Brian E Leonard

Summary

Affiliation: Beaumont Hospital
Country: Ireland

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Effects of antidepressants on cytokine production and actions
    Nathalie Castanon
    INRA INSERM U394, Neurobiologie Integrative, Institut Francois Magendie, rue Camille Saint Saens, Bordeaux Cedex 33077, France
    Brain Behav Immun 16:569-74. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Efavirenz induces depressive-like behaviour, increased stress response and changes in the immune response in rats
    Siobhain M O'Mahony
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimmunomodulation 12:293-8. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint The HPA and immune axes in stress: the involvement of the serotonergic system
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Eur Psychiatry 20:S302-6. 2005
  4. pmc Changes in the immune system in depression and dementia: causal or coincidental effects?
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 8:163-74. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Inflammation, depression and dementia: are they connected?
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Brain and Behaviour Research Institute, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neurochem Res 32:1749-56. 2007
  6. doi request reprint The metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia: is inflammation a contributing cause?
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
    J Psychopharmacol 26:33-41. 2012
  7. ncbi request reprint Changes in the immune system in rodent models of depression
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 5:345-56. 2002
  8. pmc Stress, norepinephrine and depression
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 26:S11-6. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Inflammation and depression: is there a causal connection with dementia?
    B E Leonard
    Brain and Behaviour Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neurotox Res 10:149-60. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Methylphenidate: a review of its neuropharmacological, neuropsychological and adverse clinical effects
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Hum Psychopharmacol 19:151-80. 2004

