W T McNicholas

Summary

Affiliation: University College Dublin
Country: Ireland

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: translating science to clinical practice
    Walter T McNicholas
    Respiratory Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Respirology 11:136-44. 2006
  2. doi request reprint Sleep disorders in COPD: the forgotten dimension
    Walter T McNicholas
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur Respir Rev 22:365-75. 2013
  3. ncbi request reprint Impact of sleep on respiratory muscle function
    W T McNicholas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 57:277-80. 2002
  4. doi request reprint Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adults
    Walter T McNicholas
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, and UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College, Dublin Ireland
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 5:154-60. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Sleep apnoea as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: current evidence, basic mechanisms and research priorities
    W T McNicholas
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 29:156-78. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnea and inflammation
    Walter T McNicholas
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 51:392-9. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Long-acting inhaled anticholinergic therapy improves sleeping oxygen saturation in COPD
    W T McNicholas
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 23:825-31. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Impact of sleep on ventilation and gas exchange in chronic lung disease
    W T McNicholas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 59:212-5. 2003
  9. doi request reprint Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease
    Walter T McNicholas
    Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:692-700. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Public health and medicolegal implications of sleep apnoea
    J Krieger
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 20:1594-609. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: translating science to clinical practice
    Walter T McNicholas
    Respiratory Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Respirology 11:136-44. 2006
    ..Sympathetic overactivity also appears to play an important role but the mechanisms involved are unclear...
  2. doi request reprint Sleep disorders in COPD: the forgotten dimension
    Walter T McNicholas
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur Respir Rev 22:365-75. 2013
    ..Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure alleviates hypoxaemia, reduces hospitalisation and pulmonary hypertension, and improves survival. ..
  3. ncbi request reprint Impact of sleep on respiratory muscle function
    W T McNicholas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 57:277-80. 2002
    ..These changes contribute to hypoventilation and worsening ventilation-perfusion mismatching, particularly in patients with chronic lung disease such as COPD, with resulting oxygen desaturation...
  4. doi request reprint Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adults
    Walter T McNicholas
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, and UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College, Dublin Ireland
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 5:154-60. 2008
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Sleep apnoea as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: current evidence, basic mechanisms and research priorities
    W T McNicholas
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 29:156-78. 2007
    ..Furthermore, translational studies involving cell culture and animal models linked to studies of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients are necessary to integrate basic mechanisms with the clinical disorder...
  6. doi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnea and inflammation
    Walter T McNicholas
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 51:392-9. 2009
    ..The precise role of inflammation in the development of cardiovascular disease in OSAS requires further study, particularly the relationship with oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and obesity...
  7. ncbi request reprint Long-acting inhaled anticholinergic therapy improves sleeping oxygen saturation in COPD
    W T McNicholas
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 23:825-31. 2004
    ..End-of-treatment FEV1 correlated with Sa,O2 during REM sleep, however, tiotropium did not change sleep quality. Sustained anticholinergic blockade improves sleeping arterial oxygen saturation without affecting sleep quality...
  8. ncbi request reprint Impact of sleep on ventilation and gas exchange in chronic lung disease
    W T McNicholas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 59:212-5. 2003
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease
    Walter T McNicholas
    Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:692-700. 2009
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Public health and medicolegal implications of sleep apnoea
    J Krieger
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 20:1594-609. 2002
  11. ncbi request reprint Cardiovascular outcomes of CPAP therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    Walter T McNicholas
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s Univ Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 293:R1666-70. 2007
    ..Furthermore, studies on the impact of CPAP therapy have provided useful information concerning the role of basic cell and molecular mechanisms in the pathophysiology of OSAS...
  12. ncbi request reprint Follow-up and outcomes of nasal CPAP therapy in patients with sleep apnea syndrome
    W T McNicholas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 56:535-9. 2001
    ..However, the much higher cost of auto-CPAP devices compared to standard CPAP does not justify the routine use of these more expensive devices at this time...
