George Panos

Summary

Affiliation: University of Patras School of Medicine, Patras University General Hospital
Location: Patras, Greece
Summary:
Assistant Professor in Internal Medicine & Infectious Diseases

Internal Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Including:
Tropical Medicine
HIV Medicine
Hepatitis
Biomedical Engineering and Computing

Publications

  1. Reekie J, Gatell J, Yust I, Bakowska E, Rakhmanova A, Losso M, et al. Fatal and nonfatal AIDS and non-AIDS events in HIV-1-positive individuals with high CD4 cell counts according to viral load strata. AIDS. 2011;25:2259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The association with AIDS was clear and consistent. However, the association with non-AIDS was only apparent after adjustment and no differences were observed between intermediate and high viraemia. ..
  2. Scourfield A, Waters L, Holmes P, Panos G, Randell P, Jackson A, et al. Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in HIV-infected individuals. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is consistent with other cohorts demonstrating an association between the didanosine exposure and NCPH. Our data also suggest an increased risk of pulmonary hypertension. ..
  3. Falagas M, Zarkadoulia E, Pliatsika P, Panos G. Socioeconomic status (SES) as a determinant of adherence to treatment in HIV infected patients: a systematic review of the literature. Retrovirology. 2008;5:13 pubmed publisher
  4. Falagas M, Theocharis G, Spanos A, Vlara L, Issaris E, Panos G, et al. Effect of meteorological variables on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. Respir Med. 2008;102:733-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, there was no significant correlation between wind speed and upper or lower RTIs. The findings suggest that house call visits due to upper and lower RTIs increased as the average temperature in the area of Attica decreased. ..
  5. Friis Møller N, Thiebaut R, Reiss P, Weber R, Monforte A, De Wit S, et al. Predicting the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients: the data collection on adverse effects of anti-HIV drugs study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17:491-501 pubmed publisher
  6. request reprint
    Panos G, Xirouchakis E, Tzias V, Charatsis G, Bliziotis I, Doulgeroglou V, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients: a case-control study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:709-12 pubmed
    ..06). The grading of the density of H. pylori infection and the grading of the histomorphological findings according to the Sydney classification were similar between HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients with H. pylori infection. ..
  7. request reprint
    Podlekareva D, Bannister W, Mocroft A, Abrosimova L, Karpov I, Lundgren J, et al. The EuroSIDA study: Regional differences in the HIV-1 epidemic and treatment response to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients across Europe--a review of published results. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2008;16:99-105 pubmed
    ..Strategies include creating scientific collaborations for HIV clinicians as well as teaching clinicians about the most advanced HIV management at clinically oriented courses held in eastern Europe. ..
  8. request reprint
    Smith C, Olsen C, Mocroft A, Viard J, Staszewski S, Panos G, et al. The role of antiretroviral therapy in the incidence of pancreatitis in HIV-positive individuals in the EuroSIDA study. AIDS. 2008;22:47-56 pubmed
  9. Bannister W, Cozzi Lepri A, Clotet B, Mocroft A, Kjaer J, Reiss P, et al. Transmitted drug resistant HIV-1 and association with virologic and CD4 cell count response to combination antiretroviral therapy in the EuroSIDA Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:324-33 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications71

  1. Panos G, Farouk L, Stebbing J, Holmes P, Valero S, Randell P, et al. Cryptogenic pseudocirrhosis: a new clinical syndrome of noncirrhotic portal hypertension (unassociated with advanced fibrosis) that can be detected by transient elastography in patients with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:525-7 pubmed publisher
  2. request reprint
    Falagas M, Karveli E, Panos G. Infectious disease cases for educational purposes: open-access resources on the Internet. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:495-500 pubmed
  3. request reprint
    Panos G, Karydis I, Velakoulis S, Falagas M. Multi-skeletal Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) in an HIV-seropositive patient. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:134-7 pubmed
    ..jiroveci infection in an HIV-seropositive patient, with multiple skeletal lesions, especially in the skull and in vertebrae region, and concomitant non-small-cell lung cancer, with a very poor prognosis. ..
