S Sundar

Summary

Country: India

Publications

  1. pmc Rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: comparison of two immunochromatographic strip tests for detection of anti-K39 antibody
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Clin Microbiol 44:251-3. 2006
  2. ncbi Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 42:608-13. 2006
  3. ncbi Oral miltefosine for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:S26-33. 2006
  4. ncbi Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:917-24. 2006
  5. ncbi Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac status in Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients
    Rakesh Shrivastava
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:429-32. 2007
  6. pmc Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:951-8. 2002
  7. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis - current therapeutic modalities
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:345-52. 2006
  8. ncbi Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Lanka, Varanasi, India
    Med Microbiol Immunol 190:89-92. 2001
  9. ncbi Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala Azar Medical Research Centre, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 6:849-54. 2001
  10. ncbi Immunochromatographic strip-test detection of anti-K39 antibody in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96:19-23. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. pmc Rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: comparison of two immunochromatographic strip tests for detection of anti-K39 antibody
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Clin Microbiol 44:251-3. 2006
    ..yielded comparable results for symptomatic infection and identified apparent subclinical infection in 15 to 32% of healthy residents in a region where visceral leishmaniasis is highly endemic...
  2. ncbi Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 42:608-13. 2006
    ..However, cost is a major constraint in the use of lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD), which is a less expensive lipid formulation, has not been tested for the treatment of VL in India...
  3. ncbi Oral miltefosine for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:S26-33. 2006
    ..5 mg/kg daily for 28 days) was established with a cure rate (94%) similar to that seen in adults. Miltefosine is the first oral antileishmanial drug with a high degree of safety and efficacy for the treatment of VL...
  4. ncbi Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    Caryn Bern
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:917-24. 2006
    ..The public health community should work to broaden access to preferential liposomal amphotericin B pricing by public sector VL treatment programs...
  5. ncbi Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac status in Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients
    Rakesh Shrivastava
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:429-32. 2007
    ..Effusions were small, haemodynamically insignificant and resolved spontaneously. We conclude that pericardial effusion may occur in VL patients with heavy parasitaemia...
  6. pmc Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:951-8. 2002
  7. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis - current therapeutic modalities
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:345-52. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Lanka, Varanasi, India
    Med Microbiol Immunol 190:89-92. 2001
    ..In addition to the monotherapy, efforts in development of combination chemotherapy are needed if the menace of drug resistance is to be contained...
  9. ncbi Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala Azar Medical Research Centre, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 6:849-54. 2001
    ..Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost...
  10. ncbi Immunochromatographic strip-test detection of anti-K39 antibody in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96:19-23. 2002
    ....
  11. ncbi Low-dose liposomal amphotericin B in refractory Indian visceral leishmaniasis: a multicenter study
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 66:143-6. 2002
    ..There was no significant difference in the cure rates of the 3 groups. Low-dose liposomal amphotericin B given for 5 days can cure most patients with Indian kala-azar...
  12. ncbi Noninvasive management of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: clinical application of diagnosis by K39 antigen strip testing at a kala-azar referral unit
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, 211 005, India
    Clin Infect Dis 35:581-6. 2002
    ..In a region in India where visceral infection is prevalent, strip test detection of anti-K39 IgG is a clinically promising diagnostic guide in persons with suspected kala-azar...
  13. ncbi Amphotericin B treatment for Indian visceral leishmaniasis: conventional versus lipid formulations
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 38:377-83. 2004
    ....
  14. ncbi Single-dose liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a multicenter study
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221 005, India
    Clin Infect Dis 37:800-4. 2003
    ..Very few adverse events (fever with rigor, in 9.8% of patients) were seen. Single-dose L-AmB (7.5 mg/kg) treatment is safe and effective, and it may be used for the mass treatment of VL in India...
  15. ncbi Detection of leishmanial antigen in the urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis by a latex agglutination test
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:269-71. 2005
    ..Positive and negative predictive values were 0.994 and 0.788, respectively. KAtex is a promising test, and in a simplified and improved format it could be applied meaningfully in the diagnosis of VL...
  16. ncbi Advances in the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 15:593-8. 2002
    ..In recent years, there has been a steady erosion in the efficacy of pentavalent antimony to cure visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. In addition, several new antileishmanial formulations have become available...
