M De Martino

Summary

Country: Italy

Publications

  1. pmc Highly active antiretroviral therapy restores in vitro mitogen and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses in HIV-1 perinatally infected children despite virological failure
    M Peruzzi
    Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    Clin Exp Immunol 128:365-71. 2002
  2. pmc Sweat testing in newborns positive to neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis
    G Taccetti
    Meyer Pediatric Hospital, University of Florence, Via L Giordano 13, Florence 50132, Italy
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F463-4. 2004
  3. ncbi Epidemiology of hospital admissions for chickenpox in children: an Italian multicentre study in the pre-vaccine era
    S Marchetto
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Acta Paediatr 96:1490-3. 2007
  4. ncbi Eyelash length in children with vernal keratoconjunctivitis: effect of treatment with cyclosporine eye drops
    N Pucci
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 20:595-9. 2007
  5. doi Loss of efficacy during long-term infliximab therapy for sight-threatening childhood uveitis
    G Simonini
    Department of Paediatrics, Rheumatology Unit, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital and University of Florence, Italy
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 47:1510-4. 2008
  6. ncbi Interleukin-6 release by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells inversely correlates with height velocity, bone age, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 serum levels in children with perinatal HIV-1 infectio
    M De Martino
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, I 50132, Italy
    Clin Immunol 94:212-8. 2000
  7. pmc Viral load and CD69 molecule expression on freshly isolated and cultured mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes of children with perinatal HIV-1 infection
    M De Martino
    Department of Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy
    Clin Exp Immunol 117:513-6. 1999
  8. ncbi TT virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected mothers and their infants
    M De Martino
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    J Med Virol 61:347-51. 2000
  9. ncbi Reduction in mortality with availability of antiretroviral therapy for children with perinatal HIV-1 infection. Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children and the Italian National AIDS Registry
    M De Martino
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Via Luca Giordano 13, I 50132 Florence, Italy
    JAMA 284:190-7. 2000
  10. ncbi Allergen specific nasal challenge to latex in children with latex allergy: clinical and immunological evaluation
    R Bernardini
    Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Via Luca Giordano 13, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 21:333-41. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. pmc Highly active antiretroviral therapy restores in vitro mitogen and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses in HIV-1 perinatally infected children despite virological failure
    M Peruzzi
    Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    Clin Exp Immunol 128:365-71. 2002
    ..It implies that a direct mechanism might be involved in the overall immune recovery under HAART...
  2. pmc Sweat testing in newborns positive to neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis
    G Taccetti
    Meyer Pediatric Hospital, University of Florence, Via L Giordano 13, Florence 50132, Italy
    Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89:F463-4. 2004
    ..There are no significant correlations between age at sweat testing and sweat chloride concentration or quantity of sweat collected...
  3. ncbi Epidemiology of hospital admissions for chickenpox in children: an Italian multicentre study in the pre-vaccine era
    S Marchetto
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Acta Paediatr 96:1490-3. 2007
    ..To describe the chickenpox complications in children in Italy...
  4. ncbi Eyelash length in children with vernal keratoconjunctivitis: effect of treatment with cyclosporine eye drops
    N Pucci
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 20:595-9. 2007
    ....
  5. doi Loss of efficacy during long-term infliximab therapy for sight-threatening childhood uveitis
    G Simonini
    Department of Paediatrics, Rheumatology Unit, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital and University of Florence, Italy
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 47:1510-4. 2008
    ..To describe efficacy and safety of infliximab in the treatment of childhood chronic uveitis during a long-term follow-up...
  6. ncbi Interleukin-6 release by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells inversely correlates with height velocity, bone age, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 serum levels in children with perinatal HIV-1 infectio
    M De Martino
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, I 50132, Italy
    Clin Immunol 94:212-8. 2000
    ..Growth-promoting strategies, including targeted anticytokine treatments, could be devised for such children...