  4. Lagadinou E, Marangos M, Liga M, Panos G, Tzouvara E, Dimitroulia E, et al. Human herpesvirus 6-related pure red cell aplasia, secondary graft failure, and clinical severe immune suppression after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation successfully treated with foscarnet. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010;12:437-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Late bone marrow aplasia and late severe infections after allo-HCT without other obvious causes may be HHV-6 related. ..
  5. Cozzi Lepri A, Phillips A, Martinez Picado J, Monforte A, Katlama C, Eg Hansen A, et al. Rate of accumulation of thymidine analogue mutations in patients continuing to receive virologically failing regimens containing zidovudine or stavudine: implications for antiretroviral therapy programs in resource-limited settings. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the estimated rate of TAM accumulation was lower than anticipated, all possible efforts should be continued to increase the availability of drug options in RLSs. ..
  6. Kesselring A, Wit F, Sabin C, Lundgren J, Gill M, Gatell J, et al. Risk factors for treatment-limiting toxicities in patients starting nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2009;23:1689-99 pubmed publisher
    ..94, CI 0.78-1.13). Our results suggest it may be relatively well tolerated to initiate NVPc in antiretroviral-experienced patients with high CD4 cell counts provided there is no detectable viremia. ..
  7. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Reiss P, De Wit S, Sedlacek D, Beniowski M, et al. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients. AIDS. 2010;24:1667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-positive persons might be caused by both HIV and traditional or non-HIV-related factors. Our objective was to investigate long-term exposure to specific antiretroviral drugs and CKD...
  8. Panos G, Holmes P, Valero S, Anderson M, Gazzard B, Nelson M. Transient elastography, liver stiffness values, and acute hepatopathy. Hepatology. 2008;47:2140; author reply 2141 pubmed publisher
  9. request reprint
    Starakis I, Panos G, Koutras A, Mazokopakis E. Pathogens and chronic or long-term neurologic disorders. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2011;11:40-52 pubmed
    ..Our aim is to comprehensively review all available data suggesting that infections could be common antecedent events of progressive neurologic degenerative or behavioural diseases. ..
  10. Mocroft A, Wyatt C, Szczech L, Neuhaus J, El Sadr W, Tracy R, et al. Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C. AIDS. 2009;23:71-82 pubmed publisher
    ..42; 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.74, P = 0.0023). These results demonstrate that interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in cystatin C, which may reflect worsened renal function. ..
  11. Soriano V, Mocroft A, Rockstroh J, Ledergerber B, Knysz B, Chaplinskas S, et al. Spontaneous viral clearance, viral load, and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV antibodies in Europe. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the patients with HCV viremia analyzed, 53% were found to carry HCV genotype 1, and this genotype was associated with greater serum HCV RNA levels. ..
  12. Mocroft A, Reiss P, Gasiorowski J, Ledergerber B, Kowalska J, Chiesi A, et al. Serious fatal and nonfatal non-AIDS-defining illnesses in Europe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:262-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence on the impact of modifying immunodeficiency and lifestyle-related factors on the risk of non-AIDS events in HIV-infected persons is an important but unmet research need. ..
  13. Fox Z, Phillips A, Cohen C, Neuhaus J, Baxter J, Emery S, et al. Viral resuppression and detection of drug resistance following interruption of a suppressive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. AIDS. 2008;22:2279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..NNRTI drug-resistance mutations were observed in a relatively high proportion of patients. These data provide additional support for a staggered or switched interruption strategy for NNRTI drugs. ..
  14. Panos G, Charatsis G, Paparizos V, Kazantzi M, Falagas M. Prevalence of genotypic resistance to nucleoside analogues, nonnucleoside analogues, and protease inhibitors in HIV-infected persons in Athens, Greece. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008;24:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..M184V (63.6%) and K103N (25.2%) were the most frequent mutations related to NRTIs and NNRTIs, respectively. ..
  15. request reprint
    Starakis I, Panos G, Mazokopakis E. Dealing with the substance abuse epidemic and infective endocarditis: clinical, immunologic and pathogenetic aspects. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2012;10:247-56 pubmed
    ..Our aim is to comprehensively review the clinical features and complications and also the possible pathogenetic and immunologic mechanisms implicated in IE patients who are injecting illicit substances. ..
  16. Soriano V, Mocroft A, Peters L, Rockstroh J, Antunes F, Kirkby N, et al. Predictors of hepatitis B virus genotype and viraemia in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B in Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Low CD4 counts were associated with an independent higher risk of detectable HBV viraemia, which supports an earlier introduction of antiretroviral therapy, including anti-HBV drug(s) more potent than lamivudine. ..
  17. request reprint
    Panos G, Kopterides P, Falagas M. Hyperlactatemia due to nevirapine. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:867-8 pubmed
  18. request reprint
    Falagas M, Panos G. Implications of findings of bibliometric analyses in parasitology. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:12-3 pubmed
  19. Worm S, Friis Møller N, Bruyand M, D Arminio Monforte A, Rickenbach M, Reiss P, et al. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome. AIDS. 2010;24:427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in cohort studies should be based on two consecutive measurements of the laboratory components in the syndrome definition. ..
  20. request reprint
    Panos G, Karveli E, Nikolatou O, Falagas M. Prolonged survival of an HIV-infected patient with plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity. Am J Hematol. 2007;82:761-5 pubmed
    ..The patient remains in complete remission 61 months after the diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma. ..
  21. Hatzakis G, Mathur M, Gilbert L, Panos G, Wanchu A, Patel A, et al. Neural network-longitudinal assessment of the Electronic Anti-Retroviral THerapy (EARTH) cohort to follow response to HIV-treatment. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005;:301-5 pubmed
    ..625), switch to virologic success/failure from failure/success within 6 months (ROC=0.722) following a previous switch. This tool may be helpful in the design of longitudinal clinical trials. ..
  22. Reekie J, Kosa C, Engsig F, Monforte A, Wiercinska Drapalo A, Domingo P, et al. Relationship between current level of immunodeficiency and non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies. Cancer. 2010;116:5306-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Starting cART earlier to reduce the proportion of patients with a low CD4 count may decrease the rate of developing many common non-AIDS-related malignancies. A randomized trial to explore this strategy is urgently needed. ..
  23. Matthaiou D, Panos G, Adamidi E, Falagas M. Albendazole versus praziquantel in the treatment of neurocysticercosis: a meta-analysis of comparative trials. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e194 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis by performing a meta-analysis of comparative trials of their effectiveness and safety...
  24. request reprint
    Paraskevis D, Magiorkinis E, Katsoulidou A, Hatzitheodorou E, Antoniadou A, Papadopoulos A, et al. Prevalence of resistance-associated mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Greece. Virus Res. 2005;112:115-22 pubmed
    ..For two individuals, there was clear evidence for transmitted resistance based on epidemiological information for a known source of HIV-1 transmission. The prevalence of the HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinants was 52%. ..
  25. Trullàs J, Mocroft A, Cofan F, Tourret J, Moreno A, Bagnis C, et al. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients: a European survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:582-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Low prevalence of ESRD was found. Two-thirds of patients were excluded from RT for non-HIV/AIDS-related pathologies. Most patients had a functioning graft despite a high acute rejection rate. ..
  26. Podlekareva D, Mocroft A, Kirk O, Reiss P, Aldins P, Katlama C, et al. Fungal infection as a risk factor for HIV disease progression among patients with a CD4 count above 200/microl in the era of cART. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:908-13 pubmed publisher
    ..FI can be used as a clinical marker for disease progression and indirect indicator for initiation/changing cART in settings where laboratory facilities are limited. ..
  27. Emery S, Neuhaus J, Phillips A, Babiker A, Cohen C, Gatell J, et al. Major clinical outcomes in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants and in those not receiving ART at baseline in the SMART study. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..69-10.39; p=.002 ). Initiation of ART at CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL compared with <250 cells/microL may reduce both OD and serious non-AIDS events. These findings require validation in a large, randomized clinical trial. ..
  28. request reprint
    Mocroft A, Staszewski S, Weber R, Gatell J, Rockstroh J, Gasiorowski J, et al. Risk of discontinuation of nevirapine due to toxicities in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-infected patients with high and low CD4+ T-cell counts. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:325-33 pubmed
    ..13; 95% CI: 0.77-1.66; P = 0.52). Results from this non-randomized study suggest that NVPc might be safer to initiate in antiretroviral-experienced than in antiretroviral-naive patients with high CD4+ T-cell counts. ..
  29. Stebbing J, Farouk L, Panos G, Anderson M, Jiao L, Mandalia S, et al. A meta-analysis of transient elastography for the detection of hepatic fibrosis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44:214-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2-84.7%) and specificity of 94.69% (95% CI: 94.3%-95%). Further evaluation of transient elastography to assess LSM is required in prospective studies to potentially increase the sensitivity and establish its clinical utility. ..
  30. request reprint
    Peters L, Mocroft A, Soriano V, Rockstroh J, Losso M, Valerio L, et al. Hepatitis C virus coinfection does not influence the CD4 cell recovery in HIV-1-infected patients with maximum virologic suppression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50:457-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, no difference in CD4 gain was found when comparing distinct HCV genotypes in HCV-RNA+ patients or when comparing HCV viremic vs. aviremic HCV-seropositive patients. ..
  31. Kowalska J, Mocroft A, Ledergerber B, Florence E, Ristola M, Begovac J, et al. A standardized algorithm for determining the underlying cause of death in HIV infection as AIDS or non-AIDS related: results from the EuroSIDA study. HIV Clin Trials. 2011;12:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) deaths were classified as AIDS and 1,451 (52.1%) as non-AIDS related. Our proposed stepwise algorithm for classifying deaths provides a valuable tool for future research, however validation in another setting is warranted. ..
  32. Lodwick R, Sabin C, Porter K, Ledergerber B, van Sighem A, Cozzi Lepri A, et al. Death rates in HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4 count greater than 350 cells per microL in Europe and North America: a pooled cohort observational study. Lancet. 2010;376:340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though the increased risk is small, new studies of potential benefits of ART in this group are merited. European Commission, FP6. European AIDS Treatment Network (NEAT). Project number LSHP-CT-2006-037570. ..
  33. Bannister W, Cozzi Lepri A, Kjær J, Clotet B, Lazzarin A, Viard J, et al. Estimating prevalence of accumulated HIV-1 drug resistance in a cohort of patients on antiretroviral therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:901-11 pubmed publisher
  34. Lundgren J, Babiker A, El Sadr W, Emery S, Grund B, Neaton J, et al. Inferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing HIV replication at a given CD4+ cell count places patients at an excess risk of OD/death. ..
  35. Viard J, Souberbielle J, Kirk O, Reekie J, Knysz B, Losso M, et al. Vitamin D and clinical disease progression in HIV infection: results from the EuroSIDA study. AIDS. 2011;25:1305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Causality relationships should be examined, because of potential public health consequences. ..
  36. request reprint
    Falagas M, Siempos I, Bliziotis I, Panos G. Impact of initial discordant treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics on clinical outcomes in adults with pneumococcal pneumonia: a systematic review. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81:1567-74 pubmed
    ..The initial discordant treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics was not associated with a statistically significant Increase in mortality or clinical or bacteriological failure of therapy for pneumococcal pneumonia. ..
  37. Kowalska J, Reekie J, Mocroft A, Reiss P, Ledergerber B, Gatell J, et al. Long-term exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy and risk of death from specific causes: no evidence for any previously unidentified increased risk due to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2012;26:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we investigated changes in the rate of death with increasing exposure to cART...
  38. request reprint
    Gold J, Batterham M, Rekers H, Harms M, Geurts T, Helmyr P, et al. Effects of nandrolone decanoate compared with placebo or testosterone on HIV-associated wasting. HIV Med. 2006;7:146-55 pubmed
    ..Nandrolone decanoate treatment resulted in greater increases in fat-free mass than placebo and demonstrated a trend for a significant increase when compared with testosterone. ..
  39. request reprint
    Dragsted U, Mocroft A, Vella S, Viard J, Hansen A, Panos G, et al. Predictors of immunological failure after initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a EuroSIDA study. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:148-55 pubmed
  40. request reprint
    Florence E, Lundgren J, Dreezen C, Fisher M, Kirk O, Blaxhult A, et al. Factors associated with a reduced CD4 lymphocyte count response to HAART despite full viral suppression in the EuroSIDA study. HIV Med. 2003;4:255-62 pubmed
    ..The underlying mechanisms leading to this condition seems mainly driven by the age and the baseline immunological and virological status of the patients. ..
  41. Cozzi Lepri A, Phillips A, Clotet B, Mocroft A, Ruiz L, Kirk O, et al. Detection of HIV drug resistance during antiretroviral treatment and clinical progression in a large European cohort study. AIDS. 2008;22:2187-98 pubmed publisher
  42. Kruk A, Bannister W, Podlekareva D, Chentsova N, Rakhmanova A, Horban A, et al. Tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients across Europe: changes over time and risk factors. AIDS. 2011;25:1505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..TB is of great concern in HIV-positive patients, especially in areas with high TB prevalence, high levels of immigration from TB-endemic regions, and with suboptimal access to combination antiretroviral therapy. ..
  43. Reekie J, Mocroft A, Ledergerber B, Beniowski M, Clotet B, van Lunzen J, et al. History of viral suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy as a predictor of virological failure after a treatment change. HIV Med. 2010;11:469-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration should be given to increasing the provision of adherence counselling. ..
  44. Mocroft A, Sterne J, Egger M, May M, Grabar S, Furrer H, et al. Variable impact on mortality of AIDS-defining events diagnosed during combination antiretroviral therapy: not all AIDS-defining conditions are created equal. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1138-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed classification of ADEs may be useful in clinical end point trials, prognostic studies, and patient management. ..
  45. Mugavero M, May M, Harris R, Saag M, Costagliola D, Egger M, et al. Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?. AIDS. 2008;22:2481-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results should be interpreted with caution because of the possibility of residual confounding by indication. ..
  46. request reprint
    Panos G, Betsi G, Falagas M. Systematic review: are antibiotics detrimental or beneficial for the treatment of patients with Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection?. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24:731-42 pubmed
    ..More randomized controlled trials are necessary in order to elucidate whether antibiotics are effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality of E. coli O157:H7 infection, rather than having a detrimental effect. ..
  47. request reprint
    Viard J, Mocroft A, Chiesi A, Kirk O, Røge B, Panos G, et al. Influence of age on CD4 cell recovery in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: evidence from the EuroSIDA study. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1290-4 pubmed
    ..0026), as confirmed by multivariate analysis (P<10-4). Younger age may favor CD4 cell restoration because of preserved thymic function. ..
  48. Monforte A, Abrams D, Pradier C, Weber R, Reiss P, Bonnet F, et al. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. AIDS. 2008;22:2143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The severity of immunosuppression is predictive of death from both ADM and nADM in HIV-infected populations. ..
  49. request reprint
    El Sadr W, Grund B, Neuhaus J, Babiker A, Cohen C, Darbyshire J, et al. Risk for opportunistic disease and death after reinitiating continuous antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV previously receiving episodic therapy: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:289-99 pubmed
    ..Episodic antiretroviral therapy, as used in the SMART study, should be avoided. ..
  50. Mocroft A, Kirk O, Aldins P, Chies A, Blaxhult A, Chentsova N, et al. Loss to follow-up in an international, multicentre observational study. HIV Med. 2008;9:261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant proportion of patients who have a year with no follow-up visit, CD4 cell count measurement or viral load measurement subsequently return to follow-up. ..
  51. Sargianou M, Watson D, Kampiotis D, Papa A, Economopoulou A, Gogos C, et al. Febrile disease in a Bulgarian emigrant with acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, bilateral subconjunctival haemorrhage and hypoxemia. J Clin Virol. 2012;54:2-5 pubmed publisher
  52. Panos G, Nelson M. HIV-1 tropism. Biomark Med. 2007;1:473-81 pubmed publisher
  53. request reprint
    Panos G, Lampropoulos K, Angelousi A, Charatsis G, Falagas M. Lamivudine and famciclovir treatment in HIV patients with acute hepatitis B virus infection and hepatitis B reactivation. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;41:222-3 pubmed
  54. request reprint
    Paraskevis D, Magiorkinis E, Magiorkinis G, Sypsa V, Paparizos V, Lazanas M, et al. Increasing prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A in Greece: estimating epidemic history and origin. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1167-76 pubmed
    ..This is in contrast to the situation in most European countries, in which infection with non-B genetic forms is associated either with being an immigrant or heterosexual or with intravenous drug use. ..
  55. Paredes R, Puertas M, Bannister W, Kisic M, Cozzi Lepri A, Pou C, et al. A376S in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase confers increased risk of virological failure to nevirapine therapy. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:741-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The A376S substitution in the connection subdomain of HIV-1 RT causes selective nevirapine resistance and confers an increased risk of virological failure to nevirapine-based ART. ..
  56. Sabin C, Worm S, Weber R, Reiss P, El Sadr W, Dabis F, et al. Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the D:A:D study: a multi-cohort collaboration. Lancet. 2008;371:1417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The excess risk does not seem to be explained by underlying established cardiovascular risk factors and was not present beyond 6 months after drug cessation. ..
  57. request reprint
    Panos G, Samonis G, Alexiou V, Kavarnou G, Charatsis G, Falagas M. Mortality and morbidity of HIV infected patients receiving HAART: a cohort study. Curr HIV Res. 2008;6:257-60 pubmed
    ..Our data from the studied cohort adds to the relevant literature regarding the dramatic reduction of morbidity and mortality that occurred after the availability of HAART. ..
  58. Falagas M, Matthaiou D, Rafailidis P, Panos G, Pappas G. Worldwide prevalence of head lice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1493-4 pubmed publisher
  59. Reekie J, Reiss P, Ledergerber B, Sedlacek D, Parczewski M, Gatell J, et al. A comparison of the long-term durability of nevirapine, efavirenz and lopinavir in routine clinical practice in Europe: a EuroSIDA study. HIV Med. 2011;12:259-68 pubmed publisher
  60. Reekie J, Mocroft A, Sambatakou H, Machala L, Chiesi A, van Lunzen J, et al. Does less frequent routine monitoring of patients on a stable, fully suppressed cART regimen lead to an increased risk of treatment failure?. AIDS. 2008;22:2381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in this subgroup of otherwise healthy patients, it maybe reasonable to extend visit intervals to 6 months, with cost and time savings to both the treating clinics and the patients. ..
  61. Rodger A, Fox Z, Lundgren J, Kuller L, Boesecke C, Gey D, et al. Activation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of the development of opportunistic disease in patients with HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:973-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher IL-6 and hsCRP levels independently predicted development of OD. These biomarkers could provide additional prognostic information for predicting the risk of OD. ..
  62. Sabin C, d Arminio Monforte A, Friis Moller N, Weber R, El Sadr W, Reiss P, et al. Changes over time in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and use of lipid-lowering drugs in HIV-infected individuals and impact on myocardial infarction. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1101-10 pubmed publisher