symptomatic ones and underlines the need of a specific nosography for benign forms...
  64. doi request reprint Application of IHS criteria to headache attributed to spontaneous intracranial hypotension in a large population
    E Mea
    Headache Centre, Neurological Department, corrected Neurological Institute, C Besta Foundation, Milan, Italy
    Cephalalgia 29:418-22. 2009
    ..Excluding the requirement for response to epidural blood patch (criterion D) and considering headaches appearing within 2 h of sitting or standing up would capture more patients...
  65. ncbi request reprint Possible identification of cervicogenic headache among patients with migraine: an analysis of 374 headaches
    M Leone
    Centro Cefalee, Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Headache 35:461-4. 1995
    ..A more precise definition of clinical criteria for cervicogenic headache vs migraine is, therefore, required...
  66. ncbi request reprint Familial cluster headache: report of three families
    M Leone
    Headache Centre, Neurological Institute C. Besta, Milan, Italy
    Headache 36:41-3. 1996
    ..Considered in the light of other recent reports of familial cluster headache, these cases suggest that cluster headache can have a genetic component...
  67. ncbi request reprint Coexistence of migraine and cluster headache: report of 10 cases and possible pathogenetic implications
    V Centonze
    Neurological Institute C. Besta, Milan, Italy
    Headache 37:21-5. 1997
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Transdermal clonidine in the prophylaxis of episodic cluster headache: an open study
    M Leone
    Headache Center, Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano, Italy
    Headache 37:559-60. 1997
    ..Further studies are necessary to clarify the effectiveness of transdermal clonidine in the prophylaxis of episodic cluster headache...
  69. ncbi request reprint Increased familial risk of cluster headache
    M Leone
    Carlo Besta National Neurological Institute, Milan, Italy
    Neurology 56:1233-6. 2001
    ..Second-degree relatives had an eightfold significantly increased risk. The increased familial risk strongly supports the hypothesis that cluster headache has a genetic component in some families...
  70. ncbi request reprint Health-related quality of life in patients with cluster headache during active periods
    D D'Amico
    C Besta National Neurological Institute, Milan, Italy
    Cephalalgia 22:818-21. 2002
    ..For most scales the difference was significant (P < 0.0001, Student's t-test, Bonferroni correction). Our findings suggest that cluster headache has marked functional consequences even when appropriate treatments are used...
  71. ncbi request reprint Elusive amines and cluster headache: mutational analysis of trace amine receptor cluster on chromosome 6q23
    P Aridon
    Human Molecular Genetics Unit, DIBIT San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 25:S279-80. 2004
    ..We evaluated two families with CH by linkage analysis to 6q23 region and the mutation scanning of the TAR 1, TAR 3, TAR 4, TAR 5, PNR and GPR58 genes by denaturing high liquid chromatography is in progress in 16 familial cases...
  72. ncbi request reprint The role of the ear, nose and throat specialist in diagnosing headaches
    G Felisati
    Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology, ENT Department, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan, Via di Rudini 8, I 20080, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 26:s83-6. 2005
    ..It will be a task for ENT specialists to clarify the real role of very hypothetical primary forms frequently assigned to diagnosis without a correct rationale...
  73. doi request reprint Clinical features and outcomes in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: a survey of 90 consecutive patients
    E Mea
    Department of Neurology and Headache Centre, Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:S11-3. 2009
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint Use of the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire in children and adolescents with headache: an Italian pilot study
    D D'Amico
    Headache Center, C Besta National Neurological Institute, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy
    Headache 43:767-73. 2003
    ....
  75. ncbi request reprint Increased plasma nitrites in migraine and cluster headache patients in interictal period: basal hyperactivity of L-arginine-NO pathway?
    D D'Amico
    Neurological Institute C Besta, Milan, Italy
    Cephalalgia 22:33-6. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that a basal dysfunction in the L-arginine-NO pathway may be involved in the peripheral mechanisms predisposing subjects with neurovascular headaches to individual attacks...
  76. doi request reprint Hypothalamic stimulation for cluster headache
    Massimo Leone
    J Clin Neurosci 15:334-5; author reply 335-6. 2008
  77. ncbi request reprint Effect on sleep of posterior hypothalamus stimulation in cluster headache
    Roberto Vetrugno
    Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Ugo Foscolo 7, 40123 Bologna, Italy
    Headache 47:1085-90. 2007
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint Stimulation of occipital nerve for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache
    Massimo Leone
    Lancet Neurol 6:289-91. 2007
  79. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic stimulation of the hypothalamus: pathophysiological insights and prerequisites for management
    Massimo Leone
    Brain 128:E35. 2005
  80. ncbi request reprint Update on cluster headache
    Arne May
    Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 16:333-40. 2003
    ..This review covers the past 3 years, which have seen remarkable progress in understanding the pathophysiology of circadian headache syndromes and have brought exciting news...
  81. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation in positron emission tomography
    Arne May
    Department of Systems Neuroscience, University of Hamburg, D 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 26:3589-93. 2006
    ..Instead, the data suggest a hitherto unrecognized functional modulation of the pain processing network as the mode of action of hypothalamic deep brain stimulation in cluster headache...
  82. ncbi request reprint Cluster headache: from vascular theories to brain therapy
    Massimo Leone
    Expert Rev Neurother 4:563-7. 2004
  83. ncbi request reprint Sphenopalatine endoscopic ganglion block: a revision of a traditional technique for cluster headache
    Giovanni Felisati
    University of Milan, Via di Rudini 8, 20100 Milan, Italy
    Laryngoscope 116:1447-50. 2006
    ..These results should be considered rather good because, unlike other frequently used techniques, SPG blockade is not invasive and should therefore always be attempted before submitting patients to more invasive surgical approaches...