  7. pmc Viral load and CD69 molecule expression on freshly isolated and cultured mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes of children with perinatal HIV-1 infection
    M De Martino
    Department of Medicine, Section of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy
    Clin Exp Immunol 117:513-6. 1999
    ..CD8+CD69+ (but not CD4+CD69+) lymphocyte proportion correlated with virologic course, and an impaired ability of CD8+ lymphocytes to express CD69 upon PHA stimulation preceded a virologic worsening...
  8. ncbi TT virus infection in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected mothers and their infants
    M De Martino
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    J Med Virol 61:347-51. 2000
    ..TTV infection in HIV 1 infected women is prevalently related to intravenous drug user. The findings suggest that infants may acquire TTV at birth. Infection may persist without evident liver disease...
  9. ncbi Reduction in mortality with availability of antiretroviral therapy for children with perinatal HIV-1 infection. Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children and the Italian National AIDS Registry
    M De Martino
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Via Luca Giordano 13, I 50132 Florence, Italy
    JAMA 284:190-7. 2000
    ..However, little information is available outside the setting of controlled trials on survival of perinatally HIV-infected children treated with antiretroviral therapy...
  10. ncbi Allergen specific nasal challenge to latex in children with latex allergy: clinical and immunological evaluation
    R Bernardini
    Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Via Luca Giordano 13, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 21:333-41. 2008
    ..MFNS premedication before an ASNCL may prevent some immunological responses induced by ASNCL without clinical allergic modifications...
  11. ncbi Onset of clinical signs in children with HIV-1 perinatal infection. Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children
    L Galli
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    AIDS 9:455-61. 1995
    ..Infection is shown to progress faster than in adults and in a different manner. Low birthweight, early decreased CD4+ cell counts, and early onset of signs are predictive of rapid progression...
  12. ncbi Cost of varicella-related hospitalisations in an Italian paediatric hospital: comparison with possible vaccination expenses
    C Azzari
    Paediatric Immunology Unit, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital and University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Curr Med Res Opin 23:2945-54. 2007
    ....
  13. ncbi Puberty in perinatal HIV-1 infection: a multicentre longitudinal study of 212 children
    M De Martino
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    AIDS 15:1527-34. 2001
    ..Intervention could save much psychological distress, since associated linear growth failure can exacerbate adolescents' feelings of being different and unwell...
  14. ncbi Restored antioxidant capacity parallels the immunologic and virologic improvement in children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
    M De Martino
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Clin Immunol 100:82-6. 2001
    ..A positive feedback may be triggered since restored antioxidant capacity counterbalances the oxidative stress, which enhances lymphocyte apoptosis and HIV replication...
  15. ncbi Evidence of transmission of a Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone: a family affair
    P Cocchi
    Department of Sciences for Woman and Child s Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Clin Microbiol Infect 19:1158-62. 2013
    ..Our findings may have considerable implications for strategies for infection control and treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections...
  16. ncbi Vertical hepatitis C virus transmission is not related to mother-child class-1 HLA concordance
    C Azzari
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 20:827-31. 2007
    ..30) and when only A and B alleles were evaluated (p=0.59). Mother-infant HLA concordance does not affect HCV vertical transmission...
  17. ncbi Macrophage migration inhibitory factor -173 polymorphism and risk of coronary alterations in children with Kawasaki disease
    G Simonini
    Department of Paediatrics, Rheumatology Unit, A Meyer Children s Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 27:1026-30. 2009
    ..To investigate the possible relationship between MIF -173 polymorphism and susceptibility to, and severity of, Kawasaki disease (KD) in a cohort of Italian patients...
  18. ncbi Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    E Chiappini
    Department of Sciences for Woman and Child s Health, Anna Meyer Children s University Hospital Florence, University of Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 25:557-64. 2012
    ..95 (95% CI:0.93- 0.97) and 0.96 (95% CI:0.93-1.00), respectively. Pooled TST specificity was significantly lower 0.83 (95% CI:0.74-0.92). IGRA performance in children showed no better sensitivity than TST, but higher specificity...
  19. ncbi Immune recovery following antineoplastic chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a child with HIV-1 infection previously unresponsive to HAART
    L Galli
    Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 19:919-22. 2006
    ....
  20. ncbi SEN virus co-infection among HCV-RNA-positive mothers, risk of transmission to the offspring and outcome of child infection during a 1-year follow-up
    M Moriondo
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Italy and Paediatric Hospital Anna Meyer, Florence, Italy
    J Viral Hepat 14:355-9. 2007
    ..Persistence of SENV infection was demonstrated in 100% of infected children after 1-year follow-up, but none had clinical evidence of liver disease...
  21. ncbi Different kinetics of immunologic recovery using nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens in children with perinatal HIV-1 infection
    M De Luca
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 18:729-35. 2005
    ....
  22. ncbi Thyroid function in children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    F Chiarelli
    Department of Medicine, University of Chieti, Italy
    Thyroid 10:499-505. 2000
    ..To study thyroid function in children with perinatal HIV-1 infection retrospectively and determine whether thyroid abnormalities are correlated with clinical condition, disease progression, immunological impairment, and viral load...
  23. ncbi Pertussis immunization in HIV-1-infected infants: a model to assess the effects of repeated T cell-dependent antigen administrations on HIV-1 progression. Italian Register for HIV infection in children
    P A Tovo
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Turin, Italy
    Vaccine 18:1203-9. 2000
    ..The lack of a significant impact on clinical and immunological deterioration by the repeated administrations of a T cell-dependent vaccine endorses the current recommendations for routine immunizations in HIV-1-infected children...
  24. ncbi Hospitalization rates for complicated and uncomplicated chickenpox in a poorly vaccined pediatric population
    F Bonsignori
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Via Luca Giordano, 13, I 50132, Florence, Italy
    Infection 35:444-50. 2007
    ..A retrospective study was conducted to provide epidemiological data on hospitalization for complicated and uncomplicated chickenpox in a pediatric population...
  25. ncbi Azithromycin anaphylaxis in children
    F Mori
    Allergy Unit, A Meyer Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, The University of Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 27:121-6. 2014
    ..Moreover, this study shows that cross-reactivity may occur between different macrolidic molecules; it has even been suggested that macrolide allergies are unlikely to be class allergies...
  26. ncbi Hospitalization rates of complicated pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia is increasing in Tuscan children
    F Bonsignori
    Department of Sciences for Woman and Child s Health, Anna Meyer Children s University Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 26:995-1005. 2013
    ..41 in 2009 per 100,000 children) over the study period were highlighted. Our epidemiological data confirm the decision to introduce the PCV13 vaccine, to satisfy the need to prevent a wider group of pneumococcal serotypes. ..
  27. ncbi Birth weight for gestational age centiles for Italian neonates
    F Festini
    Regional Cystic Fibrosis Center of Tuscany, Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Meyer Pediatric Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Via Luca Giordano 12, 50132 Florence, Italy
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 15:411-7. 2004
    ..To provide centiles for birth weight (BW) according to gestational age (GA) and sex for infants born in Italy...
  28. ncbi Autoimmunity: basic mechanisms and implications in endocrine diseases. Part II
    S Ballotti
    Department of Paediatrics, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Horm Res 66:142-52. 2006
    ..In addition, autoimmunity does not always have pathological consequences, but may exert a protective function, as suggested by several observations on the beneficial role of autoreactive T cells in central nervous system injury...
  29. ncbi Diagnostic value of three different latex extracts
    R Bernardini
    Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology Center, Department of Pediatrics, Anna Meyer Children Hospital, University of Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 20:393-400. 2007
    ..This study showed that SL extract is able to express the best in vitro and in vivo diagnostic potential. Thus, its use should be preferred for the diagnosis of patients affected by latex allergy...
