M Gaudino

Summary

Country: Italy

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Severity of coronary artery stenosis at preoperative angiography and midterm mammary graft status
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 74:119-21. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Preoperative C-reactive protein level and outcome following coronary surgery
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 22:521-6. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical-scintigraphic correlation of sympathetic cardiac innervation in postischemic left ventricular aneurysms
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Nucl Cardiol 9:601-7. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Surgical management of a uterine leiomyoma extending through the inferior vena cava into the right heart
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Catholic University, Policlinico A Gemelli, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
    Heart Vessels 17:80-2. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Early vasoreactive profile of skeletonized versus pedicled internal thoracic artery grafts
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:638-41. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Early and late arrhythmias in patients in preoperative sinus rhythm submitted to mitral valve surgery through the superior septal approach
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 75:1181-4. 2003
  7. ncbi request reprint Localization of nitric oxide synthase type III in the internal thoracic and radial arteries and the great saphenous vein: a comparative immunohistochemical study
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:1510-5. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Atherosclerotic involvement of the radial artery in patients with coronary artery disease and its relation with midterm radial artery graft patency and endothelial function
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1968-71. 2003
  9. ncbi request reprint The -174G/C interleukin-6 polymorphism influences postoperative interleukin-6 levels and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Is atrial fibrillation an inflammatory complication?
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Cardiac Anaesthesiology, and Cardiology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 108:II195-9. 2003
  10. ncbi request reprint Genetic control of postoperative systemic inflammatory reaction and pulmonary and renal complications after coronary artery surgery
    Mario Gaudino
    Policlinico Universitario A Gemelli, Divisione di Cardiochirurgia, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1107-12. 2003

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. ncbi request reprint Severity of coronary artery stenosis at preoperative angiography and midterm mammary graft status
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 74:119-21. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the midterm angiographic results of mammary artery grafts and the preoperative stenosis of the target vessel...
  2. ncbi request reprint Preoperative C-reactive protein level and outcome following coronary surgery
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 22:521-6. 2002
    ..It has been suggested that a preoperative level of C-reactive protein (CRP)>5mg/l is predictive of postoperative complications in cardiac surgery patients...
  3. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical-scintigraphic correlation of sympathetic cardiac innervation in postischemic left ventricular aneurysms
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Nucl Cardiol 9:601-7. 2002
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Surgical management of a uterine leiomyoma extending through the inferior vena cava into the right heart
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Catholic University, Policlinico A Gemelli, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
    Heart Vessels 17:80-2. 2002
    ..Tumors in the heart and the inferior vena cava were removed using cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest; 10 days after the cardiac operation, hysteroadnexectomy was performed...
  5. ncbi request reprint Early vasoreactive profile of skeletonized versus pedicled internal thoracic artery grafts
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:638-41. 2003
    ..No data are available on the early vasoreactive profile of skeletonized internal thoracic artery grafts...
  6. ncbi request reprint Early and late arrhythmias in patients in preoperative sinus rhythm submitted to mitral valve surgery through the superior septal approach
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 75:1181-4. 2003
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the early and mid-term alterations of the cardiac rhythm in patients with preoperative sinus rhythm (SR) submitted to mitral valve surgery through the superior septal approach...
  7. ncbi request reprint Localization of nitric oxide synthase type III in the internal thoracic and radial arteries and the great saphenous vein: a comparative immunohistochemical study
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125:1510-5. 2003
    ..In this study the localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase type III within the wall of the human internal thoracic and radial arteries and the great saphenous vein was investigated...
  8. ncbi request reprint Atherosclerotic involvement of the radial artery in patients with coronary artery disease and its relation with midterm radial artery graft patency and endothelial function
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1968-71. 2003
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint The -174G/C interleukin-6 polymorphism influences postoperative interleukin-6 levels and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Is atrial fibrillation an inflammatory complication?
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Cardiac Anaesthesiology, and Cardiology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 108:II195-9. 2003
    ..9% of GG versus 10.4% of non-GG patients (hazard ratio 3.25, 95%CI 1.23 to 8.62). AF patients had higher blood levels of Interleukin-6 and fibrinogen after surgery (P<0.001 for difference between the area under the curve)...