  13. ncbi request reprint Comparison of three auto-adjusting positive pressure devices in patients with sleep apnoea
    G M Nolan
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 28:159-64. 2006
    ..Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure devices differ in pressure delivery and patient compliance in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients...
  14. doi request reprint Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?
    S Ryan
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Thorax 64:631-6. 2009
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Effects of positive airway pressure on upper airway dilator muscle activity and ventilatory timing
    P C Deegan
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 81:470-9. 1996
    ..In contrast, EPAP increases UA dilator muscle activity, with the response mediated by conscious influences or reflexes arising outside of the UA...
  16. doi request reprint Cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: the role of intermittent hypoxia and inflammation
    J F Garvey
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 33:1195-205. 2009
    ..Expanding our understanding of these pathways, the cross-talk between them and the activation of inflammatory mechanisms by intermittent hypoxia in OSAS will provide new avenues of therapeutic opportunity for the disease...
  17. ncbi request reprint Impact of sleep in COPD
    W T McNicholas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Chest 117:48S-53S. 2000
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Predictors of decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    Silke Ryan
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Chest 131:1100-7. 2007
    ..We investigated the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) during sleep in well-selected OSAS patient and control subject cohorts..
  19. pmc Cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and correlation with obesity
    Silke Ryan
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Thorax 62:509-14. 2007
    ..A study was undertaken to investigate the levels of these factors in carefully selected patients with OSAS and matched normal controls...
  20. pmc Reflex respiratory response to changes in upper airway pressure in the anaesthetized rat
    S Ryan
    Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Conway Institute for Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Physiol 537:251-65. 2001
    ..Tonic activity in SLN afferent fibres at zero transmural pressure exerts a marked inhibitory effect on UA motor outflow...
  21. ncbi request reprint Implications of pathophysiology for management of the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
    W T McNicholas
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 53:524-9. 1998
    ..A better understanding of the integrated pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome should help both in the choice of optimum therapy for each individual patient and also in the development of new therapeutic techniques...
  22. ncbi request reprint Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: who should be treated?
    W T McNicholas
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and the Respiratory Sleep Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Sleep 23:S187-90. 2000
    ..Criteria based on AHI levels are inappropriate to dictate treatment choice, particularly NCPAP...
  23. ncbi request reprint Intermittent hypoxia and activation of inflammatory molecular pathways in OSAS
    Silke Ryan
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Arch Physiol Biochem 114:261-6. 2008
    ..This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence of inflammatory mechanisms initiated by IH that may contribute to the cardiovascular pathogenesis in OSAS...
  24. ncbi request reprint Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations
    John F Garvey
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Indian J Med Res 131:259-66. 2010
    ..Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management...
  25. pmc Electrocardiogram recording as a screening tool for sleep disordered breathing
    Conor Heneghan
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, Engineering and Material Sciences Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    J Clin Sleep Med 4:223-8. 2008
    ..This study prospectively compares the outcomes of an automated ECG-based SDB screening tool with simultaneous polysomnography...
  26. ncbi request reprint Predictors of elevated nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent genes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    Silke Ryan
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174:824-30. 2006
    ..Furthermore, TNF-alpha is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. We investigated the predictors of TNF-alpha and related genes in large, well-selected cohorts of subjects with OSAS and control subjects...
  27. pmc A portable automated assessment tool for sleep apnea using a combined Holter-oximeter
    Conor Heneghan
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Sleep 31:1432-9. 2008
    ..This study validates a combined electrocardiogram and oximetry recorder (Holter-oximeter) against simultaneous polysomnography for detection of sleep apnea...
  28. ncbi request reprint Long-term effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in sleep apnea syndrome
    Liam S Doherty
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Chest 127:2076-84. 2005
    ..Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, principally from cardiovascular disease, but the impact of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is unclear...
