Balaji Veeraraghavan


Affiliation: Christian Medical College
Country: India


  1. Vasudevan K, Devanga Ragupathi N, Jacob J, Veeraraghavan B. Highly accurate-single chromosomal complete genomes using IonTorrent and MinION sequencing of clinical pathogens. Genomics. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..This would enable to precisely infer both structural arrangement of genes and SNP based analysis for phylogenetic information. ..
  2. Bakthavatchalam Y, Arumugam A, Veeraraghavan B. An invasive marker Staphylococcus epidermidis surface protein I (sesI) harbouring ST239 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..epidermidis strain RP62A. Our finding suggests that dissemination of invasive determining virulence factor sesI from S. epidermidis to ST239 MRSA strain. ..
  3. Lal B, Vijayakumar S, Anandan S, Veeraraghavan B. Specimen Collection, Processing, Culture, and Biochemical Identification of Acinetobacter spp. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1946:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Various biochemical tests are used for identification of various organisms. Such identification depends on the ability of organisms to produce certain enzymes or to utilize certain compound to be identified by biochemical tests. ..
  4. Veeraraghavan B, Vijayakumar S, Pragasam A, Bakthavachalam Y, Prakash J. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Methods for Acinetobacter spp. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1946:23-37 pubmed publisher
    ..baumannii. It is important to include appropriate control strains to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration values and to compare the experiment results. ..
  5. Ravi N, Aslam R, Veeraraghavan B. A New Method for Determination of Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration for Accurate Antimicrobial Therapy. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1946:61-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have strategized a new method which used an inoculator plate, a resazurin dye, and a standard plate to identify minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of adherent organisms. ..
  6. Devanga Ragupathi N, Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Gajendran R, Anandan S, Walia K, Veeraraghavan B. Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants Among Enteric Pathogens Through Bacterial Conjugation. Curr Microbiol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Findings from the study emphasize that mobile elements with AMR determinants are significant public health concern that has potential to rapidly disseminate. ..
  7. Devanga Ragupathi N, Veeraraghavan B. Accurate identification and epidemiological characterization of Burkholderia cepacia complex: an update. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2019;18:7 pubmed publisher
    ..For species level identification within Bcc hisA or recA sequencing are reliable. Identification of Bcc is indispensable in CF patients and HAI to ensure appropriate antimicrobial therapy. ..
  8. Bakthavatchalam Y, Ralph R, Veeraraghavan B, Babu P, Munusamy E. Evidence from an In Vitro Study: Is Oxacillin Plus Vancomycin a Better Choice for Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus?. Infect Dis Ther. 2019;8:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, continued evaluation of this combination is warranted and may have therapeutic benefits in treating complicated MRSA infections. ..
  9. request reprint
    John J, Varghese R, Lionell J, Neeravi A, Veeraraghavan B. Non-vaccine Pneumococcal Serotypes Among Children with Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. Indian Pediatr. 2018;55:874-876 pubmed
    ..5%) and all isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime. One-fourth to one-third of the S. pneumoniae serotypes in under-five children with invasive pneumococcal disease are not covered by existing pneumococcal vaccines in India. ..

More Information


  1. Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Anandan S, Devanga Ragupathi N, Gajendiran R, Kuroda M, Shibayama K, et al. IncFII plasmid carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in Shigella flexneri: Vehicle for dissemination. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018;16:215-219 pubmed publisher
    ..ARGs in plasmids further highlight the importance of such studies in enteric bacteria. ..
  2. Rastogi N, Khurana S, Veeraraghavan B, Yesurajan Inbanathan F, Rajamani Sekar S, Gupta D, et al. Epidemiological investigation and successful management of a Burkholderia cepacia outbreak in a neurotrauma intensive care unit. Int J Infect Dis. 2019;79:4-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy, along with the rigorous implementation of essential hospital infection control practices is required for successful containment of this pathogen and to curb such an outbreak. ..
  3. Ghafur A, Shankar C, Gnanasoundari P, Venkatesan M, Mani D, Thirunarayanan M, et al. Detection of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated mechanisms of colistin resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Indian food samples. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018;16:48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the global literature on mgrB mutation and its insertional inactivation conferring Col-R in K. pneumoniae from food samples. ..
  4. Bakthavatchalam Y, Ramaswamy B, Janakiraman R, Steve R, Veeraraghavan B. Genomic insights of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reduced teicoplanin susceptibility: A case of fatal necrotizing fasciitis. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018;14:242-245 pubmed publisher
    ..Teicoplanin resistance may occur due to point mutations in the teicoplanin resistance operon tcaRAB. Further studies are warranted to determine the contribution of point mutations in tcaRAB to reduced teicoplanin susceptibility. ..
  5. Jayaraman R, Varghese R, Kumar J, Neeravi A, Shanmugasundaram D, Ralph R, et al. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Indian adults: 11 years' experience. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..7, 71.8) respectively. Penicillin non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD cases is 27.4%. Empirical therapy for meningeal IPD must be cephalosporin in combination with vancomycin since cefotaxime non-susceptibility in meningeal IPD is 9.9. ..
  6. Jayaraman Y, Mehendale S, Jayaraman R, Varghese R, Chethrapilly Purushothaman G, Rajkumar P, et al. Immunochromatography in CSF improves data on surveillance of S. pneumoniae meningitis in India. J Infect Public Health. 2018;11:735-738 pubmed publisher
    ..This rapid ICT test proves to be of immense use as a diagnostic test for meningitis patients with/without prior antibiotic treatment, especially in facilities with limited laboratory infrastructure in resource limited settings. ..
  7. Pragasam A, Yesurajan F, Doss C G, George B, Devanga Ragupathi N, Walia K, et al. Draft Genome Sequence of Extremely Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ST357) Strain CMC_VB_PA_B22862 Isolated from a Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa with an extremely drug-resistant profile isolated from a patient with community-acquired bloodstream infection in India. ..
  8. Shankar C, Veeraraghavan B, Nabarro L, Ravi R, Ragupathi N, Rupali P. Whole genome analysis of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from community and hospital acquired bloodstream infection. BMC Microbiol. 2018;18:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies to monitor the prevalence of hvKp is needed since there is a potential for the community acquired isolates to develop multidrug resistance in hospital environment and may pose a major challenge for clinical management. ..
  9. Veeraraghavan B, Lal B, Devanga Ragupathi N, Neeravi I, Jeyaraman R, Varghese R, et al. First genome report on novel sequence types of Neisseria meningitidis: ST12777 and ST12778. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018;12:117-118 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies strengthening the genome data on N. meningitidis are required to understand the prevalence, spread, exact resistance and virulence mechanisms along with serotypes. ..
  10. Shankar C, Nabarro L, Devanga Ragupathi N, Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Daniel J, Doss C G, et al. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Hypervirulent Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Bacteremia. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the genome sequences of three carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates isolated from bacteremic patients at a tertiary-care center in South India. ..
  11. Manesh A, Balaji V, Kumar D, Rupali P. A case of clinical and microbiological failure of azithromycin therapy in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi despite low azithromycin MIC. Int J Infect Dis. 2017;54:62-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe an Indian adult with clinical and microbiological failure to azithromycin despite low azithromycin MIC. ..
  12. Shankar C, Santhanam S, Kumar M, Gupta V, Devanga Ragupathi N, Veeraraghavan B. Draft Genome Sequence of an Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Positive Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain with Novel Sequence Type 2318 Isolated from a Neonate. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strain isolated from a neonate with sepsis belonging to novel sequence type 2318 (ST2318). ..
  13. Vijayakumar S, Gopi R, Gunasekaran P, Bharathy M, Walia K, Anandan S, et al. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Infect Dis Ther. 2016;5:379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India (ref. no. AMR/TF/54/13ECDHII dated 23 October 2013). ..
  14. Bakthavatchalam Y, Veeraraghavan B, Peter J, Rajinikanth J, Inbanathan F, Devanga Ragupathi N, et al. Novel Observations in 11 Heteroresistant Vancomycin-Intermediate Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains from South India. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..All strains harbor mutations in vraSR, graSR, walKR, and/or tcaRAB and are often implicated as the frequently mutated candidate genes in hVISA phenotypes. ..
  15. Vijayakumar S, S B, Kanthan K, Veeraraghavan B. Whole-genome shotgun sequences of seven colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from bacteraemia. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018;12:155-156 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the significant contribution of these mutations requires further confirmation. However, genome information for these colistin-resistant A. baumannii isolates will be helpful for further comparative analysis. ..
  16. Veeraraghavan B, Anandan S, Rajamani Sekar S, Gopi R, Devanga Ragupathi N, Ramesh S, et al. First Report on the Draft Genome Sequences of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Isolates from India. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..The C. diphtheriae isolates TH1141, TH510, TH1526, TH1337, and TH2031 belong to sequence type ST-50, ST-295, ST-377, ST-405, and ST-405, with an average genome size of 2.5 Mbp. ..
  17. Veeraraghavan B, Perumalla S, Devanga Ragupathi N, Pragasam A, Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Inian S, et al. Coexistence of Fosfomycin and Colistin Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report the draft genome sequences of two colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates (BA41763 and B6753). The sequence data indicate that BA41763 and B6753 contain genomes of ~5.9 and 5.7 Mb in size with several plasmids. ..
