Andrew Hill

Summary

Publications

  1. pmc New strategies for lowering the costs of antiretroviral treatment and care for people with HIV/AIDS in the United Kingdom
    Brian Gazzard
    St Stephens Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 4:193-200. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Balancing effectiveness and access to HIV treatment in the developing world
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS 21:361-3. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Prediction of clinical benefits of ritonavir-boosted TMC114 from treatment effects on CD4 counts and HIV RNA
    A Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 8:234-40. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint Relative antiviral efficacy of ritonavir-boosted darunavir and ritonavir-boosted tipranavir vs. control protease inhibitor in the POWER and RESIST trials
    A Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 8:259-64. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint The costs of full suppression of plasma HIV RNA in highly antiretroviral-experienced patients
    Andrew M Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS Rev 13:41-8. 2011
  6. ncbi request reprint Analysis of treatment costs for HIV RNA reductions and CD4 increases for darunavir versus other antiretrovirals in treatment-experienced, HIV-infected patients
    Andrew M Hill
    University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    HIV Clin Trials 8:121-31. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Predicting HIV care costs using CD4 counts from clinical trials
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, UK, and Tibotec BVBA, Mechelen, Belgium
    Am J Manag Care 13:524-8. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Analysis of costs by CD4 count category for the darunavir/r 600/100 mg bid and control protease inhibitor arms of the POWER 1 and 2 trials
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Tibotec BVBA, United Kingdom
    HIV Clin Trials 8:303-10. 2007
  9. doi request reprint Designing and interpreting HIV noninferiority trials in naive and experienced patients
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool L69 3GF, UK
    AIDS 22:913-21. 2008
  10. doi request reprint Effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone on the efficacy of first-line boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy based on protease inhibitors: meta-regression analysis of 12 clinical trials in 5168 patients
    A Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 10:527-35. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc New strategies for lowering the costs of antiretroviral treatment and care for people with HIV/AIDS in the United Kingdom
    Brian Gazzard
    St Stephens Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 4:193-200. 2012
    ..There could be ethical issues in starting patients on these drugs if they are currently tolerating other treatments. The use of darunavir-ritonavir monotherapy is not consistently recommended in international HIV treatment guidelines...
  2. ncbi request reprint Balancing effectiveness and access to HIV treatment in the developing world
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS 21:361-3. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Prediction of clinical benefits of ritonavir-boosted TMC114 from treatment effects on CD4 counts and HIV RNA
    A Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 8:234-40. 2007
    ..The aim of the study was to predict reductions in progression to AIDS/death associated with the treatment benefit of antiretrovirals on CD4 counts and HIV RNA in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  4. ncbi request reprint Relative antiviral efficacy of ritonavir-boosted darunavir and ritonavir-boosted tipranavir vs. control protease inhibitor in the POWER and RESIST trials
    A Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 8:259-64. 2007
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint The costs of full suppression of plasma HIV RNA in highly antiretroviral-experienced patients
    Andrew M Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS Rev 13:41-8. 2011
    ..In summary, when treating highly treatment-experienced patients, cost-savings could be made by using combinations of newer antiretrovirals in preference to recycled nucleoside analogs and enfuvirtide...
  6. ncbi request reprint Analysis of treatment costs for HIV RNA reductions and CD4 increases for darunavir versus other antiretrovirals in treatment-experienced, HIV-infected patients
    Andrew M Hill
    University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    HIV Clin Trials 8:121-31. 2007
    ..The additional cost per incremental 25 cell rise in CD4 count, or 0.5 log reduction in HIV RNA, was calculated for 8 antiretrovirals using pivotal clinical trials data...
  7. ncbi request reprint Predicting HIV care costs using CD4 counts from clinical trials
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, UK, and Tibotec BVBA, Mechelen, Belgium
    Am J Manag Care 13:524-8. 2007
    ..To predict the effects of a new antiretroviral agent on the costs of care in a US HIV care setting...
  8. ncbi request reprint Analysis of costs by CD4 count category for the darunavir/r 600/100 mg bid and control protease inhibitor arms of the POWER 1 and 2 trials
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Tibotec BVBA, United Kingdom
    HIV Clin Trials 8:303-10. 2007
    ..HIV-infected people with low CD4 counts are at higher risk of AIDS and incur increased health care costs from in-patient stays and medications...
  9. doi request reprint Designing and interpreting HIV noninferiority trials in naive and experienced patients
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool L69 3GF, UK
    AIDS 22:913-21. 2008
  10. doi request reprint Effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone on the efficacy of first-line boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy based on protease inhibitors: meta-regression analysis of 12 clinical trials in 5168 patients
    A Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 10:527-35. 2009
    ..The ACTG 5202 and BICOMBO trials suggested higher efficacy for TDF/FTC, whereas the HEAT trial showed no efficacy difference between the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones...