  17. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar): challenges ahead
    R K Singh
    Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Indian J Med Res 123:331-44. 2006
    ....
  18. ncbi Treatment of antimony-unresponsive Indian visceral leishmaniasis with ultra-short courses of amphotericin-B-lipid complex
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92:755-64. 1998
    ..Together, the present results provide further support for the use of ABLC in the management of VL patients who fail antimony therapy...
  19. pmc Treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis with single or daily infusions of low dose liposomal amphotericin B: randomised trial
    S Sundar
    Kala Azar Medical Research Centre, Banaras Hindu University, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi 211005, India
    BMJ 323:419-22. 2001
    ..To test short course, low dose liposomal amphotericin B as single or daily infusion treatment in Indian visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)...
  20. ncbi Short-course of oral miltefosine for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    The Kala Azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 31:1110-3. 2000
    ..Adverse reactions were self-limited and primarily mild. The 21-day miltefosine regimen combines high-level efficacy, convenient dosing, and a relatively short duration...
  21. ncbi Resistance to treatment in Kala-azar: speciation of isolates from northeast India
    S Sundar
    Kala-Azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 65:193-6. 2001
    ..tropica. Thus, the rising incidence of clinical resistance to treatment is unlikely to be due to a different species causing kala-azar in north Bihar...
  22. ncbi Safety and efficacy of high-dose infusions of a preformed amphotericin B fat emulsion for treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:700-3. 2009
    ..In this study, ABLE was safe and had excellent efficacy when given as a bolus of 15 mg/kg. More studies with larger number of patients and higher doses are needed to establish acceptable, safe and efficacious regimen...
  23. ncbi Comparative evaluation of parasitology and serological tests in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a phase III diagnostic accuracy study
    S Sundar
    Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 12:284-9. 2007
    ..986). Although DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test were highly sensitive with excellent specificity, the ease of use of the latter makes it most suitable for the diagnosis of VL in the field conditions...
  24. pmc Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for recombinant K39 antigen in diagnosis and prognosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    R Kumar
    Kala-Azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:1220-4. 2001
    ..The extremely high levels of anti-rK39 antibodies in VL cases suggest the application of rK39 for sensitive and specific serodiagnosis, and rK39 ELISA is also valuable in monitoring drug therapy and detecting relapse of the disease...
  25. ncbi Failure of pentavalent antimony in visceral leishmaniasis in India: report from the center of the Indian epidemic
    S Sundar
    The Kala Azar Medical Research Center, Banaras Hindu University Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 31:1104-7. 2000
    ..Sb induced long-term cure in 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-42%) of those in Bihar versus 86% (95% CI, 79%-93%) of those in Uttar Pradesh. In Bihar, the center of the Indian epidemic, traditional Sb treatment should be abandoned...
  26. pmc Kala-azar epidemic in Varanasi district, India
    R Kumar
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Bull World Health Organ 77:371-4. 1999
    ..Since the disease vector continues to be present in the study area, the health authorities should take strong steps to control the disease...
  27. ncbi Serological diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: direct agglutination test versus rK39 strip test
    S Sundar
    Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:533-7. 2006
    ..Similarly, the rK39 strip test is as sensitive as the DAT, but the strip test's greater convenience of use makes it a better tool for diagnosis of VL in peripheral areas of endemic regions...
  28. doi Safety of a pre-formulated amphotericin B lipid emulsion for the treatment of Indian Kala-azar
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, and Muzaffarpur, India
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1208-12. 2008
    ..There was no dose response linear correlation. In this preliminary study, AB formulated in a lipid emulsion vehicle was safe and effective for the treatment of VL in India...
  29. ncbi A cluster of cases of severe cardiotoxicity among kala-azar patients treated with a high-osmolarity lot of sodium antimony gluconate
    S Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 59:139-43. 1998
    ..The simple technique of measuring of osmolarity may help identify inappropriately manufactured drug...
  30. pmc Village health workers in Bihar, India: an untapped resource in the struggle against kala-azar
    P Malaviya
    Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 18:188-93. 2013
    ..In the current study we assessed knowledge, attitude and practice of these village health workers in relation to VL. Main objective was to assess the feasibility of their involvement in VL control...
