Tim Shallice

Summary

Affiliation: International School for Advanced Studies
Country: Italy

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The early effects of radiotherapy on intellectual and cognitive functioning in patients with frontal brain tumours: the use of a new neuropsychological methodology
    Angela Costello
    Department of Neuropsychology, King s Neuroscience Centre, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    J Neurooncol 67:351-9. 2004
  2. doi request reprint A left basal ganglia case of dynamic aphasia or impairment of extra-language cognitive processes?
    Cristiano Crescentini
    International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Neurocase 14:184-203. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Right posterior cortical functions in a tumour patient series
    Tim Shallice
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Cortex 46:1178-88. 2010
  4. pmc Semantic access dysphasia resulting from left temporal lobe tumours
    Fabio Campanella
    Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, Trieste TS, Italy
    Brain 132:87-102. 2009
  5. pmc Is there a semantic system for abstract words?
    Tim Shallice
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA Trieste, Italy Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London London, UK
    Front Hum Neurosci 7:175. 2013
  6. doi request reprint Jon Driver: a tribute
    Tim Shallice
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1296:iv-153. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint Types of case series--the anatomically based approach: commentary on M. F. Schwartz & G. S. Dell: case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology
    Tim Shallice
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Cogn Neuropsychol 28:500-14; discussion 515-20. 2011
  8. doi request reprint The multiple dimensions of sustained attention
    Tim Shallice
    SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Cortex 44:794-805. 2008
  9. doi request reprint Naming manipulable objects: anatomy of a category specific effect in left temporal tumours
    Fabio Campanella
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 48:1583-97. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint The neural basis of temporal preparation: Insights from brain tumor patients
    Antonino Vallesi
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 45:2755-63. 2007

Detail Information

Publications60

  1. ncbi request reprint The early effects of radiotherapy on intellectual and cognitive functioning in patients with frontal brain tumours: the use of a new neuropsychological methodology
    Angela Costello
    Department of Neuropsychology, King s Neuroscience Centre, King s College Hospital, London, UK
    J Neurooncol 67:351-9. 2004
    ....
  2. doi request reprint A left basal ganglia case of dynamic aphasia or impairment of extra-language cognitive processes?
    Cristiano Crescentini
    International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Neurocase 14:184-203. 2008
    ..The second deficit is one of impaired novel thought generation as evidenced by perseverations. This second deficit has been proposed to be a function of basal ganglia damage...
  3. doi request reprint Right posterior cortical functions in a tumour patient series
    Tim Shallice
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Cortex 46:1178-88. 2010
    ..It is suggested that a tumour patient series may provide converging evidence for the localisation of a function initially obtained by some other procedure...
  4. pmc Semantic access dysphasia resulting from left temporal lobe tumours
    Fabio Campanella
    Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, Trieste TS, Italy
    Brain 132:87-102. 2009
    ..We suggest that this deficit could be caused by the disconnection of posterior temporal lexical input areas from semantic system...
  5. pmc Is there a semantic system for abstract words?
    Tim Shallice
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA Trieste, Italy Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London London, UK
    Front Hum Neurosci 7:175. 2013
    ..Neuroimaging evidence suggests that left lateral inferior frontal cortex supports those processes responsible for the representation of abstract words...
  6. doi request reprint Jon Driver: a tribute
    Tim Shallice
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1296:iv-153. 2013
    ..Professor Jon Driver made significant contributions to cognitive neuroscience. This paper pays tribute to that work and to the personal qualities of Jon that so many of his colleagues were fortunate enough to experience. ..
  7. ncbi request reprint Types of case series--the anatomically based approach: commentary on M. F. Schwartz & G. S. Dell: case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology
    Tim Shallice
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Cogn Neuropsychol 28:500-14; discussion 515-20. 2011
    ..Putative functional syndromes are argued to be the empirical building blocks for cognitive neuropsychology. Anatomically based case series can aid in their construction or in their fractionation...
  8. doi request reprint The multiple dimensions of sustained attention
    Tim Shallice
    SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Cortex 44:794-805. 2008
    ..1995). The most plausible interpretation is in terms of energising processes which involve the SM frontal cortex and monitoring processes which involve the RL frontal cortex...
  9. doi request reprint Naming manipulable objects: anatomy of a category specific effect in left temporal tumours
    Fabio Campanella
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 48:1583-97. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint The neural basis of temporal preparation: Insights from brain tumor patients
    Antonino Vallesi
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 45:2755-63. 2007
    ..This study demonstrates that testing acute cerebral tumor patients represents a viable neuropsychological approach for the fractionation and localisation of cognitive processes...
  11. doi request reprint Conceptual proposition selection and the LIFG: neuropsychological evidence from a focal frontal group
    Gail Robinson
    Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
    Neuropsychologia 48:1652-63. 2010
    ..These results provide evidence that the LIFG is crucial for selecting among multiple competing conceptual propositions for language generation...
  12. doi request reprint Two qualitatively different impairments in making rotation operations
    Tania Buiatti
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Cortex 47:166-79. 2011
    ..The results are discussed in terms of the model of Kosslyn et al. (1989) about the possible mental transformation impairments following brain lesions...
  13. doi request reprint Interference from retrieval cues in Parkinson's disease
    Cristiano Crescentini
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychology 25:720-33. 2011
    ..We investigated this issue by using a part-list cuing paradigm. In this paradigm, after the study of a list of items, the presentation of some of these items as retrieval cues hinders the recall of the remaining ones...
  14. doi request reprint Two networks involved in producing and realizing plans
    Cristiano Crescentini
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 50:1521-35. 2012
    ..We attribute activation in DLPFC to generation and evaluation of abstract sequences of responses, and activation in the regions underlying plan execution to rehearsal of planned sequences of moves...
  15. ncbi request reprint Neural basis of pantomiming the use of visually presented objects
    Raffaella I Rumiati
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 2 4, 34014 Trieste, Italy
    Neuroimage 21:1224-31. 2004
    ..We employed a factorial design with two factors (..
  16. ncbi request reprint An effect of spatial-temporal association of response codes: understanding the cognitive representations of time
    Antonino Vallesi
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Cognition 107:501-27. 2008
    ..e., 3 short and 3 long durations). The compatibility effect between hand and duration was replicated, but followed a rectangular function of the duration. The shape of this function is discussed in relation to the specific task demands...
  17. doi request reprint Item retrieval and competition in noun and verb generation: an FMRI study
    Cristiano Crescentini
    International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    J Cogn Neurosci 22:1140-57. 2010
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Developmental dissociations of preparation over time: deconstructing the variable foreperiod phenomena
    Antonino Vallesi
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste, Italy
    J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 33:1377-88. 2007
    ..These findings are not fully compatible with previous views. A dual-process account is proposed to explain the data...
  19. pmc Social and emotional functions in three patients with medial frontal lobe damage including the anterior cingulate cortex
    Amee Baird
    Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK
    Cogn Neuropsychiatry 11:369-88. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to explore social and emotional functions in patients with medial frontal damage including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
  20. doi request reprint Confabulation: damage to a specific inferior medial prefrontal system
    Martha S Turner
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK
    Cortex 44:637-48. 2008
    ..Performance on tests of memory and executive functioning showed considerable variability. Although a degree of memory impairment does seem necessary, performance on traditional executive tests is less helpful in explaining confabulation...
  21. pmc Frontal subregions mediating Elevator Counting task performance
    Sarah E MacPherson
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK
    Neuropsychologia 48:3679-82. 2010
    ..Research suggests that patients with medial lesions are susceptible to competition from task irrelevant schema; whereas the left lateral group in the current study may fail to keep track of the tones already presented...
