Philip C Hill

Summary

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 46:807-14. 2008
  2. pmc Incidence of tuberculosis and the predictive value of ELISPOT and Mantoux tests in Gambian case contacts
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 3:e1379. 2008
  3. pmc Longitudinal assessment of an ELISPOT test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS Med 4:e192. 2007
  4. pmc Surprisingly high specificity of the PPD skin test for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 1:e68. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in rural Gambian villages: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1468-76. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint ESAT-6 and CFP-10 can be combined to reduce the cost of testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but CFP-10 responses associate with active disease
    Annette Fox
    Tuberculosis Division, Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council UK Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:691-8. 2007
  7. pmc Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 2:e183. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Screening for tuberculosis among 2381 household contacts of sputum-smear-positive cases in The Gambia
    Dolly Jackson-Sillah
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:594-601. 2007
  9. pmc Indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage in newborns in rural Gambia: a randomised controlled trial
    Uzochukwu Egere
    Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 7:e49143. 2012
  10. ncbi request reprint Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 43:673-9. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications40

  1. ncbi request reprint Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 46:807-14. 2008
    ..To prepare for national introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of restricted valency, we studied nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian infants...
  2. pmc Incidence of tuberculosis and the predictive value of ELISPOT and Mantoux tests in Gambian case contacts
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 3:e1379. 2008
    ..tuberculosis and the human host and for assessing new interventions and diagnostic tests. We aimed to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among TB contacts and to relate this to their initial Mantoux and ELISPOT test results...
  3. pmc Longitudinal assessment of an ELISPOT test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS Med 4:e192. 2007
    ..To address this deficiency, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (ELISPOT) test in comparison to the standard tuberculin skin test (TST)...
  4. pmc Surprisingly high specificity of the PPD skin test for M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure in The Gambia
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 1:e68. 2006
    ..The Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) skin test is thought to be non-specific, especially in tropical settings. We compared the PPD skin test with an ELISPOT test in The Gambia...
  5. ncbi request reprint Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in rural Gambian villages: a longitudinal study
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1468-76. 2010
    ..pneumoniae in rural Africa and a baseline for evaluating the impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the region...
  6. ncbi request reprint ESAT-6 and CFP-10 can be combined to reduce the cost of testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but CFP-10 responses associate with active disease
    Annette Fox
    Tuberculosis Division, Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council UK Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:691-8. 2007
    ..758, r=0.840). Therefore a combined ESAT-6/CFP-10 peptide pool provided maximum sensitivity and efficiency, but CFP-10 was mainly required to detect active disease...
  7. pmc Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 2:e183. 2007
    ..We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB) contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure...
  8. ncbi request reprint Screening for tuberculosis among 2381 household contacts of sputum-smear-positive cases in The Gambia
    Dolly Jackson-Sillah
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101:594-601. 2007
    ..These individuals are a high-risk group, and the disease identified is less advanced than that found through passive case detection. An ELISPOT assay was relatively insensitive as a screening test for TB...
  9. pmc Indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage in newborns in rural Gambia: a randomised controlled trial
    Uzochukwu Egere
    Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 7:e49143. 2012
    ..Gambian infants frequently acquire Streptococcus pneumoniae soon after birth. We investigated the indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) on pneumococcal acquisition in newborn Gambian babies...
  10. ncbi request reprint Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 43:673-9. 2006
    ..To prepare for the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine of restricted valency, we studied the nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Gambian villagers...
  11. pmc ESAT-6/CFP-10 fusion protein and peptides for optimal diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by ex vivo enzyme-linked immunospot assay in the Gambia
    Philip C Hill
    Tuberculosis Division, Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Unit, MRC Labs, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2070-4. 2005
    ..007). A fusion protein of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 is equivalent to overlapping peptides for the diagnosis of latent M. tuberculosis infection. Use of a combination of peptides and fusion protein offers improved sensitivity...
  12. pmc Safety and immunogenicity of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in West Africa
    Roger H Brookes
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Tuberculosis Division, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 3:e2921. 2008
    ..We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of this new vaccine in West African volunteers...
  13. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterial T cell responses in HIV-infected patients with advanced immunosuppression
    Abdulrahman S Hammond
    Bacterial and Viral Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
    J Infect Dis 197:295-9. 2008
    ..This may reflect early signs of reactivation, reinfection, or a restricted, inefficient immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  14. pmc Reversion of the ELISPOT test after treatment in Gambian tuberculosis cases
    Alexander M Aiken
    Tuberculosis Division, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 6:66. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that TB patients in The Gambia would have reduced ELISPOT counts after successful treatment...