  31. pmc Monitoring drug effectiveness in kala-azar in Bihar, India: cost and feasibility of periodic random surveys vs. a health service-based reporting system
    P Malaviya
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 16:1159-66. 2011
    ..We analysed the operational feasibility and cost of such periodic random surveys as compared with health facility-based routine monitoring...
  32. ncbi Study on clinico-epidemiological profile of HIV patients in eastern India
    J Chakravarty
    Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
    J Assoc Physicians India 54:854-7. 2006
    ..3%) and diarrhea (12.7%). CD4 counts of the patients were significantly inversely correlated with the number of symptoms and the number of opportunistic infections (correlation coefficient were -.289 and -.236 respectively)...
  33. ncbi Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with pure red cell aplasia
    V P Singh
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University
    J Assoc Physicians India 49:1123-4. 2001
    ..More commonly PRCA is associated with thymoma or viral infections. Steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs are the preferred treatment of PRCA...
  34. pmc Evaluation of PCR for diagnosis of Indian kala-azar and assessment of cure
    R Maurya
    Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 6 SK Gupta, Nagar, Lanka, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3038-41. 2005
    ..In the majority of patients, it can identify a successful disease outcome; however, its translation into the field setting remains a major challenge...
  35. ncbi Sero-epidemiological study of kala-azar in a village of Varanasi district, India
    R Kumar
    Department of Biochemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 11:41-8. 2006
    ..To evaluate five kala-azar serological tests for field use...
  36. ncbi Oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with miltefosine
    S Sundar
    Kala Azar Medical Research Centre, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93:589-97. 1999
    ..These results indicate that 100 mg miltefosine/day for 28 days is a promising oral-treatment regimen for VL cases, including those with antimony-unresponsive infections...
  37. pmc Human visceral leishmaniasis is not associated with expansion or accumulation of Foxp3+ CD4 cells in blood or spleen
    R Maurya
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Parasite Immunol 32:479-83. 2010
    ..We conclude that active VL is not associated with increased frequencies of peripheral Foxp3 Treg or accumulation at the site of infection...
  38. pmc Evaluation of rK28 antigen for serodiagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis in India
    M Vaish
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Microbiol Infect 18:81-5. 2012
    ..85-0.96) and 96.59% (95% CI 0.90-0.98), respectively. Our results show that rK39 and rK28 antigens have similar sensitivity and specificity and rK28 can also be used as a serodiagnostic tool in the endemic population of Bihar...
  39. ncbi Correlation between clinical features and degree of immunosuppression in HIV infected children
    D Agarwal
    ART Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
    Indian Pediatr 45:140-3. 2008
    ..The most common opportunistic infection was tuberculosis. CD4% correlated significantly with the deterioration of the WHO clinical stages (P<0.01) and increasing grades of protein energy malnutrition (P< 0.05)...
  40. ncbi Platelet function studies in Indian kala-azar
    B Dube
    Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Trop Med Hyg 98:166-8. 1995
    ..There was a fair degree of correlation between platelet adhesiveness and platelet factor III availability in these patients: 50% of patients with poor platelet adhesiveness showed reduced platelet factor III availability...
  41. ncbi Malignant myelomatous pleural effusion with good response to combination chemotherapy
    V S S Attili
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    J Assoc Physicians India 55:595-6. 2007
    ..Majority of the patients survive less than 4 months. We are presenting a short series of four such cases, who had a good clinical response to combination chemotherapy...
  42. ncbi Serious underreporting of visceral leishmaniasis through passive case reporting in Bihar, India
    S P Singh
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 11:899-905. 2006
    ..Survey results were compared with official reports of the disease to assess the extent of underreporting by the Government health system...
  43. ncbi Management of visceral leishmaniasis: Indian perspective
    S Agrawal
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Postgrad Med 51:S53-7. 2005
    ..To protect the already scarce inventory of antileishmanial drugs, it is time that combination chemotherapy is introduced for the treatment of VL in India...
  44. pmc Reactive oxygen intermediates, nitrite and IFN-gamma in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    R Kumar
    Kala-Azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Clin Exp Immunol 124:262-5. 2001
    ..Furthermore, the monocytes regained respiratory burst activity as the antileishmanial therapy progressed, suggesting that an immune-based mechanism is involved in successful drug therapy...
  45. pmc In search of an ideal test for diagnosis and prognosis of kala-azar
    Dharmendra P Singh
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    J Health Popul Nutr 28:281-5. 2010
    ..It may be used for the prognosis of the disease as antigen becomes undetectable in urine after 30 days of the completion of the treatment. Alternatively, it can be used as an adjunct with rK39 for sero-epidemiological surveys...
  46. pmc Risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis in India: further evidence on the role of domestic animals
    S P Singh
    Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Trop Med Int Health 15:29-35. 2010
    ..In some studies having animals in or around the house was a risk factor, in others it was protective. We investigated the specific hypothesis that keeping domestic animals inside the house at night is a risk factor for VL...
  47. ncbi Low dose cyclosporine-a therapy in severe aplastic anaemia
    M Rai
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
    J Assoc Physicians India 49:966-9. 2001
    ....
  48. pmc Evaluation of the status of tuberculosis as part of the clinical case definition of AIDS in India
    V S S Attili
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Postgrad Med J 81:404-8. 2005
    ..To assess HIV associated tuberculosis in a high tuberculosis prevalence setting and its status in the clinical case definition of AIDS...
  49. ncbi Indian kala-azar--better tools needed for diagnosis and treatment
    S Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Postgrad Med 49:29-30. 2003
  50. ncbi A correlative study of serum zinc and in vivo cell mediated immune status in rheumatic heart disease
    R K Gupta
    Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Acta Cardiol 47:297-304. 1992
    ..001). In conclusion, depletion of zinc, observed in RHD, probably causes immune alterations and suggest role of zinc in immunopathogenesis of RHD. Zinc supplementation may alter the course of rheumatic fever and RHD...
  51. ncbi The effects of antihypertensive agents on the quality of life in Indian hypertensives
    S Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Acta Cardiol 46:227-35. 1991
    ..In conclusion, captopril closely followed by propranolol was the most acceptable drug with fewer adverse effects and improved sexual as well as other aspects of quality of life compared to nifedipine and atenolol...
  52. ncbi A simple and inexpensive "cell dissociation sieve-tissue grinder" apparatus
    K Pai
    Kala-Azar Medical Research Centre, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Indian J Exp Biol 39:483-4. 2001
    ....
  53. ncbi Paromomycin in the treatment of leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medicine, Varanasi 221005, India
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 17:787-94. 2008
    ..All these factors increase the cost of the treatment. The development of resistance to pentavalent antimonials in patients with visceral leishmaniasis in North Bihar, India, has added another dimension to the problem...
  54. ncbi Amphotericin B treatment for Indian visceral leishmaniasis: response to 15 daily versus alternate-day infusions
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 45:556-61. 2007
    ..daily administration) and dose (1 vs. 0.75 mg/kg) and to determine whether the duration of amphotericin B treatment in Bihar, India, can be shortened to 15 days...
  55. ncbi Phase 4 trial of miltefosine for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Sujit Kumar Bhattacharya
    Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Agam Kuan, India
    J Infect Dis 196:591-8. 2007
    ..Hospital-based studies have shown that oral miltefosine is a highly effective treatment for VL both in adults and in children...
  56. ncbi Injectable paromomycin for Visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Shyam Sundar
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
    N Engl J Med 356:2571-81. 2007
    ..Safe, effective, and affordable new therapies are needed. We conducted a randomized, controlled, phase 3 open-label study comparing paromomycin, an aminoglycoside, with amphotericin B, the present standard of care in Bihar, India...
  57. ncbi Characterization of natural antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani isolates
    Mukul K Mittal
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 76:681-8. 2007
    ..These results suggest the possible role of thiols and MRPA in antimony resistance in field isolates...
  58. pmc Splenic accumulation of IL-10 mRNA in T cells distinct from CD4+CD25+ (Foxp3) regulatory T cells in human visceral leishmaniasis
    Susanne Nylen
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:805-17. 2007
    ..The elevated levels of IL-10 in VL plasma significantly enhanced the growth of L. donovani amastigotes in human macrophages. The data implicate IL-10-producing CD25(-)Foxp3(-) T cells in the pathogenesis of human VL...