  29. ncbi request reprint Inspiratory flow limitation during sleep in pre-eclampsia: comparison with normal pregnant and nonpregnant women
    G Connolly
    Depts of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 18:672-6. 2001
    ..05) in BP during sleep. Inspiratory flow limitation is common during sleep in patients with pre-eclampsia, which may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of this disorder...
  30. ncbi request reprint Late-onset central hypoventilation syndrome: a family genetic study
    L S Doherty
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Eur Respir J 29:312-6. 2007
    ..The present study of a unique family confirms that transmission of late-onset congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is autosomal dominant in nature...
  31. pmc Intranasal corticosteroid therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with co-existing rhinitis
    J L Kiely
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and the Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Thorax 59:50-5. 2004
    ..There are no reports of intranasal corticosteroid therapy in adult OSAS patients with reversible nasal obstruction...
  32. doi request reprint Multimodal detection of sleep apnoea using electrocardiogram and oximetry signals
    Philip de Chazal
    BiancaMed, NovaUCD, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 367:369-89. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that home-based screening for sleep apnoea is a viable alternative to hospital-based tests with the added benefit of low cost and minimal waiting times...
  33. doi request reprint SleepMinder: an innovative contact-free device for the estimation of the apnoea-hypopnoea index
    Alberto Zaffaroni
    BiancaMed Ltd, NovaUCD, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2009:7091-4. 2009
    ..8-96 events/hours). SleepMinder's AHI estimation has a correlation of 91% and can detect clinically significant SDB (AHI>15) with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 92%...
  34. ncbi request reprint Inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
    Silke Ryan
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 7:76-81. 2009
    ..This review will focus on the potential role of various inflammatory markers in OSAS with a critical analysis of the current literature...
  35. ncbi request reprint Selective activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    Silke Ryan
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Circulation 112:2660-7. 2005
    ..We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of this association in a translational study...
  36. ncbi request reprint Towards automated sleep state estimation using a Holter-oximeter
    C P Chua
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Ireland
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2007:3998-4001. 2007
    ..Autonomic arousals detected using pulse arrival time also appeared to be strongly correlated with Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores...
  37. ncbi request reprint Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?
    S Ryan
    St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Postgrad Med J 85:693-8. 2009
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Home mechanical ventilation
    L S Doherty
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4
    Ir Med J 98:202-6. 2005
    ..The majority of HMV users (95%) were prescribed pressure-cycled ventilators. The survey identified inadequate procedures for follow-up of patients on HMV and an over-reliance on equipment suppliers for patient support...
  39. pmc Effects of heated humidification and topical steroids on compliance, nasal symptoms, and quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome using nasal continuous positive airway pressure
    Silke Ryan
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    J Clin Sleep Med 5:422-7. 2009
    ..We tested the hypothesis that heated humidification or nasal topical steroids improve compliance, nasal side effects and quality of life in this patient group...
  40. doi request reprint The role of nasal CPAP in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome due to mandibular hypoplasia
    Stanley D W Miller
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Respirology 15:377-9. 2010
    ..There is a definite role for nCPAP therapy in patients with congenital micrognathia and OSAS. The use of nCPAP may obviate the need for more invasive corrective surgery for OSAS and is not necessarily a life-long requirement...
  41. ncbi request reprint Impact of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy on the quality of life of bed partners of patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    Liam S Doherty
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Chest 124:2209-14. 2003
    ..However, few studies have examined the impact of treatment on the quality of life of bed partners of these patients...
  42. ncbi request reprint Improved ventilatory function associated with relief of chest pain in a patient with Kartagener's syndrome treated by subcutaneous analgesia
    T M O'Connor
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Respir Med 98:679-81. 2004
  43. ncbi request reprint Improved surface EMG electrode for measuring genioglossus muscle activity
    Ciara M O'Connor
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 159:55-67. 2007
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Towards a genioglossus surface EMG model of obstructive sleep apnea
    Eric C P Chua
    University College Dublin, Ireland
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2009:2979-82. 2009
    ..We also discuss the simulation results in the context of the limited experimental data available for surface genioglossus EMG in obstructive sleep apnea...