  15. pmc Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci four years after community-wide vaccination with PCV-7 in The Gambia: long-term evaluation of a cluster randomized trial
    Anna Roca
    Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 8:e72198. 2013
    ..Here, we report findings four years after vaccination...
  16. ncbi request reprint High granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio and paucity of NKT cells defines TB disease in a TB-endemic setting
    Jayne S Sutherland
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 89:398-404. 2009
    ..tuberculosis infection or disease. This work has important public health benefits in regards to diagnosis and treatment of TB in sub-Saharan Africa and in furthering our understanding of the requirements for protective immunity to TB...
  17. pmc Seasonality and outbreak of a predominant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 clone from The Gambia: expansion of ST217 hypervirulent clonal complex in West Africa
    Martin Antonio
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Microbiol 8:198. 2008
    ..This study compares the molecular epidemiology of S. pneumoniae serotype 1 causing invasive disease in The Gambia between 1996 and 2005 to those carried in the nasopharynx between 2004 and 2006...
  18. pmc Differences between tuberculosis cases infected with Mycobacterium africanum, West African type 2, relative to Euro-American Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an update
    Bouke C de Jong
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, MRC Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 58:102-5. 2010
    ..In addition, they had worse disease on chest X-ray, despite complaining of cough for an equal duration, and were more likely severely malnourished. In this cohort, the prevalence of MAF did not change significantly over a 7-year period...
  19. pmc Comparison of two interferon gamma release assays in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in The Gambia
    Ifedayo M O Adetifa
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 7:122. 2007
    ..We compared the diagnostic performance of an in-house T -cell and commercial whole blood-based IGRAs for the diagnosis of LTBI and TB disease in The Gambia...
  20. ncbi request reprint Quantitative T cell assay reflects infectious load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an endemic case contact model
    Philip C Hill
    Tuberculosis Division, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 40:273-8. 2005
    ..tuberculosis infection. We evaluated the quantitative ELISPOT and PPD skin test responses to recent M. tuberculosis exposure...
  21. pmc Use of spoligotyping and large sequence polymorphisms to study the population structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in a cohort study of consecutive smear-positive tuberculosis cases in The Gambia
    Bouke C de Jong
    MRC Laboratories, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Clin Microbiol 47:994-1001. 2009
    ..africanum than among the isolates of M. tuberculosis. We postulate that M. africanum became endemic in West Africa first, before the introduction of different lineages within M. tuberculosis sensu stricto...
  22. pmc Progression to active tuberculosis, but not transmission, varies by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage in The Gambia
    Bouke C de Jong
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 198:1037-43. 2008
    ..There is considerable variability in the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We hypothesized that Mycobacterium africanum was less likely than M. tuberculosis to transmit and progress to tuberculosis disease...
  23. ncbi request reprint The effect of tuberculin skin test and BCG vaccination on the expansion of PPD-specific IFN-gamma producing cells ex vivo
    Martin O C Ota
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council, P O Box 273, Banjul, Gambia
    Vaccine 25:8861-7. 2007
    ..We conclude that BCG is immunogenic, but this effector response is short-lived and can be limited in higher pre-existing anti-mycobacterial immunity, suggesting a possible threshold beyond which BCG immunogenicity is inhibited...
  24. ncbi request reprint Interferon-γ ELISPOT as a biomarker of treatment efficacy in latent tuberculosis infection: a clinical trial
    Ifedayo M Adetifa
    Medical Research Council Unit, The Gambia, Fajara, P O Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 187:439-45. 2013
    ..Biomarkers that can be used to evaluate new interventions against latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and predict reactivation TB disease are urgently required...
  25. ncbi request reprint Commercial interferon gamma release assays compared to the tuberculin skin test for diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in childhood contacts in the Gambia
    Ifedayo M O Adetifa
    Bacterial Diseases Program, Medical Research Council UK Laboratories, Fajara, Banjul, The Gambia
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:439-43. 2010
    ..TB in diagnosing latent tuberculosis (LTBI) among childhood TB contacts in a TB endemic setting with high BCG coverage. We evaluated the performance of interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) and TST when combined in an algorithm...