  59. ncbi Novel mechanism of drug resistance in kala azar field isolates
    Neeloo Singh
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    J Infect Dis 188:600-7. 2003
    ..We speculate that protein phosphorylation may play a role in signal transduction pathway in the parasite after exposure to drug-conferring resistance...
  60. ncbi Diagnosis of kala-azar--an important stride
    Shyam Sundar
    J Assoc Physicians India 51:753-5. 2003
  61. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of antimony resistance in Leishmania
    Shyam Sundar
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, UP India
    J Med Microbiol 56:143-53. 2007
    ..Unravelling the molecular mechanisms of clinical resistance could allow the prevention and circumvention of resistance, as well as rational drug design for the treatment of drug-resistant Leishmania...
  62. ncbi Comparative evaluation of freeze-dried and liquid antigens in the direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (ITMA-DAT/VL)
    Diane Jacquet
    Applied Technology and Production Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1777-84. 2006
    ..We evaluated a DAT with freeze-dried (FD) antigen and compared it with the LQ antigen version...
  63. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control?
    Francois Chappuis
    Travel and Migration Medicine Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, 24 Rue Micheli du Crest, CH 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:873-82. 2007
    ..New diagnostic tools and new treatment strategies will only have an impact if they are made widely available to patients...
  64. ncbi Oral miltefosine treatment in children with mild to moderate Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Institutes of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 6 SK Gupta Nagar, Varanasi 221005, India
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:434-8. 2003
    ..Because approximately one-half of the visceral leishmaniasis patients worldwide are children, we performed a Phase I/II dose ranging study in the pediatric population in India...
  65. ncbi Adenosine deaminase activity in sera of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Kiran Tripathi
    Department of Microbiology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Clin Chim Acta 388:135-8. 2008
    ....
  66. pmc Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Leishmania donovani polypeptides in cases of human visceral leishmaniasis: its usefulness in prognosis
    Promod Kumar
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9:1119-23. 2002
    ..Moreover, the persistence of reactivity with the 65- and 70-kDa bands in the sera of all groups shows its promise as a diagnostic and prognostic tool...
  67. ncbi Oral miltefosine for Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Institutes of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    N Engl J Med 347:1739-46. 2002
    ..We performed a clinical trial in India comparing miltefosine with the most effective standard treatment, amphotericin B...
  68. doi New treatment approach in Indian visceral leishmaniasis: single-dose liposomal amphotericin B followed by short-course oral miltefosine
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi, India
    Clin Infect Dis 47:1000-6. 2008
    ....
  69. ncbi Induction of Th1-type cellular responses in cured/exposed Leishmania-infected patients and hamsters against polyproteins of soluble Leishmania donovani promastigotes ranging from 89.9 to 97.1 kDa
    Shraddha Kumari
    Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, India
    Vaccine 26:4813-8. 2008
    ..Interestingly, optimum Th1-responses were obtained with P4-7 suggesting the presence of immunostimulatory molecules in it and may be exploited for developing a successful subunit vaccine against VL...
  70. doi Vector control by insecticide-treated nets in the fight against visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent, what is the evidence?
    Bart Ostyn
    Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 13:1073-85. 2008
    ..Given the constraints of indoor residual spraying, it is worthwhile to further explore the use of ITNs, in particular long lasting ITNs, as an additional tool in the VL elimination initiative...
  71. doi Antileishmanial activity of nano-amphotericin B deoxycholate
    Krishna Das Manandhar
    Infectious Disease Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    J Antimicrob Chemother 62:376-80. 2008
    ..The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of a nano form of amphotericin B deoxycholate with that of conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis...
  72. ncbi Purification, characterization of O-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates-specific IgM, and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis and follow-up of indian visceral leishmaniasis patients
    Sumi Bandyopadhyay
    Immunobiology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 50:15-24. 2004
    ....