  30. doi Systemic treatment of rhinosinusitis in children
    E Novembre
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 18:56-61. 2007
    ..To date, there is no good evidence from randomized controlled studies to support the use of any of these agents in the treatment of this disease in either children or adults...
  31. ncbi Macrophage activation syndrome in a child affected by malaria: the choice of steroid
    S Trapani
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s University Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 26:535-9. 2013
    ..Clinicians should be aware of this syndrome when malaria does not respond to conventional therapy, since early diagnosis and prompt treatment may dramatically reduce the mortality associated with this condition...
  32. ncbi Vaccines and autoimmunity
    M De Martino
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s University Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 26:283-90. 2013
    ..Vaccines are not a source of autoimmune diseases. By contrast, absolute evidence exists that infectious agents can trigger autoimmune mechanisms and that they do cause autoimmune diseases...
  33. ncbi The infections of the upper respiratory tract in children
    F Bonsignori
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer University Children s Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23:16-9. 2010
    ..The first choice treatment in European countries still remains amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate...
  34. ncbi CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells are not involved in oral desensitization
    F Mori
    Allergy and Clinical Immunological Unit, A Meyer Children Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23:359-61. 2010
    ....
  35. doi Respiratory impedance and bronchodilator response in healthy Italian preschool children
    C Calogero
    Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer University Hospital for Children, Florence, Italy
    Pediatr Pulmonol 45:1086-94. 2010
    ..To define normal values for respiratory resistance (R(rs)) and reactance (X(rs)) and bronchodilator response (BDR) in a population of healthy Italian preschool children using a commercially available forced oscillation device...
  36. ncbi Neonatal suppurative parotitis: a study of five cases
    G Sabatino
    Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University of Chieti, Italy
    Eur J Pediatr 158:312-4. 1999
    ..52 (0.62-49.35). Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism most commonly detected in the hospital-acquired cases. Antimicrobial therapy was effective in all cases; surgery was not required...
  37. ncbi Approaches to quality of control in diabetes care
    F Chiarelli
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Italy
    Horm Res 50:41-7. 1998
    ....
  38. pmc Cytokine expression in CD3+ cells in an infant with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES): case report
    F Mori
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Meyer Children Hospital, University of Florence, 50122 Florence, Italy
    Clin Dev Immunol 2009:679381. 2009
    ..On the other hand, T cell-derived IL-10 may play a role in the acquisition of immunotolerance by regulating the Th1 and Th2 responses...
  39. doi Treating paediatric community-acquired pneumonia in the era of antimicrobial resistance
    L Galli
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s University Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Acta Paediatr Suppl 102:25-33. 2013
    ..When empirical first-line treatment administration fails, paediatricians should consider second-line treatments based on the prevalence of local resistance. A more judicious use of antimicrobial agents is also required...
  40. ncbi Interferon-gamma release assays for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: a literature review
    E Chiappini
    Department of Science for Woman and Childs Health, University of Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 25:335-43. 2012
    ..Combined use of TST/IGRA may increase diagnostic sensitivity but interpretation of discordant results remains a challenging issue...
  41. pmc Intracardiac left atrial tuberculoma in an eleven-month-old infant: case report
    M Cantinotti
    Department of Sciences for Woman and Child s Health, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s University Hospital, Florence, Italy
    BMC Infect Dis 11:359. 2011
    ..Involvement of other part of the heart is unusual and descriptions in the pediatric literature are confined to few case reports regarding mainly myocardial tuberculosis...
  42. ncbi Recurrent respiratory infections: why not talking about it any more?
    E Nencioni
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    Minerva Pediatr 60:1411-6. 2008
    ..Use of anti-cough syrups should be avoided. Nasal lavage with saline serum and the blowing are the only justified interventions. Adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy should be planned only in conditions included in validated guidelines...