  26. pmc Bacteraemia in patients admitted to an urban hospital in West Africa
    Philip C Hill
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Infect Dis 7:2. 2007
    ..Few studies on bacteraemia in Africa have been published. We aimed to prospectively identify the causative organisms of bacteraemia in The Gambia and their relation to clinical diagnoses, outcome and antimicrobial susceptibility...
  27. ncbi request reprint Serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in The Gambia 1996-2003
    Richard A Adegbola
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia
    Trop Med Int Health 11:1128-35. 2006
    ..To describe the characteristics of pneumococcal isolates obtained from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in The Gambia...
  28. ncbi request reprint Early clinical trials with a new tuberculosis vaccine, MVA85A, in tuberculosis-endemic countries: issues in study design
    Hannah B Ibanga
    MRC Laboratories, Fajara, The Gambia
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:522-8. 2006
    ..These issues are highly relevant to early clinical trials with all new tuberculosis vaccines in the developing world...
  29. ncbi request reprint Large-scale evaluation of enzyme-linked immunospot assay and skin test for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection against a gradient of exposure in The Gambia
    Philip C Hill
    Tuberculosis Division, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Clin Infect Dis 38:966-73. 2004
    ..ESAT-6/CFP-10 ELISPOT probably offers increased specificity in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in this tropical setting of endemicity, at the cost of some sensitivity...
  30. pmc Health seeking behaviour, health system experience and tuberculosis case finding in Gambians with cough
    Yaya Kasse
    Tuberculosis Division, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Public Health 6:143. 2006
    ..We aimed to study health-seeking behaviour and experience of those with cough in The Gambia and to identify whether they had tuberculosis...
  31. ncbi request reprint Pattern and diversity of cytokine production differentiates between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease
    Jayne S Sutherland
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Eur J Immunol 39:723-9. 2009
    ..Our data indicate that despite a robust response to TB antigens in active TB disease, changes in the pattern of cytokine production between TB infection and disease clearly contribute to disease progression...
  32. pmc Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia
    Philip C Hill
    Tuberculosis Division, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    BMC Public Health 6:156. 2006
    ..We aimed to identify risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in those attending a general outpatients clinic in The Gambia, a sub-Saharan African country with relatively low HIV prevalence in the community and in TB patients...
  33. pmc Pneumococcal antibody concentrations of subjects in communities fully or partially vaccinated with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Martin O C Ota
    Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, The Gambia
    PLoS ONE 7:e42997. 2012
    ..We measured pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody concentrations in this trial to understand further the mechanisms underlying the observed changes...
  34. pmc Beyond good intentions: lessons on equipment donation from an African hospital
    Stephen R C Howie
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, The Gambia
    Bull World Health Organ 86:52-6. 2008
    ..The concentrators broke down and were put into storage. A case study was done to find the reasons for the problem and to draw lessons to help improve both oxygen supplies and the success of future equipment donations...
  35. pmc Meeting oxygen needs in Africa: an options analysis from the Gambia
    Stephen R C Howie
    Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories, Banjul, Gambia
    Bull World Health Organ 87:763-71. 2009
    ..To compare oxygen supply options for health facilities in the Gambia and develop a decision-making algorithm for choosing oxygen delivery systems in Africa and the rest of the developing world...
  36. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium africanum: a new opportunistic pathogen in HIV infection?
    Bouke C de Jong
    AIDS 19:1714-5. 2005
  37. ncbi request reprint Comparison of enzyme-linked immunospot assay and tuberculin skin test in healthy children exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Philip C Hill
    Tuberculosis Division, Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda
    Pediatrics 117:1542-8. 2006
    ..To compare the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with the tuberculin skin test (TST) in children for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the Gambia...
  38. pmc Recognition of stage-specific mycobacterial antigens differentiates between acute and latent infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Abebech Demissie
    Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:179-86. 2006
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Mycobacterium africanum elicits an attenuated T cell response to early secreted antigenic target, 6 kDa, in patients with tuberculosis and their household contacts
    Bouke C de Jong
    Medical Research Council Laboratories, The Gambia
    J Infect Dis 193:1279-86. 2006
    ..Mycobacterium africanum, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that is infrequently found outside of western Africa, is the cause of up to half of the tuberculosis cases there...
  40. pmc Extended culture enhances sensitivity of a gamma interferon assay for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Ana Cehovin
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:796-8. 2007
    ..After 24 h of culture, 66% were positive, compared to 93% after 6 days of culture...