  45. doi request reprint Effects of salmeterol on sleeping oxygen saturation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Silke Ryan
    Sleep Research Laboratory, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Respiration 79:475-81. 2010
    ..The effects of inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonist therapy (LABA) on these disturbances are unclear...
  46. ncbi request reprint A critical role for p38 map kinase in NF-kappaB signaling during intermittent hypoxia/reoxygenation
    Silke Ryan
    School of Medicine and Medical Science, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 355:728-33. 2007
    ..Furthermore, depletion of p38 using siRNA significantly reduces IHR-induced NF-kappaB activity. Thus, IHR activates NF-kappaB in an IKK-dependent manner signaled at least in part via activation of p38 MAPK...
  47. ncbi request reprint Effects of topical anesthesia on upper airway resistance during wake-sleep transitions
    Liam S Doherty
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland
    J Appl Physiol 99:549-55. 2005
    ..05) but not in the control condition. We conclude that sensory receptors in the UA mucosa contribute to the maintenance of UA patency at wake-sleep transition in normal humans...
  48. ncbi request reprint Immunosuppressant-responsive idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis
    Terence M O'Connor
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Respiration 72:202-4. 2005
    ..The authors suggest that patients with idiopathic pleural thickening undergo early thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, and that immunosuppressant therapy be considered for patients with idiopathic lymphocytic pleuritis...
  49. ncbi request reprint Optimizing continuous positive airway pressure therapy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    Walter T McNicholas
    Sleep 29:421-3. 2006
  50. ncbi request reprint Should all sleep apnoea patients be treated? Yes
    Patrick Levy
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep Laboratory, PRETA Laboratory TIMC UMR CNRS 5525, University Hospital, Grenoble, France
    Sleep Med Rev 6:17-26; discussion 27. 2002
    ..Moreover, there is increasing evidence that the cardiovascular risk has to be taken into account when deciding on treatment, even in asymptomatic patients. All this evidence put together suggests early treatment in OSA...
  51. ncbi request reprint Sleep apnoea syndrome today: much done, more to do
    Walter T McNicholas
    Sleep Med Rev 7:3-7. 2003
  52. ncbi request reprint Effect of upper airway negative pressure and lung inflation on laryngeal motor unit activity in rabbit
    Stephen Ryan
    Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Ireland
    J Appl Physiol 92:269-78. 2002
    ..05). We conclude that, in addition to increasing inspiratory activity in the recurrent laryngeal nerve, UANP also stimulates units with PI activity...
  53. doi request reprint Genetic aspects of hypertension and metabolic disease in the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome
    Renata L Riha
    Department of Sleep Medicine, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Little France, Edinburgh, UK
    Sleep Med Rev 12:49-63. 2008
    ..This review focuses on genetic factors, which may be responsible for the expression of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in the context of OSAHS...
  54. ncbi request reprint The human genioglossus response to negative airway pressure: stimulus timing and route of delivery
    Liam S Doherty
    Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Exp Physiol 93:288-95. 2008
    ..We conclude that the sensitivity of the GGsEMG response to NAP in humans does not vary significantly with phase of respiration or route of breathing...
  55. ncbi request reprint Upper airway muscle paralysis reduces reflex upper airway motor response to negative transmural pressure in rat
    Stephen Ryan
    Departments of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Conway Institute for Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College, and Respiratory Sleep Disorders Unit, St Vincent s University Hospital, Dublin 2, Ireland
    J Appl Physiol 94:1307-16. 2003
    ..We conclude that skeletal muscle relaxation reduces the reflex UA motor response to UANP, and this may be due to a reduction in the excitability of UA motor systems as well as a decrease of the response of SLN afferents to UANP...