  22. doi request reprint Preserved and impaired task-switching abilities in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease
    Cristiano Crescentini
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    J Neuropsychol 6:94-118. 2012
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Qualitatively different forms of pure alexia
    Cristina Rosazza
    Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste, Italy
    Cogn Neuropsychol 24:393-418. 2007
    ..e., single letters, sublexical letter groups, and the lexical unit), which can be selectively damaged. Finally, our data present difficulties for models of pure alexia that assume all patients to have a low-level processing deficit...
  24. ncbi request reprint Qualitatively different memory impairments across frontal lobe subgroups
    Martha S Turner
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London WC1N 3AR, UK
    Neuropsychologia 45:1540-52. 2007
    ..We offer two explanations for the pattern of performance in the Right Lateral group: failure of a right lateralised error detection and checking system, or an impairment in the active uncued initiation of a supervisory operation...
  25. ncbi request reprint Fractionation of memory in medial temporal lobe amnesia
    Chris M Bird
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17 Queen Square, WC1N 3AR London, UK
    Neuropsychologia 45:1160-71. 2007
    ..Face recognition memory may be adequately subserved by areas outside of the hippocampus...
  26. ncbi request reprint Prefrontal involvement in source memory: an electrophysiological investigation of accounts concerning confidence and accuracy
    Antonino Vallesi
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Brain Res 1124:111-25. 2006
    ..The dissociable effects found within the prefrontal scalp regions, specifically along the anterior-posterior and right-left dimensions, are interpreted as markers of qualitatively different monitoring processes...
  27. pmc White matter integrity assessed by diffusion tensor tractography in a patient with a large tumor mass but minimal clinical and neuropsychological deficits
    Marco Bozzali
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK
    Funct Neurol 27:239-46. 2012
    ..These findings fit well with the patient's substantial preservation of his motor abilities, while abnormalities of the SLF and CB could explain the subtle but detectable cognitive deficits...
  28. doi request reprint Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning
    Cristiano Crescentini
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, 34136 Trieste, Italy
    J Neurosci 31:7763-74. 2011
    ..The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases...
  29. doi request reprint Reaching a moveable visual target: dissociations in brain tumour patients
    Tania Buiatti
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, Italy Human Science Department, University of Udine, via Margreth 3, Udine, Italy
    Brain Cogn 82:6-17. 2013
    ..The findings suggest that deficits in pointing to peripheral and to moved targets reflect two at least partly independent processes...
  30. ncbi request reprint Supervisory and routine processes in noun and verb generation in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease
    Cristiano Crescentini
    International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Via Beirut, 2 4, 34014, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 46:434-47. 2008
    ..Our results are in line with the proposed non-language specific involvement of the basal ganglia in the supervisory rather than the routine semantic processes required during lexical retrieval...
  31. ncbi request reprint Left- and right-hemisphere forms of phonological alexia
    Tania Buiatti
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Cogn Neuropsychol 29:531-49. 2012
    ..They also pose new questions about the possible role of the right posterior cortex in letter sequence representation...
  32. ncbi request reprint Executive function profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Tim Shallice
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, England
    Dev Neuropsychol 21:43-71. 2002
    ..In addition, strategy generation and use were severely affected in the ADHD group. Particular findings fitted well with disorders of a high-level effort system and of a monitoring system...
  33. ncbi request reprint Specific impairments of rule induction in different frontal lobe subgroups
    Carlo Reverberi
    International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 43:460-72. 2005
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Manipulability and object recognition: is manipulability a semantic feature?
    Fabio Campanella
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy
    Exp Brain Res 208:369-83. 2011
    ..To our knowledge, this constitutes the first direct evidence of manipulability being a semantic dimension. The results are discussed in the light of current models of semantic memory organization...
  35. pmc Effect of frontal lobe lesions on the recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory
    Sarah E MacPherson
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK
    Neuropsychologia 46:3124-32. 2008
    ..Both analyses led to similar conclusions where only the familiarity component of recognition memory was impaired in frontal patients compared to healthy controls whilst the recollection-type (or variance ratio) processes remained intact...