  73. doi Implementation research to support the initiative on the elimination of kala azar from Bangladesh, India and Nepal--the challenges for diagnosis and treatment
    Shyam Sundar
    Trop Med Int Health 13:2-5. 2008
  74. pmc Inhibition of ABC transporters abolishes antimony resistance in Leishmania Infection
    Jayati Mookerjee Basu
    Department of Immunology, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja SC Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, WB, India
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:1080-93. 2008
    ..Our results also indicate that lovastatin, which can inhibit both P-gp and MRP1, might be beneficial for reverting Sb resistance in leishmaniasis as well as drug resistance in other clinical situations, including cancer...
  75. ncbi Possibility of membrane modification as a mechanism of antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani
    Hema Kothari
    Drug Target Discovery and Development Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India
    Parasitol Int 56:77-80. 2007
    ....
  76. ncbi Costs of patient management of visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India
    Filip Meheus
    Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1715-24. 2006
    ..To identify and quantify the direct and indirect economic cost of treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with conventional Amphotericin B deoxycholate, currently the first-line treatment in Muzaffarpur...
  77. ncbi A proteomics screen implicates HSP83 and a small kinetoplastid calpain-related protein in drug resistance in Leishmania donovani clinical field isolates by modulating drug-induced programmed cell death
    Baptiste Vergnes
    Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie du Centre de Recherche du CHUL and Division de Microbiologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Laval, Quebec G1V 4G2, Canada
    Mol Cell Proteomics 6:88-101. 2007
    ..1 promoted antimonial-induced PCD but protected against miltefosine-induced PCD. This study highlights the important role of PCD in drug susceptibility/resistance in the protozoan parasite Leishmania...
  78. ncbi A phase II dose-ranging study of sitamaquine for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Tara K Jha
    Kala azar Research Center, Muzaffarpur, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:1005-11. 2005
    ..Nephrotic syndrome (3% [3 of 120]) and glomerulonephritis (2% [2 of 120]) were also reported and require further investigation. Oral sitamaquine demonstrated efficacy in Indian VL and was well tolerated...
  79. ncbi Antibodies directed against O-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates accelerate complement activation in Leishmania donovani promastigotes
    Sumi Bandyopadhyay
    Immunobiology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India
    J Infect Dis 190:2010-9. 2004
    ..Antibodies directed against these epitopes are present in high titers. The biological relevance of these antibodies, with regard to activation of the classical pathway (CP), was investigated...
  80. ncbi Cure of antimony-unresponsive Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis with oral miltefosine
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:698-700. 2006
    ..Oral miltefosine appears to be an important alternative for the treatment of PKDL in India and confirmatory studies in controlled clinical trials are needed...
  81. ncbi Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review of clinical studies done in India, 1980-2004
    Piero L Olliaro
    UNICEF UNDP World Bank WHO Special Programme on Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:763-74. 2005
    ..India, Bangladesh, and Nepal agreed recently to undertake measures towards the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis. The lessons learnt in Bihar could help inform policy decisions both regionally and elsewhere...
  82. ncbi Refractoriness to the treatment of sodium stibogluconate in Indian kala-azar field isolates persist in in vitro and in vivo experimental models
    Anuradha Dube
    Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, Post Box No 173, Lucknow 226 001, India
    Parasitol Res 96:216-23. 2005
    ..Two isolates were also transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) for the development of in vitro assay for studying antileishmanial activities of new and reference drugs in macrophages by flow cytometry...
  83. pmc Identification of new antigens in visceral leishmaniasis by expression cloning and immunoblotting with sera of kala-azar patients from Bihar, India
    Stephan M Theinert
    Clinical Research Group, Department of Dermatology, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Humboldt University, Germany
    Infect Immun 73:7018-21. 2005
    ..Ten antigens were identified, five of which have not been described as leishmania antigens before. The antigens specifically react with sera of leishmania-infected patients but not of toxoplasma- or plasmodium-infected patients...
  84. pmc Use of Leishmania donovani field isolates expressing the luciferase reporter gene in in vitro drug screening
    - Ashutosh
    Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, Chatter Manzil Palace, M G Road, Lucknow 226 001 UP, India
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3776-83. 2005
    ..The system is in routine use at the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India, for high-throughput screening of newly synthesized compounds...
  85. pmc Availability of miltefosine for the treatment of kala-azar in India
    Shyam Sundar
    Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, 6 SK Gupta Nagar, Lanka, Varanasi 221 005, India
    Bull World Health Organ 83:394-5. 2005
  86. ncbi The molecular characterization of clinical isolates from Indian Kala-azar patients by MLEE and RAPD-PCR
    Madhumita Manna
    Leishmania Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India
    Med Sci Monit 11:BR220-7. 2005
    ..Tropica causes nearly 25% of current kala-azar cases in India. It was also suggested that this might be in some way related to the unresponsiveness to pentavalent antimonials in the field...
  87. pmc Drug resistance in leishmaniasis
    Simon L Croft
    Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, 1 place Saint Gervais, CH 1201 Geneva, Switzerland
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:111-26. 2006
    ....
  88. ncbi Challenges in the management of visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Indian Pediatr 42:523-6. 2005
  89. ncbi Variable degree of alternative complement pathway-mediated hemolysis in Indian visceral leishmaniasis induced by differential expression of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans
    Anil Kumar Chava
    Immunobiology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India
    J Infect Dis 189:1257-64. 2004
    ..We assessed the capacity of this glycotope to influence hemolysis via activation of the alternative complement pathway in patients with VL, compared with that in healthy control subjects...
  90. ncbi Mechanisms of experimental resistance of Leishmania to miltefosine: Implications for clinical use
    F Javier Pérez-Victoria
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, Spanish Research Council C S I C, Technological Park of Health Sciences, Avda del Conocimiento s n, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
    Drug Resist Updat 9:26-39. 2006
    ....
  91. ncbi Drug uptake and modulation of drug resistance in Leishmania by an aquaglyceroporin
    Benjamin Gourbal
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:31010-7. 2004
    ..major, and the resulting cells became 10-fold more resistant to Sb(III). This is the first report of the uptake of a metalloid drug by an aquaglyceroporin in Leishmania, suggesting a strategy to reverse resistance in the field...
  92. ncbi Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda
    Philippe J Guerin
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:494-501. 2002
    ..This article reviews the current situation and perspectives for diagnosis, treatment, and control of visceral leishmaniasis, and lists some priorities for research and development...
  93. ncbi Development of an assay for quantification of linkage-specific O-acetylated sialoglycans on erythrocytes; its application in Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Anil Kumar Chava
    Immunobiology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032, India
    J Immunol Methods 270:1-10. 2002
    ..Taken together, we conclude that this antigen-based assay is a specific and reproducible method for monitoring the disease status of VL patients and could be used in retrospective and prospective trials...
  94. ncbi Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to Kala-azar in a rural area of Bihar state, India
    Shri P Singh
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:505-8. 2006
    ..Poor knowledge of the study subjects about the disease and breeding sites of the vector underscores the need for health educational campaigns if the elimination program is to succeed...
  95. ncbi Efficacy and tolerability of miltefosine for childhood visceral leishmaniasis in India
    Sujit K Bhattacharya
    Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Agamkuan, India
    Clin Infect Dis 38:217-21. 2004
    ..This trial indicates that miltefosine is as effective and well tolerated in Indian children with VL as in adults and that it can be recommended as the first choice for treatment of childhood VL in India...
  96. pmc Leishmaniasis: new approaches to disease control
    Clive R Davies
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT
    BMJ 326:377-82. 2003
  97. ncbi Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 6:2821-9. 2005
    ..A shift from monotherapy to multi-drug combinations of short courses delivered at no or affordable cost, through directly observed therapy, seems to be the only way to develop the treatment of this disease...
  98. ncbi Virgin soil: the spread of visceral leishmaniasis into Uttar Pradesh, India
    Paul G Barnett
    Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:720-5. 2005
    ..We recommend carefully supervised spraying with DDT, surveillance to pinpoint other affected villages, and efforts to increase availability of diagnostic and treatment facilities...
  99. ncbi Diagnosis and treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis
    Shyam Sundar
    Kala azar Medical Research Center, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005
    J Assoc Physicians India 51:195-201. 2003
  100. ncbi Identification of 9-O-acetylated sialoglycans on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis
    Sumi Bandyopadhyay
    Immunobiology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032, India
    Glycoconj J 20:531-6. 2004
    ....