  11. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for gastrointestinal adverse events in HIV treated and untreated patients
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    AIDS Rev 11:30-8. 2009
    ..The percentage of patients who use medications to lessen the symptoms of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal adverse events should also be reported...
  12. doi request reprint Effects of first-line use of nucleoside analogues, efavirenz, and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors on lipid levels
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Clin Trials 10:1-12. 2009
    ..Treatment with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors or efavirenz and nucleoside analogues leads to rises in lipids, which might contribute to cardiovascular risk...
  13. ncbi request reprint Systematic review of clinical trials evaluating low doses of stavudine as part of antiretroviral treatment
    Andrew Hill
    Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK
    Expert Opin Pharmacother 8:679-88. 2007
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Identification of new genotypic cut-off levels to predict the efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir in the TITAN trial
    A Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 10:620-6. 2009
    ..The TITAN trial evaluated LPV/r vs. darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) in treatment-experienced patients with viral load >1000 copies/mL. This analysis aimed to re-evaluate resistance algorithms for LPV/r in the TITAN trial...
  15. doi request reprint Optimizing HIV treatment
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 8:34-40. 2013
    ..An additional 19 million people will need to start treatment in the future, as their HIV disease progresses. Funding for Universal Access to HIV treatment has been restricted by the Global Financial Crisis...
  16. ncbi request reprint Analysis of genotypic and phenotypic clinical cut-off levels for ritonavir-boosted saquinavir
    A Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    HIV Med 7:67-74. 2006
    ..Using Virtual Phenotype, a 12.3-fold upper cut-off level was determined from analysis of large cohort databases. These genotypic and phenotypic algorithms need to be validated in larger prospective studies...
  17. ncbi request reprint Discordant conclusions from HIV clinical trials--an evaluation of efficacy endpoints
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Antivir Ther 10:367-74. 2005
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Steady-State pharmacokinetics of saquinavir hard-gel/ritonavir/fosamprenavir in HIV-1-infected patients
    Marta Boffito
    PK Research Ltd, St Stephen s Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1376-84. 2004
    ..This study evaluated the steady-state pharmacokinetics of saquinavir 1000 mg twice daily (bid) and fosamprenavir 700 mg bid administered with 2 different doses of ritonavir (100 and 200 mg bid) in HIV-1-infected subjects...
  19. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of saquinavir hard-gel/ritonavir and atazanavir when combined once daily in HIV Type 1-infected individuals administered different atazanavir doses
    Marta Boffito
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:749-56. 2006
    ..Atazanavir-related hyperbilirubinemia was dose dependent. However, higher saquinavir and atazanavir exposure may be required to suppress HIV-resistant strain replication...
  20. pmc Pharmacokinetics of saquinavir hard gel/ritonavir (1000/100 mg twice daily) when administered with tenofovir diproxil fumarate in HIV-1-infected subjects
    Marta Boffito
    PK Research Ltd, St Stephen s Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, UK
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 59:38-42. 2005
    ..To investigate whether the administration of tenofovir diproxil fumarate 300 mg once daily alters the plasma pharmacokinetics of the saquinavir hard gel/ritonavir combination in HIV-1 infected individuals...
  21. ncbi request reprint Influence of atazanavir 200 mg on the intracellular and plasma pharmacokinetics of saquinavir and ritonavir 1600/100 mg administered once daily in HIV-infected patients
    Jennifer Ford
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, 70 Pembroke Place, Liverpool L69 3GF, and PK Research Ltd, St Stephen s Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 58:1009-16. 2006
    ..To examine cellular and plasma concentrations of atazanavir when given in combination with saquinavir/ritonavir in HIV+ patients...
  22. ncbi request reprint Boosted saquinavir hard gel formulation exposure in HIV-infected subjects: ritonavir 100 mg once daily versus twice daily
    Marta Boffito
    PK Research Ltd, St Stephen s Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:542-5. 2005
    ..This study examined the pharmacokinetics of twice-daily saquinavir-hg (1000 mg) in the presence of ritonavir 100 mg, dosed twice-daily and once-daily on one single occasion...
  23. doi request reprint Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients
    Marta Boffito
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    HIV Clin Trials 9:418-27. 2008
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of once-daily saquinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected subjects: comparison with the standard twice-daily regimen
    Marta Boffito
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    Antivir Ther 9:423-9. 2004
    ..To evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics and safety of two once-daily saquinavir/ritonavir (SQV/RTV) regimens, 1600/100 and 2000/100 mg, in HIV-positive patients...