  36. doi request reprint Spontaneous confabulation, temporal context confusion and reality monitoring: a study of three patients with anterior communicating artery aneurysms
    Martha S Turner
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 16:984-94. 2010
    ....
  37. doi request reprint Neural correlates of episodic retrieval: an fMRI study of the part-list cueing effect
    Cristiano Crescentini
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Neuroimage 50:678-92. 2010
    ..The implications of the results are discussed in relation to the cognitive mechanisms of inhibition, interference resolution, and encoding/retrieval strategies for episodic memory...
  38. pmc Multiple effects of prefrontal lesions on task-switching
    Tim Shallice
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London London, UK
    Front Hum Neurosci 1:2. 2007
    ..Several different processes are involved in task-switching and these are selectively disrupted by lesions to specific areas of the frontal lobes...
  39. doi request reprint Normalizing serial position analyses: the Proportional Accountability algorithm
    Jon Machtynger
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK
    Cogn Neuropsychol 26:217-22. 2009
    ..We argue that the Wing & Baddeley approach inadequately normalizes the allocation of errors to each serial position, and that a number of seminal publications have inadvertently referred to biased results as a consequence...
  40. ncbi request reprint Refractoriness and the healthy brain: a behavioural study on semantic access
    Fabio Campanella
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy Dipartimento di Filosofia, Universita Degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy
    Cognition 118:417-31. 2011
    ..The findings are discussed in the light of current models of lexical and semantic processing...
  41. ncbi request reprint Human cingulate cortex and autonomic control: converging neuroimaging and clinical evidence
    Hugo D Critchley
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Brain 126:2139-52. 2003
    ..Thus, converging neuroimaging and clinical findings suggest that ACC function mediates context-driven modulation of bodily arousal states...
  42. ncbi request reprint Bringing the cognitive estimation task into the 21st century: normative data on two new parallel forms
    Sarah E MacPherson
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, United Kingdom Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 9:e92554. 2014
    ..This study provides normative data for parallel forms of the CET for adults which are also suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction on more than one occasion without practice effects. ..
  43. ncbi request reprint Role of the prefrontal cortex in the foreperiod effect: TMS evidence for dual mechanisms in temporal preparation
    Antonino Vallesi
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, Italy
    Cereb Cortex 17:466-74. 2007
    ..Conversely, sequential effects were not influenced by TMS. A dual-process model of the FP phenomena is proposed to interpret the dissociation found between the 2 effects...
  44. pmc Mapping task switching in frontal cortex through neuropsychological group studies
    Tim Shallice
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA Trieste, Italy
    Front Neurosci 2:79-85. 2008
    ..The function of the individual subprocesses is also considered in the light of analyses of the performance of normal subjects...
  45. ncbi request reprint Patterns of peripheral paralexia: pure alexia and the forgotten visual dyslexia?
    Tim Shallice
    International School for Advanced Studies SISSA ISAS, Trieste, Italy
    Cortex 42:892-7. 2006
    ..The lack of a serial letter processing strategy makes visual dyslexia a much more transparent functional syndrome...
  46. pmc Introduction. Mental processes in the human brain
    Jon Driver
    UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London WCN1 3AR, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:757-60. 2007
  47. ncbi request reprint Functional imaging and neuropsychology findings: how can they be linked?
    Tim Shallice
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, 17 Queen Square, London, WC1N 3AR, UK
    Neuroimage 20:S146-54. 2003
    ..The argument is illustrated by the example of the control processes involved in functional episodic memory imaging of experiments...
  48. doi request reprint Frames of reference in spatial span
    Paolo Bernardis
    Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, SISSA ISAS International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, Italy
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 64:2438-54. 2011
    ..The results also provide some support for a mental rotation process involved in recognition following angular displacement of a multi-item display...