  18. Laishram S, Sahni R, Anandan S, Balaji V. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of daptomycin and linezolid against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. isolates in south India. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2014;2:194-197 pubmed publisher
    ..The minimum inhibitory concentration of linezolid and daptomycin against 98 clinical isolates of VRE was tested by E-test. Daptomycin and linezolid showed good activity, with susceptibility rates of 93.9% and 96.9%, respectively. ..
  19. Veeraraghavan B, Neeravi A, Devanga Ragupathi N, Inbanathan F, Pragasam A, Verghese V. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of the First Observation of Neisseria meningitidis Sequence Type 6928 in India. Genome Announc. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence data indicate that strains VB13856 and VB15548 encode genomes of ~2.09 Mb in size with no plasmids. ..
  20. Veeraraghavan B, Jayaraman R, John J, Varghese R, Neeravi A, Verghese V, et al. Customized sequential multiplex PCR for accurate and early determination of invasive pneumococcal serotypes found in India. J Microbiol Methods. 2016;130:133-135 pubmed publisher
    ..This modified approach can successfully be adapted for earlier serotype detection of 95% of the pneumococcal strains prevalent in India. ..
  21. Devanga Ragupathi N, Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Shankar B, Munusamy E, Anandan S, Veeraraghavan B. Draft genome sequence of blaTEM-1-mediated cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from bloodstream infection. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2016;7:11-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasmids such as IncN might possibly confer resistance and enhance spread. It is imperative to continuously monitor the drug resistance profile and evolving genetic elements. ..
  22. Varghese R, Jayaraman R, Veeraraghavan B. Current challenges in the accurate identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its serogroups/serotypes in the vaccine era. J Microbiol Methods. 2017;141:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae, including PCR, real time PCR, sequence analysis of different specific genes of S. pneumoniae, PCR combined with RFLP, MALDI-TOF, MLST, MLSA and WGS. ..
  23. Balaji V, Jeremiah S, Baliga P. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:230-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility. ..
  24. Anandan S, Gopi R, Devanga Ragupathi N, Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Gunasekaran P, Walia K, et al. First report of blaOXA-181-mediated carbapenem resistance in Aeromonas caviae in association with pKP3-A: Threat for rapid dissemination. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2017;10:310-314 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals the emergence of carbapenem resistance among Aeromonas spp. and the importance of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids in interchanging resistance determinants between species. ..
  25. Rodrigues C, Kapil A, Sharma A, Devanga Ragupathi N, Inbanathan F, Veeraraghavan B, et al. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Cephalosporin-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence data indicate genomes of ~4.5 Mb for all isolates, with one plasmid in each. ..
  26. Mathur P, Veeraraghavan B, Devanga Ragupathi N, Inbanathan F, Khurana S, Bhardwaj N, et al. First Report on a Cluster of Colistin-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated from a Tertiary Care Center in India: Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae strains which might help in understanding the molecular mechanism of the species. The sequence data indicate genomes of ~5.2 to 5.4 Mb, along with several plasmids. ..
  27. Veeraraghavan B, Anandan S, Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Puratchiveeran N, Walia K, Devanga Ragupathi N. Molecular Characterization of Intermediate Susceptible Typhoidal Salmonella to Ciprofloxacin, and its Impact. Mol Diagn Ther. 2016;20:213-9 pubmed publisher
  28. Pragasam A, Raghanivedha M, Anandan S, Veeraraghavan B. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with discrepant carbapenem susceptibility profile. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2016;15:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, this study provided the prevalence of the various resistance mechanisms that have deployed by the organism to resist antibiotics through different phenotypes. ..
  29. Bakthavatchalam Y, Pragasam A, Biswas I, Veeraraghavan B. Polymyxin susceptibility testing, interpretative breakpoints and resistance mechanisms: An update. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2018;12:124-136 pubmed publisher
    ..2, mcr-2 and mcr-3. ..
  30. Muthuirulandi Sethuvel D, Devanga Ragupathi N, Anandan S, Verghese V, Veeraraghavan B. First report on whole-genome shotgun sequences of 23 biochemically indistinguishable clinical Shigella isolates. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2017;9:32-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the whole-genome shotgun sequences of 23 non-typeable Shigella from stool specimens that biochemically resembled Shigella spp. but were non-typeable with Shigella-specific antisera. ..
  31. Bakthavatchalam Y, Veeraraghavan B, Devanga Ragupathi N, Babu P, Munuswamy E, David T. Draft genome sequence of reduced teicoplanin-susceptible and vancomycin-heteroresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from sepsis cases. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2017;8:169-171 pubmed publisher
    ..All strains harboured a mutation in the tcaRAB operon, vraSR, graSR and/or rpoB genes, which are frequently mutated determinants in a heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) phenotype. ..