  10. ncbi request reprint Genetic control of postoperative systemic inflammatory reaction and pulmonary and renal complications after coronary artery surgery
    Mario Gaudino
    Policlinico Universitario A Gemelli, Divisione di Cardiochirurgia, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1107-12. 2003
    ..1, respectively (P <.0001). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 22.5 +/- 2.1 versus 12.7 +/- 6.7 hours (P <.01). A correlation was found between postoperative interleukin 6 levels and renal and pulmonary complications...
  11. ncbi request reprint [Inflammatory and fibrinolytic activation after coronary artery bypass with extracorporeal circulation]
    Mario Gaudino
    Dipartimento di Medicina Cardiovascolare, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Policlinico A Gemelli Largo A, Gemelli, Roma
    Ital Heart J Suppl 3:646-51. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the course of the main inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers in patients undergoing primary elective coronary artery bypass graft with extracorporeal circulation...
  12. ncbi request reprint Normothermia does not improve postoperative hemostasis nor does it reduce inflammatory activation in patients undergoing primary isolated coronary artery bypass
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 123:1092-100. 2002
    ..Despite its common acceptance in clinical practice, the effective benefits of normothermic systemic perfusion during coronary artery bypass operations are far from established...
  13. ncbi request reprint Midterm endothelial function and remodeling of radial artery grafts anastomosed to the aorta
    M Gaudino
    Departments of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 120:298-301. 2000
    ..The purpose of this study was to elucidate the midterm endothelium-dependent vasodilatory capacity of radial artery grafts anastomosed to the aorta, as well as their morphometric evolution with the time...
  14. ncbi request reprint The unclampable ascending aorta in coronary artery bypass patients: A surgical challenge of increasing frequency
    M Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 102:1497-502. 2000
    ..The unclampable ascending aorta (UAA) is a condition increasingly encountered during CABG procedures. We report our experience with CABG patients with UAA and place particular emphasis on the preoperative diagnosis and surgical management...
  15. ncbi request reprint Clinical and angiographic effects of chronic calcium channel blocker therapy continued beyond first postoperative year in patients with radial artery grafts: results of a prospective randomized investigation
    M Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 104:I64-7. 2001
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Should severe monolateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis be treated at the time of coronary artery bypass operation?
    M Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 19:619-26. 2001
    ..The optimal treatment of severe monolateral asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (SMACS) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still controversial...
  17. ncbi request reprint Individualized surgical strategy for the reduction of stroke risk in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting
    M Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 67:1246-53. 1999
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Contemporary results for isolated aortic valve surgery
    M Gaudino
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 59:229-32. 2011
    ..We aimed to give an overview of the contemporary status of aortic valve replacement...
  19. ncbi request reprint Effect of skeletonization of the internal thoracic artery on vessel wall integrity
    M Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 68:1623-7. 1999
    ..This study was conceived to evaluate the effect of internal thoracic artery (ITA) skeletonization on vessel wall integrity...
  20. ncbi request reprint Do internal mammary artery side-branches have the potential for haemodynamically significant flow steal?
    M Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery and Angiology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 15:251-4. 1999
    ..To evaluate the potential for flow steal of the internal mammary artery (IMA) side-branches at rest and in case of dilatation of their vascular bed (as probably occurs during physical exercise)...
  21. ncbi request reprint An unusual source of massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage during cardio-pulmonary bypass
    F Di Pietrantonio
    Division of Heart Surgery, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
    J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 42:499-500. 2001
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Repair of an ascending aorta pseudoaneurysm by way of superior ministernotomy
    M Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 67:1798-800. 1999
    ..In this setting, a limited sternal incision minimized the risk of pseudoaneurysm rupture during dissection and allowed safe isolation of the target cardiac structures...
  23. pmc Impaired coronary and myocardial flow in severe aortic stenosis is associated with increased apoptosis: a transthoracic Doppler and myocardial contrast echocardiography study
    L Galiuto
    Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Heart 92:208-12. 2006
    ..To test the hypothesis that impaired coronary and myocardial blood flow are linked with increased myocyte apoptosis, thus establishing a link between pressure overload and left ventricular (LV) remodelling...
  24. ncbi request reprint Implantation in coronary circulation induces morphofunctional transformation of radial grafts from muscular to elastomuscular
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 112:I208-11. 2005
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Arterial versus venous bypass grafts in patients with in-stent restenosis
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 112:I265-9. 2005
    ..This study was designed to verify the surgical results in this setting and to evaluate the potential beneficial role of arterial bypass conduits...
  26. ncbi request reprint Thoracic radiation therapy and suitability of internal thoracic arteries for myocardial revascularization
    Giuseppe Nasso
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso, Italy
    Chest 128:1587-92. 2005
    ..We review our experience in this subset of surgical candidates...
  27. ncbi request reprint Harmonic scalpel reduces bleeding and postoperative complications in redo cardiac surgery
    Nicola Luciani
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 80:934-8. 2005
    ..The harmonic scalpel has been reported to achieve optimal tissue dissection with little blood loss. The present retrospective work was performed to evaluate the safety and usefulness of this device in redo cardiac surgery...
  28. ncbi request reprint Ten-year Echo-Doppler evaluation of forearm circulation following radial artery removal for coronary artery bypass grafting
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 29:71-3. 2006
    ..To investigate the chronic consequences of radial artery removal for coronary artery bypass surgery on the forearm circulation...
  29. ncbi request reprint Repeat valvular operations: bench optimization of conventional surgery
    Nicola Luciani
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 81:1279-83. 2006
    ..Repeat heart valve operations have become a quite common procedure. We reviewed our experience with reoperative valvular surgery during a 6-year period to assess the risk factors affecting in-hospital mortality and medium-term survival...
  30. ncbi request reprint Patients with in-stent restenosis have an increased risk of mid-term venous graft failure
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 82:802-4. 2006
    ..This study was designed to evaluate if patients in whom in-stent restenosis developed had an higher risk of early venous graft failure compared with normal patients...
  31. ncbi request reprint Polydioxanone sternal sutures for prevention of sternal dehiscence
    Nicola Luciani
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
    J Card Surg 21:580-4. 2006
    ..We tested the efficacy of polydioxanone (PDS) suture in sternal closure and in prevention of complications in comparison to steel wires in high-risk individuals...
  32. ncbi request reprint Long-term survival and quality of life of patients with prolonged postoperative intensive care unit stay: unmasking an apparent success
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 134:465-9. 2007
    ..Our objective was to evaluate the long-term survival and quality of life of patients who faced a prolonged (>10 days) postoperative stay in the intensive care unit and were discharged from the hospital...
  33. ncbi request reprint Chronic compensatory increase in ulnar flow and accelerated atherosclerosis after radial artery removal for coronary artery bypass
    Mario Gaudino
    Departments of Cardiac Surgery and Angiology, Catholic University, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 130:9-12. 2005
    ..Only scant information is available on the chronic consequences of radial artery removal for coronary artery bypass surgery on forearm circulation...
  34. ncbi request reprint Invited commentary
    Mario Gaudino
    Policlinico A Gemelli, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Universita Cattolica, L go A Gemelli 1, Rome, 00168 Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 84:799-800. 2007
  35. ncbi request reprint Is postoperative calcium channel blocker therapy needed in patients with radial artery grafts?
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 129:532-5. 2005
    ..This report was conceived to evaluate the angiographic and clinical effects of calcium channel blocker therapy during the first postoperative year...
  36. ncbi request reprint Survival after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: does left ventricular mass regression have a clinical correlate?
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Largo A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
    Eur Heart J 26:51-7. 2005
    ..This study was intended to establish the impact of patient characteristics on post-operative survival in patients referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR), with particular regard to LVMR...
  37. ncbi request reprint High risk coronary artery bypass patient: incidence, surgical strategies, and results
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 77:574-9; discussion 580. 2004
    ..To describe our experience in the treatment of high risk coronary artery bypass patients and compare patients assigned to on-pump or off-pump surgery...
  38. ncbi request reprint Long-term results of the radial artery used for myocardial revascularization
    Gianfederico Possati
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 108:1350-4. 2003
    ..No information is available on the long-term results of radial artery (RA) grafts used as coronary artery bypass conduits...
  39. ncbi request reprint Coronary artery bypass grafting in type II diabetic patients: a comparison between insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent patients at short- and mid-term follow-up
    Nicola Luciani
    Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 76:1149-54. 2003
    ..Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for coronary artery disease, and it is associated with an increased rate of early and late adverse events after myocardial revascularization by coronary artery bypass grafting...
  40. ncbi request reprint Effect of surgical revascularization of a right coronary artery tributary of an infarcted nonischemic territory on the outcome of patients with three-vessel disease: a prospective randomized trial
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardia Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127:435-9. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Myocardial ischemia, stunning, inflammation, and apoptosis during cardiac surgery: a review of evidence
    Amedeo Anselmi
    Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Campus Biomedico University, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 25:304-11. 2004
    ..This review will provide an overview of the major studies about the link between ischemia, myocardial inflammation and apoptosis during and after CS, with particular regard to the markers and methods for apoptosis detection...
  42. ncbi request reprint Effect of target artery location and severity of stenosis on mid-term patency of aorta-anastomosed vs. internal thoracic artery-anastomosed radial artery grafts
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 25:424-8. 2004
    ..To verify the effect of location and severity of stenosis of the target coronary artery (TCA) on mid-term patency of aorta-anastomosed vs. internal thoracic artery (ITA)-anastomosed radial artery (RA) graft...
  43. ncbi request reprint Composite Y internal thoracic artery-saphenous vein grafts: short-term angiographic results and vasoreactive profile
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127:1139-44. 2004
    ..The angiographic patency of composite Y internal thoracic artery-saphenous vein grafts has not been investigated in detail...
  44. ncbi request reprint Risks of using internal thoracic artery grafts in patients in chronic hemodialysis via upper extremity arteriovenous fistula
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Circulation 107:2653-5. 2003
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Skeletonization does not influence internal thoracic artery innervation
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Institute of Human Anatomy, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 77:1257-61. 2004
    ..This study was designed to compare the effect of surgical harvesting on internal thoracic artery innervation and to assess the eventual presence of denervation supersensitivity in skeletonized grafts...
  46. ncbi request reprint [Heart surgery interventions in chronic dialysis patients: short- and long-term results]
    Nicola Luciani
    Cattedra di Cardiochirurgia, Dipartimento di Medicina Cardiovascolare, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Francesco Vito, 1, 00168 Roma
    Ital Heart J Suppl 3:746-52. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term follow-up of patients in dialysis undergoing cardiac surgery...
  47. ncbi request reprint Treatment of mediastinitis using an open irrigation and delayed sternal reconstruction with a pectoralis major muscle flap
    Nicola Luciani
    Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ital Heart J 4:468-72. 2003
    ..To date, the optimal treatment of mediastinitis is still controversial: the "closed wound" procedures and the "open wound" treatments are the two conventional modalities reported in the literature...
  48. ncbi request reprint Myocardial apoptosis predicts postoperative course after aortic valve replacement in patients with severe left ventricular hypertrophy
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
    J Heart Valve Dis 16:344-8. 2007
    ..The study aim was to evaluate the impact of cardiomyocyte apoptosis on the postoperative course after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic stenosis...
  49. ncbi request reprint Immediate flow reserve of Y thoracic artery grafts: an intraoperative flowmetric study
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, G D Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1076-9. 2003
    ..We evaluated intraoperatively the flow reserve of a Y thoracic artery graft distally anastomosed to the anterior and lateral territories...
  50. ncbi request reprint Managing latex-free mitral valve replacement
    Marco Rossi
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Division of Cardiac Anesthesia, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 79:703-5. 2005
    ..We describe successful mitral valve replacement in a latex-allergic patient using an integrated multidisciplinary approach. We also provide a list of some available latex-free products or latex-free alternatives...
  51. ncbi request reprint Midterm angiographic patency and vasoreactive profile of proximal versus distal radial artery grafts
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 79:1987-9. 2005
    ..This study was conceived to evaluate the angiographic patency and tendency to spasm of proximal versus distal RA grafts...
  52. ncbi request reprint Left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: time course and determinants
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    J Heart Valve Dis 13:S55-8. 2004
  53. ncbi request reprint Different profiles of patients who require dialysis after cardiac surgery
    Mario Gaudino
    Department of Cardiac Surgery, Catholic University, Rome, Italy
    Ann Thorac Surg 79:825-9; author reply 829-30. 2005
    ..This study was aimed at evaluating the determinants of postoperative dialysis-requiring acute renal failure and at identifying eventual correlations between the different etiologic mechanisms and postoperative prognosis...
  54. ncbi request reprint Finding a compromise between the heart and the brain: strategies for stroke risk reduction in coronary artery surgery
    Gianfederico Possati
    Ital Heart J 3:146-50. 2002