  49. ncbi request reprint On the emergence of modern humans
    Daniele Amati
    International School for Advanced Studies SISSA, Trieste, Italy
    Cognition 103:358-85. 2007
    ..A brain operation (latching) that allows this novel computational process is proposed as well as a physics-inspired mechanism that could explain its rather recent emergence without invoking unlikely genetic or structural changes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Action sequencing deficit following frontal lobe lesion
    Sergio Zanini
    Programme in Neuroscience, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste, Italy
    Neurocase 8:88-99. 2002
    ..Thus, they cannot account for our findings. On the contrary, we suggest that the action sequencing deficit was a consequence of the difficulties patients experienced in rejecting wrong alternatives presented by the stimulus situation...
  51. ncbi request reprint The roles of functional neuroimaging and cognitive neuropsychology in the development of cognitive theory: A reply to Coltheart
    Richard P Cooper
    a Department of Psychological Science, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK
    Cogn Neuropsychol 28:403-13. 2011
    This is a rejoinder in response to the book review by Max Coltheart on the book The Organization of Mind, edited by Tim Shallice and Richard P. Cooper, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 608. ISBN 978-0-19-957924-2.
  52. ncbi request reprint Keeping time: effects of focal frontal lesions
    Terence W Picton
    The Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ont, Canada M6A 2E1
    Neuropsychologia 44:1195-209. 2006
    ..In contrast, the superior medial regions of the frontal lobe are necessary to maintain consistent timing performance over prolonged periods of time...
  53. ncbi request reprint Multiple frontal systems controlling response speed
    Donald T Stuss
    The Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6A 2E1
    Neuropsychologia 43:396-417. 2005
    ..Monitoring of stimulus occurrence and response behaviour in order to enhance the speed of response to upcoming stimuli is sensitive to RL lesions...
  54. ncbi request reprint Generation and recognition of abstract rules in different frontal lobe subgroups
    Carlo Reverberi
    Department of Psychology, Universita Milano Bicocca, Piazza Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126 Milano, Italy
    Neuropsychologia 43:1924-37. 2005
    ..The Medial frontal subgroup, in contrast with our expectations, was impaired on Generation test; two hypotheses have been raised to explain this finding...
  55. ncbi request reprint Recollection and familiarity in dense hippocampal amnesia: a case study
    Lisa Cipolotti
    Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuropsychologia 44:489-506. 2006
    ..It also plays an appreciable role in familiarity processes for these stimuli. However, recollection and familiarity of human faces appear not to depend on this region...
  56. ncbi request reprint The different neural correlates of action and functional knowledge in semantic memory: an FMRI study
    Nicola Canessa
    CReSA, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20031, Milan, Italy
    Cereb Cortex 18:740-51. 2008
    ..These results confirm and extend previous neuropsychological data and support the hypothesis of the existence of different types of information processing in the internal organization of semantic memory...
  57. ncbi request reprint Effects of focal frontal lesions on response inhibition
    Terence W Picton
    Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario M6A 2E1, Canada
    Cereb Cortex 17:826-38. 2007
    ..Lesions to the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 44, 45, 47) also increased the variability of response, perhaps by disrupting monitoring performance...
  58. ncbi request reprint Dynamic aphasia in progressive supranuclear palsy: a deficit in generating a fluent sequence of novel thought
    Gail Robinson
    Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Neuropsychologia 44:1344-60. 2006
    ..We interpret our patients' impairment as being underpinned by a deficit in one set of mechanisms involved in discourse generation; namely the generation of a fluent sequence of novel thought...
  59. ncbi request reprint Task switching: a PDP model
    Sam J Gilbert
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, United Kingdom
    Cogn Psychol 44:297-337. 2002
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Hierarchical schemas and goals in the control of sequential behavior
    Richard P Cooper
    School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, London, England
    Psychol Rev 113:887-916; discussion 917-31. 2006
    ..The authors conclude that explicit hierarchically organized and causally efficacious schema and goal representations are required to provide an adequate account of the flexibility of sequential behavior...