  25. ncbi request reprint Atazanavir enhances saquinavir hard-gel concentrations in a ritonavir-boosted once-daily regimen
    Marta Boffito
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    AIDS 18:1291-7. 2004
    ..To determine the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir hard-gel capsules/ritonavir/atazanavir co-administered once daily at 1600/100/300 mg in HIV-infected individuals...
  26. doi request reprint Effect of baseline viral susceptibility on response to darunavir/ritonavir versus control protease inhibitors in treatment-experienced HIV type 1-infected patients: POWER 1 and 2
    Anton Pozniak
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1275-80. 2008
    ..Darunavir/r 600/100 mg twice daily showed efficacy benefits over CPI use regardless of viral susceptibility at baseline, FC to darunavir or boosting type in a population of treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients...
  27. ncbi request reprint Modelling-based prediction of clinical benefits from etravirine in the TMC125-C223 trial
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Laboratories, Liverpool University, UK
    HIV Clin Trials 8:68-76. 2007
    ..To predict the decrease in progression to AIDS or death based on the treatment benefit of etravirine over active control on CD4 counts and HIV RNA...
  28. doi request reprint Resistance at virological failure using boosted protease inhibitors versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as first-line antiretroviral therapy--implications for sustained efficacy of ART in resource-limited settings
    Andrew Hill
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories, Liverpool University, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 207:S78-84. 2013
    ..We aimed to examine whether first-line use of 2 NRTIs plus a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) could protect against emergence of NRTI resistance mutations, compared to the use of 2 NRTIs plus 1 NNRTI...
  29. doi request reprint Phase 2 double-blind, randomized trial of etravirine versus efavirenz in treatment-naive patients: 48-week results
    Brian Gazzard
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    AIDS 25:2249-58. 2011
    ..The primary endpoint was neuropsychiatric adverse events up to week 12; HIV RNA suppression at week 48 was a secondary endpoint...
  30. ncbi request reprint Virological monitoring and resistance to first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in adults infected with HIV-1 treated under WHO guidelines: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ravindra K Gupta
    UCL MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, University College London Medical School, London, UK
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:409-17. 2009
    ..This Review highlights the need for cheap point-of-care viral-load tests to identify early viral failures and limit the emergence of resistance...
  31. doi request reprint Causes and consequences of incomplete HIV RNA suppression in clinical trials
    Anton Pozniak
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    HIV Clin Trials 10:289-98. 2009
    ..However, other methods may improve precision and increase statistical power...
  32. doi request reprint Emergence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected patients after receipt of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review of clinical trials
    Ravindra Gupta
    Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 47:712-22. 2008
    ..Resistance to antiretroviral combination therapy is associated with increased mortality. Understanding the relative risks of emerging resistance to first-line therapy is of importance for both resource-rich and resource-poor settings...
  33. ncbi request reprint Should we now adopt the HIV-RNA < 50 copy endpoint for clinical trials of antiretroviral-experienced as well as naive patients?
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, UK
    AIDS 21:1651-3. 2007
    ..HIV-RNA suppression below 50 copies/ml should now become the standard efficacy endpoint across trials of both naive and experienced patients...
  34. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of cellular HIV-1 DNA levels over 144 weeks of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus triple therapy in the MONET trial
    Anna Maria Geretti
    University of Liverpool, UK
    HIV Clin Trials 14:45-50. 2013
    ....
  35. doi request reprint A comparison of neuropsychiatric adverse events during 12 weeks of treatment with etravirine and efavirenz in a treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected population
    Mark Nelson
    St Stephens Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    AIDS 25:335-40. 2011
    ..Although efavirenz is a universally recommended treatment for naive HIV-infected individuals, neuropsychiatric adverse events are common...
  36. ncbi request reprint Changes in hematologic parameters and efficacy of thymidine analogue-based, highly active antiretroviral therapy: a meta-analysis of six prospective, randomized, comparative studies
    Graeme Moyle
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    Clin Ther 26:92-7. 2004
    ..The management of anemia and neutropenia has improved survival in persons with HIV...
  37. pmc Intracellular and plasma pharmacokinetics of saquinavir-ritonavir, administered at 1,600/100 milligrams once daily in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients
    Jennifer Ford
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, 70 Pembroke Pl, Block H, First Floor, Liverpool L69 3GF, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:2388-93. 2004
    ..The intracellular t(1/2)s of saquinavir and ritonavir were longer than the plasma t(1/2)s, indicating that intracellular drug may be available at a time when concentrations in plasma are below the minimum effective concentration...