Detail Information

Publications42

  1. ncbi request reprint Effects of antidepressants on cytokine production and actions
    Nathalie Castanon
    INRA INSERM U394, Neurobiologie Integrative, Institut Francois Magendie, rue Camille Saint Saens, Bordeaux Cedex 33077, France
    Brain Behav Immun 16:569-74. 2002
    ..Whether their demonstrated immune effects are a side effect or a significant part of their clinical activity still remains to be elucidated...
  2. ncbi request reprint Efavirenz induces depressive-like behaviour, increased stress response and changes in the immune response in rats
    Siobhain M O'Mahony
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimmunomodulation 12:293-8. 2005
    ..These symptoms are partially alleviated by chronic treatment with paroxetine...
  3. ncbi request reprint The HPA and immune axes in stress: the involvement of the serotonergic system
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Eur Psychiatry 20:S302-6. 2005
    ....
  4. pmc Changes in the immune system in depression and dementia: causal or coincidental effects?
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 8:163-74. 2006
    ..Such changes are postulated to cause neuronal damage, and thereby predispose chronically depressed patients to dementia...
  5. ncbi request reprint Inflammation, depression and dementia: are they connected?
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Brain and Behaviour Research Institute, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neurochem Res 32:1749-56. 2007
    ..Such changes may help to explain why major depression is a frequent prelude to dementia in later life...
  6. doi request reprint The metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia: is inflammation a contributing cause?
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
    J Psychopharmacol 26:33-41. 2012
    ..It is concluded that the effects of inflammatory mediators on the brain causally contribute to the pathology of schizophrenia and the ill health that accompanies the disorder...
  7. ncbi request reprint Changes in the immune system in rodent models of depression
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 5:345-56. 2002
    ..The review concludes with a brief account of the various rodent models of depression in which evidence of immune activation as been demonstrated...
  8. pmc Stress, norepinephrine and depression
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 26:S11-6. 2001
    ..Many of the stress-induced changes can be reversed by antidepressants, particularly norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors...
  9. ncbi request reprint Inflammation and depression: is there a causal connection with dementia?
    B E Leonard
    Brain and Behaviour Research Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neurotox Res 10:149-60. 2006
    ..Such changes are postulated to cause neuronal damage and thereby predispose chronically depressed patients to dementia...
  10. ncbi request reprint Methylphenidate: a review of its neuropharmacological, neuropsychological and adverse clinical effects
    Brian E Leonard
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Hum Psychopharmacol 19:151-80. 2004
  11. ncbi request reprint Changes in the immune system in depression and dementia: causal or co-incidental effects?
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Int J Dev Neurosci 19:305-12. 2001
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint The immune system, depression and the action of antidepressants
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 25:767-80. 2001
    ..In addition, the macrophage hypothesis may broaden the basis of understanding the mechanism of action of antidepressants...
  13. ncbi request reprint HPA and immune axes in stress: involvement of the serotonergic system
    Brian E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Neuroimmunomodulation 13:268-76. 2006
    ..Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life...
  14. ncbi request reprint Psychopathology of depression
    Brian E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Drugs Today (Barc) 43:705-16. 2007
    ..Such approaches may stimulate the development of new types of antidepressants that hopefully will combine increased efficacy with shorter speed of onset and improved side effect profiles...
  15. doi request reprint The psychoneuroimmunology of depression
    Brian E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Hum Psychopharmacol 24:165-75. 2009
    ..Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life...
  16. doi request reprint Executive summary of the report by the WPA section on pharmacopsychiatry on general and comparative efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants in the acute treatment of depressive disorders
    Thomas C Baghai
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Nußbaumstraße 7, 80336, Munich, Germany
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 262:13-22. 2012
    ..A modern individualized antidepressant treatment in most cases is a well-tolerated and efficacious tool to minimize the negative impact of the otherwise devastating and life-threatening outcome of depressive disorders...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effect of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib on behavioural and immune changes in an olfactory bulbectomised rat model of depression
    Aye Mu Myint
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimmunomodulation 14:65-71. 2007
    ..The cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib has been shown to improve the depressive symptoms in patients with major depression...
  18. ncbi request reprint Gestational stress leads to depressive-like behavioural and immunological changes in the rat
    Siobhain M O'Mahony
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neuroimmunomodulation 13:82-8. 2006
    ..The stressed group showed higher levels of all three cytokines. No significant differences in the cytokine concentrations were detected in the hypothalamus, hippocampus or pre-frontal cortex...
  19. ncbi request reprint Prenatal maternal paroxetine treatment and neonatal mortality in the rat: a preliminary study
    Daniel L A van den Hove
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Research Institute Brain and Behavior, European Graduate School of Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Neonatology 93:52-5. 2008
    ..These results reiterate the need for further research on the effects of paroxetine treatment during gestation...
  20. ncbi request reprint Tryptophan breakdown pathway in bipolar mania
    Aye Mu Myint
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, University of Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Affect Disord 102:65-72. 2007
    ..406, p=0.044). These findings indicated the involvement of bi-directional tryptophan metabolism and kynurenine pathway in pathophysiology and response to medication in bipolar mania...
  21. ncbi request reprint Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokine alterations in major depression
    Aye Mu Myint
    Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands
    J Affect Disord 88:167-73. 2005
    ..The Th3 cytokine, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), has been shown to regulate the balance between Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. However, the role of TGF-beta1 in the psychoimmunology of depression has never been explored...
  22. ncbi request reprint Olfactory bulbectomy provokes a suppression of interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production in response to an in vivo challenge with lipopolysaccharide: effect of chronic desipramine treatment
    T J Connor
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Neuroimmunomodulation 7:27-35. 2000
    ..Whilst chronic treatment with desipramine normalized the behavioural hyperactivity observed in OB rats, such treatment further impaired LPS-induced IL-1beta and TNF-alpha secretion in bulbectomized rats...
  23. ncbi request reprint An investigation of the antidepressant properties of lofepramine and its desmethylated metabolites in the forced swim and olfactory bulbectomized rat models of depression
    J P Kelly
    Department of Pharmacology, University College, Galway, Ireland
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 9:101-5. 1999
    ..In contrast, lofepramine but not it's desmethylated derivatives is inactive in the forced swim test, perhaps suggesting the requirement of metabolic conversion of LOF to reveal antidepressant activity in this model...
  24. doi request reprint General and comparative efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants in the acute treatment of depressive disorders: a report by the WPA section of pharmacopsychiatry
    Thomas C Baghai
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Nussbaumstrasse 7, 80336, Munich, Germany
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 261:207-45. 2011
    ..Modern individualized antidepressant treatment is in most cases a well-tolerated and efficacious approach to minimize the negative impact of otherwise potentially devastating and life-threatening outcomes in depressive disorders...
  25. ncbi request reprint Behavioural and neuropharmacological properties of the dibenzazepines, desipramine and lofepramine: studies on the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression
    W T O'Connor
    Department of Pharmacology, University College, Galway, Republic of Ireland
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 12:41-51. 1988
    ..This effect was attenuated following the chronic administration of desipramine but not lofepramine. It may be concluded that the pharmacological activity of lofepramine is independent of its metabolism to desipramine in vivo...
  26. ncbi request reprint The effect of lofepramine and other related agents on the motility of Tetrahymena pyriformis
    P Darcy
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Toxicol Lett 128:207-14. 2002
    ..26+/-0.29 mM, desipramine 75.99+/-14.40 mM, while lofepramine had an IC50 of 357.40+/-25.00 mM. Lignocaine had an IC50 of 85.73+/-18.30 mM. There was also a significant correlation between the IC50 values and the Pow values...
  27. ncbi request reprint Effects of reboxetine and sertraline treatments alone and in combination on the binding properties of cortical NMDA and beta1-adrenergic receptors in an animal model of depression
    A Harkin
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway
    J Neural Transm 107:1213-27. 2000
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint A comparison of the pharmacological properties of the novel tricyclic antidepressant lofepramine with its major metabolite, desipramine: a review
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, University College, Galway, Republic of Ireland
    Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2:281-97. 1987
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Reboxetine attenuates forced swim test-induced behavioural and neurochemical alterations in the rat
    T J Connor
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Eur J Pharmacol 379:125-33. 1999
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint An assessment of the acute effects of the serotonin releasers methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine and fenfluramine on immunity in rats
    T J Connor
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Immunopharmacology 46:223-35. 2000
    ..In all, these data extend our previous findings concerning the effects of MDMA on the immune system and demonstrate that the related serotonin releasers MDA and FEN also provoke immunological changes in rats...
  31. ncbi request reprint Modulation of MK-801-induced behaviour by noradrenergic agents in mice
    A Harkin
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 154:177-88. 2001
    ..Whereas it is known that pharmacological manipulation of dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways affect this drug-induced psychosis, a role for noradrenaline has not yet been clearly defined...
  32. ncbi request reprint Effects of acute and chronic administration of selective monoamine re-uptake inhibitors in the rat forced swim test
    P Kelliher
    National University of Ireland, Department of Pharmacology, Galway, Ireland
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 28:332-47. 2003
    ..These results suggest that selective monoamine re-uptake inhibition produces distinct, but not necessarily exclusive, behavioural responses in the forced swim test...
  33. ncbi request reprint A comparison of the psychopharmacological profiles of phencyclidine, ketamine and (+) SKF 10,047 in the trimethyltin rat model
    B Earley
    Pharmacology Department, University College, Galway, Ireland
    Neuropharmacology 29:695-703. 1990
    ..It may be concluded that the TMT model can be exploited for studying the mechanism of action of molecules liable to have an effect at the phencyclidine receptor site, as opposed to the sigma receptor...
  34. ncbi request reprint Sigma receptors and sigma ligands: background to a pharmacological enigma
    B E Leonard
    Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
    Pharmacopsychiatry 37:S166-70. 2004
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Role of paroxetine in interferon-alpha-induced immune and behavioural changes in male Wistar rats
    A M Myint
    University of Maastricht, MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    J Psychopharmacol 21:843-50. 2007
    ..Thus it appears that paroxetine pretreatment prevents the pro-inflammatory changes in blood and brain following IFNalpha treatment in turn prevents the anxiety behaviour...
  36. ncbi request reprint Prior exposure to methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) induces serotonergic loss and changes in spontaneous exploratory and amphetamine-induced behaviors in rats
    A Harkin
    Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway
    Life Sci 68:1367-82. 2001
    ..The findings of this study also suggest that MDA use may increase both the abuse potential, and the propensity to develop psychosis as a result of abusing other psychostimulants such as d-amphetamine...
  37. ncbi request reprint The olfactory bulbectomised rat as a model of depression
    Cai Song
    Department of Biomedical Science, AVC, University of Prince Edward Island and National Institute of Nutrisciences and Health, Charlottetown, Canada
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:627-47. 2005
    ..Thus the olfactory bulbectomized rat is not only a model for detecting antidepressant activity but also one for exploring the inter-relationships between these systems that are also dysfunctional in patients with major depression...
  38. ncbi request reprint Dietary ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid but not soybean oil reverses central interleukin-1-induced changes in behavior, corticosterone and immune response in rats
    Cai Song
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Stress 7:43-54. 2004
    ..Food enriched with ethyl-EPA but not soybean oil, significantly attenuated most of these changes. These results demonstrate that ethyl-EPA has anti-inflammatory, anti-stress and anti-anxiety effects in rats...
  39. ncbi request reprint The biochemistry of suicide
    Brian E Leonard
    Crisis 26:153-5. 2005
  40. doi request reprint Antidepressant medications and other treatments of depressive disorders: a CINP Task Force report based on a review of evidence
    Norman Sartorius
    Chairperson of CINP Task Force, 14 Chemin Colladon, Geneva, Switzerland
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 10:S1-207. 2007
  41. ncbi request reprint Effects of dietary n-3 or n-6 fatty acids on interleukin-1beta-induced anxiety, stress, and inflammatory responses in rats
    Cai Song
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Canada
    J Lipid Res 44:1984-91. 2003
    ..Ethyl-GLA only antagonised IL-1-induced inflammatory changes, whereas AA caused an increase in the secretion of corticosterone and PGE2, and induced anxiety-like behavior without enhancing the effects of IL-1...
  42. ncbi request reprint Th1, Th2 and Th3 cytokine alteration in schizophrenia
    Yong Ku Kim
    Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516, Go Jan Dong, Ansan City, Kyunggi Province 425 070, South Korea
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 28:1129-34. 2004
    ..Therefore it is hypothesized that it may play a role in schizophrenia by suppressing overactive Th1 system...