  43. ncbi Inhibition of natural killer cell cytotoxicity and interferon gamma production by the envelope protein of HIV and prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide
    M Peruzzi
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16:1067-73. 2000
    ....
  44. ncbi Therapeutic management of bacterial meningitis in children: a systematic review and comparison of published guidelines from a European perspective
    M De Gaudio
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    J Chemother 22:226-37. 2010
    ..further studies and expert consensus are required to establish the best management of bacterial meningitis in the european setting based on the most recent epidemiological data on resistance rates...
  45. ncbi Natural killer cell deficiencies in a consecutive series of children with herpetic encephalitis
    F Almerigogna
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 24:231-8. 2011
    ..These findings suggest a role for NK cell deficiencies as a predisposing factor for increased susceptibility and severe course of disease in these patients...
  46. ncbi Increased Na+/Li+ countertransport activity may help to identify type 1 diabetic adolescents and young adults at risk for developing persistent microalbuminuria
    F Chiarelli
    Department of Medicine, University of Chieti, Italy
    Diabetes Care 22:1158-64. 1999
    ....
  47. doi The child with recurrent respiratory infections: normal or not?
    M De Martino
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 18:13-8. 2007
    ..When RRI diagnosis has been formulated, removal of environmental risk factors (i.e. precocious day-care attendance, smoking in the household) must first be suggested...
  48. ncbi Antimicrobial susceptibility and synergistic activity of meropenem against Gram-negative non-fermentative bacteria isolated from cystic fibrosis patients
    S Campana
    Department of Pediatrics, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    J Chemother 15:551-4. 2003
    ..Therefore in vitro methods for testing double antibiotic combinations are mandatory...
  49. ncbi Comparison between pulse oximetry and transthoracic impedance alarm traces during home monitoring
    N Nassi
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Anna Meyer Children s University Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Arch Dis Child 93:126-32. 2008
    ..To compare transthoracic impedance (TTI/ECG) and pulse oximetry alarm traces detected during home monitoring in infants at risk of apnoea, bradycardia and hypoxaemia...
  50. doi Molecular epidemiology of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Italian cystic fibrosis patients: a national overview
    P Cocchi
    Department of Sciences for Woman and Child s Health, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    J Cyst Fibros 10:407-11. 2011
    ..The aim of this multicentre study was to analyse MRSA strains isolated from CF patients attending nine Italian CF care centres during a two-year period (2004-2005). All CF patients infected by MRSA were included...
  51. ncbi Cross-reactivity between IgE-binding proteins from Anisakis simplex and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
    R Bernardini
    Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonary Center, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 18:671-5. 2005
    ..The results show that 1) cross-reactive components between Dp and As are some proteins with a mw ranging approximately from 35 to 50 kD and with a mw > than 100 kD, and 2) tr is not involved in cross-reactivity between As and Dp...
  52. ncbi Autoimmunity: basic mechanisms and implications in endocrine diseases. Part I
    S Ballotti
    Department of Paediatrics, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Horm Res 66:132-41. 2006
    ..These events may be involved in the pathogenesis of endocrine diseases at several levels...
  53. pmc Sex ratio at birth among Chinese babies born in Italy is lower than in China
    F Festini
    Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Meyer Paediatric Hospital, University of Florence, Italy
    J Epidemiol Community Health 57:967-8. 2003
  54. ncbi Macroangiopathy in adults and children with diabetes: risk factors (part 2)
    D Di Marzio
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, Italy
    Horm Metab Res 38:706-20. 2006
    ....
  55. ncbi [Incidence of nosocomial rotavirus infections in a pediatric hospital over a 3-year period]
    K P Biermann
    Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Meyer, Florence, Italy
    Minerva Pediatr 58:477-82. 2006
    ..To estimate the incidence rate of hospital-acquired rotavirus infections (HRI) in a paediatric hospital in a 3-year period; the risk of HRI associated to age, sex, ward, season; the cost determined by HRI for the healthcare system...