  38. doi request reprint Neuropsychiatric adverse events with ritonavir-boosted darunavir monotherapy in HIV-infected individuals: a randomised prospective study
    Alan Winston
    St Mary s Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK
    HIV Clin Trials 11:163-9. 2010
    ..Protease inhibitor monotherapy is an attractive treatment option for HIV-infected subjects. Data assessing neuropsychiatric events with the use of protease inhibitor monotherapy are sparse...
  39. pmc Pharmacokinetics of lamivudine and lamivudine-triphosphate after administration of 300 milligrams and 150 milligrams once daily to healthy volunteers: results of the ENCORE 2 study
    Laura J Else
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1427-33. 2012
    ..68 to 0.99), and 0.70 (0.61 to 0.82), respectively. We found that 3TC at 150 mg is not bioequivalent to the standard regimen of 300 mg, indicating that saturation of cytosine phosphorylation pathways is not achieved at a dose of 150 mg...
  40. pmc Pharmacokinetic interaction between TMC114/ritonavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in healthy volunteers
    Richard M W Hoetelmans
    Tibotec BVBA, Mechelen, Belgium
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 64:655-61. 2007
    ..An open-label crossover study was conducted in HIV - healthy volunteers to investigate the potential for a pharmacokinetic interaction between TMC114/r and tenofovir...
  41. pmc Pharmacokinetics of plasma lopinavir/ritonavir following the administration of 400/100 mg, 200/150 mg and 200/50 mg twice daily in HIV-negative volunteers
    Akil Jackson
    St Stephen s Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:635-40. 2011
    ..We assessed the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir at doses of 400/100, 200/150 and 200/50 mg twice daily in HIV-negative volunteers (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00985543)...
  42. pmc Global trends in antiretroviral resistance in treatment-naive individuals with HIV after rollout of antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings: a global collaborative study and meta-regression analysis
    Ravindra K Gupta
    Department of Infection, University College London, London, UK
    Lancet 380:1250-8. 2012
    ..We aimed to estimate changes in the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in treatment-naive individuals with HIV since initiation of rollout in resource-limited settings...
  43. ncbi request reprint CD4 cell count changes in individuals with counts above 500 cells/mm and viral loads below 50 copies/ml on antiretroviral therapy
    Andrew N Phillips
    Royal Free Centre for HIV Medicine, London, UK
    AIDS 16:1073-5. 2002
  44. doi request reprint Cost-efficacy analysis of the MONET trial using UK antiretroviral drug prices
    Brian Gazzard
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    Appl Health Econ Health Policy 9:217-23. 2011
    ..In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy maintains HIV RNA suppression, and could also lower treatment costs...
  45. ncbi request reprint Analysis of neuropsychiatric adverse events during clinical trials of efavirenz in antiretroviral-naive patients: a systematic review
    Brian Gazzard
    Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    AIDS Rev 12:67-75. 2010
    ..In summary, there is a wide range of different systems used to report neuropsychiatric adverse events in HIV clinical trials. Use of a standardized endpoint would improve the interpretability of results across clinical trials...
  46. doi request reprint Sensitive testing of plasma HIV-1 RNA and Sanger sequencing of cellular HIV-1 DNA for the detection of drug resistance prior to starting first-line antiretroviral therapy with etravirine or efavirenz
    Anna Maria Geretti
    Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Antimicrob Chemother 69:1090-7. 2014
    ....
  47. doi request reprint Etravirine limits the emergence of darunavir and other protease inhibitor resistance-associated mutations in the DUET trials
    Monika Peeters
    Tibotec BVBA, Mechelen, Belgium
    AIDS 24:921-4. 2010
    ....
  48. doi request reprint Improvement in vitamin D deficiency following antiretroviral regime change: Results from the MONET trial
    Julie Fox
    Guys and St Thomas NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:29-34. 2011
    ..Routine screening of HIV-positive patients for vitamin D should be considered and the optimal management further defined...
  49. ncbi request reprint Systematic review and meta-analysis: Patient and programme impact of fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy
    Rubeena Ramjan
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK
    Trop Med Int Health 19:501-13. 2014
    ..To compare the advantages to patients and to programmes between fixed-dose combination (FDC) antiretroviral therapy and separate tablet regimens...
  50. pmc Minimum costs for producing hepatitis C direct-acting antivirals for use in large-scale treatment access programs in developing countries
    Andrew Hill
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Liverpool University, United Kingdom
    Clin Infect Dis 58:928-36. 2014
    ..Generic antiretrovirals are currently manufactured at very low prices, to treat 10 million people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries...