Alexandra Giatromanolaki

Summary

Affiliation: University of Athens
Country: Greece

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, PO Box 12, 681 00 Alexandroupolis, Greece
    J BUON 15:357-61. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint Dose escalation of amifostine for radioprotection during pelvic accelerated radiotherapy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Medical Schools, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Am J Clin Oncol 36:338-43. 2013
  3. ncbi request reprint Treatment of low-risk prostate cancer with radical hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy with cytoprotection (HypoARC): an interim analysis of toxicity and efficacy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 31:1745-51. 2011
  4. ncbi request reprint Unexpected toxicity after low-dose docetaxel treatment of a cancer patient with clinically latent HCV-positive hepatic cirrhosis
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 22:2491-2. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint c-erbB-2 and episialin challenge host immune response by HLA class I expression in human non-small-cell lung cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    J Immunother 23:104-14. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint Conformal hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy with cytoprotection (HypoARC) for high risk prostatic carcinoma: rationale, technique and early experience
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Radiology and Urology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 24:3239-43. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Amifostine induces anaerobic metabolism and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 53:8-14. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin receptors in endometrial carcinoma as related to HIF1{alpha} and VEGF expression
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
    In Vivo 23:699-703. 2009
  9. ncbi request reprint Amifostine protects lymphocytes during radiotherapy and stimulates expansion of the CD95/Fas and CD31 expressing T-cells, in breast cancer patients
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Microbiology and Internal Medicine Hematology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 52:127-31. 2003
  10. ncbi request reprint Tumour angiogenesis and response to radiotherapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
    Anticancer Res 21:4285-300. 2001

Detail Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Angiogenesis and angiogenic factor expression in thyroid cancer
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, PO Box 12, 681 00 Alexandroupolis, Greece
    J BUON 15:357-61. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether it could be possible to identify a subgroup of thyroid cancer patients with high angiogenic activity...
  2. ncbi request reprint Dose escalation of amifostine for radioprotection during pelvic accelerated radiotherapy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Medical Schools, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Am J Clin Oncol 36:338-43. 2013
    ..In this study, we report our experience with the role of escalated doses of amifostine in the protection of pelvic tissues...
  3. ncbi request reprint Treatment of low-risk prostate cancer with radical hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy with cytoprotection (HypoARC): an interim analysis of toxicity and efficacy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 31:1745-51. 2011
    ..In this study we assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a highly accelerated and hypofractionated scheme of radiotherapy (HypoARC), for the treatment of localized low risk prostate cancer...
  4. ncbi request reprint Unexpected toxicity after low-dose docetaxel treatment of a cancer patient with clinically latent HCV-positive hepatic cirrhosis
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 22:2491-2. 2002
    ..We suggest that, when docetaxel is chosen to treat cancer patients with HCV-positive hepatic cirrhosis, a starting dose schedule reduced by at least 50% should be considered before escalating to the standard dose...
  5. ncbi request reprint c-erbB-2 and episialin challenge host immune response by HLA class I expression in human non-small-cell lung cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    J Immunother 23:104-14. 2000
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Conformal hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy with cytoprotection (HypoARC) for high risk prostatic carcinoma: rationale, technique and early experience
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Radiology and Urology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 24:3239-43. 2004
    ..Amifostine tolerance was excellent. All seven patients recruited up to now have accomplished their treatment with grade 0-1 cystitis or diarrhoea (5/7 grade 0). The study is ongoing to assess efficacy and late effects of HypoARC...
  7. ncbi request reprint Amifostine induces anaerobic metabolism and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 53:8-14. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Erythropoietin receptors in endometrial carcinoma as related to HIF1{alpha} and VEGF expression
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
    In Vivo 23:699-703. 2009
    ..07). It is concluded that EpoR are common constituents of endometrial adenocarcinomas and are related to tumor aggressiveness, although this is probably a result of their involvement in an active HIF pathway...
  9. ncbi request reprint Amifostine protects lymphocytes during radiotherapy and stimulates expansion of the CD95/Fas and CD31 expressing T-cells, in breast cancer patients
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Microbiology and Internal Medicine Hematology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 52:127-31. 2003
    ..The clinical impact of the CD95(+) and CD31(+) T-cell immunological modulation induced by amifostine requires further investigation...
  10. ncbi request reprint Tumour angiogenesis and response to radiotherapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
    Anticancer Res 21:4285-300. 2001
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) suppression and derepression during endometrial tumorigenesis and cancer progression
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cytokine 26:164-8. 2004
    ..However, derepression of IRF-1 may occur in a subset of tumors, and this event is associated with TP up-regulation and aggressive tumor behavior...
  12. ncbi request reprint Lung cancer: a comparative study of metabolism related protein expression in cancer cells and tumor associated stroma
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Biol Ther 6:1476-9. 2007
    ..The development of agents exploiting such cancer specific metabolic pathways may prove of importance in the treatment of lung cancer...
  13. doi request reprint High DLL4 expression in tumour-associated vessels predicts for favorable radiotherapy outcome in locally advanced squamous cell head-neck cancer (HNSCC)
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, PO Box 12, 68100, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Angiogenesis 16:343-51. 2013
    ..As vascular functionality is an important parameter defining chemotherapy and oxygen intra-tumoral distribution, we investigated the role of DLL4 expression in tumour vasculature in the efficacy of radio-chemotherapy for HNSCC patients...
  14. ncbi request reprint Amifostine administration during radiotherapy for cancer patients with genetic, autoimmune, metabolic and other diseases
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Drugs 17:133-8. 2006
    ..A high incidence of fever/rash was noted in patients with autoimmune diseases, while all other conditions did not alter the patterns of side-effects expected following amifostine administration...
  15. doi request reprint Postmastectomy hypofractionated and accelerated radiation therapy with (and without) subcutaneous amifostine cytoprotection
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 85:e7-13. 2013
    ..More aggressive radiation therapy schemes may, however, be necessary in specific subgroups, provided they are safely administered. We report the tolerance and efficacy of a highly accelerated and hypofractionated regimen (HypoARC)...
  16. pmc Prognostic and predictive role of lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression in colorectal cancer patients treated with PTK787/ZK 222584 (vatalanib) antiangiogenic therapy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Pathology and Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Clin Cancer Res 17:4892-900. 2011
    ..Here, we investigated the expression of LDH5 (encoded entirely by the LDHA gene, regulated by the hypoxia inducible factors) in cancer tissues from patients recruited in the CONFIRM trials and relationship to response...
  17. pmc Vascular density analysis in colorectal cancer patients treated with vatalanib (PTK787/ZK222584) in the randomised CONFIRM trials
    A Giatromanolaki
    Departments of Pathology, and Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Br J Cancer 107:1044-50. 2012
    ..In the current study, we assessed the predictive role of vascular density (VD) in patients treated in the above trials...
  18. pmc Angiogenic factor expression in hepatic cirrhosis
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, P O Box 12, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Mediators Inflamm 2007:67187. 2007
    ..The immunohistochemical findings suggest that angiogenic factors and factors promoting oxidative stress (i.e., TP) produced by hepatocytes may contribute to the development of fibrous bands in hepatic cirrhosis...
  19. pmc The metabolic interactions between tumor cells and tumor-associated stroma (TAS) in prostatic cancer
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Biol Ther 13:1284-9. 2012
    ..These findings support and extend our previous studies on energy recycling between the aerobic stroma and the anaerobic cancer cells within the framework of Warburg effect...
  20. pmc Radiation damage and radioprotectants: new concepts in the era of molecular medicine
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Br J Radiol 85:313-30. 2012
    ..The necessity of establishing and funding central committees that guide systematic clinical research into evaluating the novel agents revealed in the era of molecular medicine is stressed...
  21. pmc Cancer stem cell phenotype relates to radio-chemotherapy outcome in locally advanced squamous cell head-neck cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace and University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, PO Box 12, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Br J Cancer 106:846-53. 2012
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5) expression in endometrial cancer relates to the activated VEGF/VEGFR2(KDR) pathway and prognosis
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, PO Box 12, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece, and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Gynecol Oncol 103:912-8. 2006
    ..In this study, the expression of LDH-5 was assessed in the normal and malignant endometrium. Its role in prognosis and tumor angiogenesis and hypoxia was also examined...
  23. ncbi request reprint Endogenous markers of hypoxia/anaerobic metabolism and anemia in primary colorectal cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Sci 97:582-8. 2006
    ..Identification of specific patterns of the hypoxia molecular cascade activated in cancer cells might help in developing specific therapeutic policies...
  24. ncbi request reprint DEC1 (STRA13) protein expression relates to hypoxia- inducible factor 1-alpha and carbonic anhydrase-9 overexpression in non-small cell lung cancer
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Departments of Pathology and Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    J Pathol 200:222-8. 2003
    ..It is suggested that loss of DEC1 expression is an early event in the development of lung cancer, while DEC1 gene expression occurs in a subset of tumours and parallels the overexpression of other hypoxia-regulated proteins...
  25. ncbi request reprint Individualization of the subcutaneous amifostine dose during hypofractionated / accelerated radiotherapy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 26:2437-43. 2006
    ..Individualization of the daily dose of amifostine may prove of value in achieving maximum cytoprotection during radiotherapy...
  26. ncbi request reprint Hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy with subcutaneous amifostine cytoprotection as short adjuvant regimen after breast-conserving surgery: interim report
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 74:1173-80. 2009
    ..We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated and highly accelerated radiotherapy regimen supported with cytoprotection provided by amifostine in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery...
  27. ncbi request reprint Enhanced expression of SPARC/osteonectin in the tumor-associated stroma of non-small cell lung cancer is correlated with markers of hypoxia/acidity and with poor prognosis of patients
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Cancer Res 63:5376-80. 2003
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Loss of expression and nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of the FOXP1 forkhead transcription factor are common events in early endometrial cancer: relationship with estrogen receptors and HIF-1alpha expression
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Mod Pathol 19:9-16. 2006
    ..This study provides evidence on pathways to be investigated to elucidate the interplay between FOXP1, ER-alpha and HIF-1alpha in hormone dependent cancers...
  29. ncbi request reprint Preventing radiation induced xerostomia
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, P O Box 12, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Cancer Treat Rev 31:546-54. 2005
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha are associated with VEGF expression and angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinomas
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    J Surg Oncol 94:242-7. 2006
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in cancer patients are linked with tumor burden and are reduced by anti-hypertensive medication
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Inflammation 32:169-75. 2009
    ..Anti-hypertensive drugs appear as potent suppressors of the tumor-induced CRP production...
  32. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) relates to poor vascularization and resistance of squamous cell head and neck cancer to chemoradiotherapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Clin Cancer Res 7:3399-403. 2001
    ..C. Wykoff et al., Cancer Res. 60: 7075-7083, 2001). Therefore, CA9 expression may show hypoxia levels of clinical importance...
  33. ncbi request reprint Liposomal doxorubicin and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Nuclear Medicine, and Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    J Clin Oncol 17:3512-21. 1999
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia and activated VEGF/receptor pathway in multiple myeloma
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, P O Box 12, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Anticancer Res 30:2831-6. 2010
    ..Intensified angiogenic pathways are associated with poor prognosis and resistance of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to therapy. The links of the VEGF pathway with the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) expression in MM are herein investigated...
  35. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1a and HIF-2a) expression in early esophageal cancer and response to photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Medical School, University of Thessalia, Larissa, Greece
    Cancer Res 61:1830-2. 2001
    ..Modulation of PDT response with bioreductive drugs and/or drugs targeting bcl-2 (i.e., taxanes) may prove of significant therapeutic importance in a subgroup of patients with high HIF expression...
  36. ncbi request reprint Oral administration of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the management of radiotherapy-induced esophagitis
    M I Koukourakis
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    Clin Cancer Res 5:3970-6. 1999
    ..The rhGM-CSF mucosa healing effect is probably due to its direct angiogenic activity and/or to the potentiation of the activity of other angiogenic factors released by the damaged epithelium...
  37. ncbi request reprint Intratumoral angiogenesis: a new prognostic indicator for stage I endometrial adenocarcinomas?
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Oncol Res 11:205-12. 1999
    ..It is suggested that intratumoral angiogenesis may prove useful in selecting a subgroup of cancer patients, among others with stage I endometrial disease, that would benefit from additional treatment...
  38. ncbi request reprint Postoperative accelerated radiotherapy with cytoprotection followed by three-dimensional conformal boost in patients with early endometrial/cervical cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Tumori 95:455-60. 2009
    ..Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy is highly recommended for uterine carcinomas invading beyond the inner half of the myometrium or cervical stage IIa carcinomas. The addition of a booster intracavitary dose is widely used...
  39. ncbi request reprint The role of 99m Tc-sestamibi scintimammography and colour Doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of breast lesions
    S Koukouraki
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    Nucl Med Commun 22:1243-8. 2001
    ..The clinical value of these diagnostic procedures in guiding subsequent therapeutic interventions requires further investigation...
  40. pmc Concurrent administration of Docetaxel and Stealth liposomal doxorubicin with radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer : excellent tolerance using subcutaneous amifostine for cytoprotection
    M I Koukourakis
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, PO Box 12, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Br J Cancer 87:385-92. 2002
    ..The impressive tolerance and the high CR rate obtained encourages the conduct of a relevant randomized trial to assess an eventual survival benefit in patients with non-small cell lung cancer...
  41. pmc Total and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 in chronic cholecystitis: a prospective study
    Constantinos Simopoulos
    2nd Department of Surgery, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
    BMC Gastroenterol 8:14. 2008
    ..Cell death mode has been studied in cancer, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, apoptosis and necrosis are investigated for the first time in patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis...
  42. pmc Upregulated hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha and -2alpha pathway in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Arthritis Res Ther 5:R193-201. 2003
    ..The activation of the HIF-alpha pathway occurs in both RA and OA, although for unrelated reasons...
  43. ncbi request reprint Long-term survival of a patient with multiple abdominal metastasis from endometrial carcinoma treated with multi-portal conformal re-irradiation and chemotherapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Dragana, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 4:45-7. 2011
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Early antivascular effects of bevacizumab anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody on colorectal carcinomas assessed with functional CT imaging
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Am J Clin Oncol 30:315-8. 2007
    ..The complex effect on anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) monoclonal antibodies on the tumor vasculature urges studies to identify the optimal time frames for the administration of such agents with chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
  45. ncbi request reprint BNIP3 expression in endometrial cancer relates to active hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha pathway and prognosis
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    J Clin Pathol 61:217-20. 2008
    ..Induction of BNIP3 leads to caspase-independent necrosis-like cell death and an aggressive tumour phenotype. The role of BNIP3 in endometrial cancer was examined...
  46. ncbi request reprint Radical hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy with cytoprotection for invasive bladder cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Urology 69:245-50. 2007
    ..Radiochemotherapy has been shown to be an effective alternative to cystectomy...
  47. doi request reprint Lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression in non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas is associated with hypoxia regulated proteins
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Leuk Lymphoma 49:2181-6. 2008
    ..It is concluded that LDH5 is highly upregulated in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and is in direct relation to HIFs expression. LDH5 expression is linked with activated VEGFR2/KDR expression in both lymphoid lesions...
  48. ncbi request reprint Biological dose volume histograms during conformal hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy for prostate cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, 68100 Greece
    Med Phys 34:76-80. 2007
    ..Radiobiological dosimetry suggests that, using hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy, high biological radiation dose can be given to the prostate without overdosing normal tissues...
  49. ncbi request reprint Metastatic cancer cells from c-erbB-2 negative primary breast cancer maintain the original c-erbB-2/HIF1alpha phenotype
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Cancer Biol Ther 6:153-5. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia inducible factor (HIf1alpha and HIF2alpha) and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) expression and response of head-neck cancer to hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Radiat Biol 84:47-52. 2008
    ..We investigated the involvement of hypoxia-regulated proteins (Hypoxia inducible factors HIF1alpha, HIF2alpha and carbonic anhydrase CA9) in HNC resistance to accelerated and hypofractionated radiotherapy...
  51. doi request reprint Serum VEGF levels and tissue activation of VEGFR2/KDR receptors in patients with breast and gynecologic cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, and University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cytokine 53:370-5. 2011
    ..Yet, its role in benign breast/gynecological conditions is less clear...
  52. doi request reprint Serum and tissue LDH levels in patients with breast/gynaecological cancer and benign diseases
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Obstetrics Gynaecology, Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Gynecol Obstet Invest 67:162-8. 2009
    ..In cancer patients, serum total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are often increased, and the gene for one of its isoenzymes, LDHA, is up-regulated. These features have been linked to poor prognosis in several studies...
  53. ncbi request reprint Hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy, cytoprotection and capecitabine in the treatment of rectal cancer: a feasibility study
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 28:3035-40. 2008
    ..This is a report on the feasibility and efficacy of hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy combined with amifostine cytoprotection (hypoARC) and capecitabine in the treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma...
  54. doi request reprint Phase I/II trial of bevacizumab and radiotherapy for locally advanced inoperable colorectal cancer: vasculature-independent radiosensitizing effect of bevacizumab
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Departments of Pathology, and Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Clin Cancer Res 15:7069-76. 2009
    ..Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy enhances the activity of radiotherapy in experimental models, and bevacizumab has therapeutic activity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer...
  55. doi request reprint Bevacizumab, capecitabine, amifostine, and preoperative hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HypoArc) for rectal cancer: a Phase II study
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 80:492-8. 2011
    ..We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative radiochemotherapy combined with bevacizumab in patients with rectal cancer...
  56. doi request reprint Lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression in squamous cell head and neck cancer relates to prognosis following radical or postoperative radiotherapy
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Oncology 77:285-92. 2009
    ..We assessed the expression and the prognostic role of lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5, the major LDH isoenzyme involved in anaerobic glycolysis) in patients with squamous cell head and neck cancer (SCHNC)...
  57. doi request reprint The presence of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ lymphocytes correlates with intratumoral angiogenesis in endometrial cancer
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Gynecol Oncol 110:216-21. 2008
    ..In this study, we investigated the numbers of FOXP3(+) Tregs in the normal and malignat endometrium and examined potential links with tumor angiogenesis...
  58. doi request reprint Amifostine-related fever-rash during fractionated radiotherapy: diagnostic and predictive role of C-reactive protein
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Am J Clin Oncol 34:281-5. 2011
    ..Fever/rash is a side-effect of amifostine that demands immediate interruption of the drug. Here, we focus on the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a putative marker linked with amifostine fever/rash...
  59. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylated VEGFR2/KDR receptors are widely expressed in B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and correlate with hypoxia inducible factor activation
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Hematol Oncol 26:219-24. 2008
    ....
  60. pmc Beclin 1 over- and underexpression in colorectal cancer: distinct patterns relate to prognosis and tumour hypoxia
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace and University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, 68100, Greece
    Br J Cancer 103:1209-14. 2010
    ..Autophagy enables cells to recycle long-lived proteins or damaged organelles. Beclin 1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast Apg6/Vps30 gene, functions as a scaffold for the formation of autophagosomes...
  61. doi request reprint Expression of prolyl-hydroxylases PHD-1, 2 and 3 and of the asparagine hydroxylase FIH in non-small cell lung cancer relates to an activated HIF pathway
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Departments of Pathology, Radiotherapy Oncology, Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Lett 262:87-93. 2008
    ..High lactate dehydrogenase LDH5 expression was noted in cases with high HIF/PHD phenotype. The value of such a classification in defining different metabolic phenotypes of NSCLC deserves further evaluation...
  62. doi request reprint Radiochemotherapy with cetuximab, cisplatin, and amifostine for locally advanced head and neck cancer: a feasibility study
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 77:9-15. 2010
    ..The feasibility of radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and cetuximab, supported with amifostine, was herein investigated...
  63. ncbi request reprint Activated VEGFR2/KDR pathway in tumour cells and tumour associated vessels of colorectal cancer
    A Giatromanolaki
    Tumor and Angiogenesis Research Group, Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Eur J Clin Invest 37:878-86. 2007
    ..The study of the activation status of VEGF receptors in human malignancies has recently become feasible by means of specific monoclonal antibodies recognising the phosphorylated form of these receptors...
  64. ncbi request reprint Hypofractionated accelerated radiochemotherapy with cytoprotection (Chemo-HypoARC) for inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 27:3625-31. 2007
    ..Concurrent radiochemotherapy and altered radiotherapy fractionation are under thorough investigation in locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)...
  65. ncbi request reprint Oxygen and glucose consumption in gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas: correlation with markers of hypoxia, acidity and anaerobic glycolysis
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, Dragana, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer Sci 97:1056-60. 2006
    ..These in vivo data confirm the importance of HIFs and their downstream regulated genes in tumor metabolism, particularly in glycolysis and carbon dioxide buffering...
  66. ncbi request reprint Angiogenesis, thymidine phosphorylase, and resistance of squamous cell head and neck cancer to cytotoxic and radiation therapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Medical School, University of Thessalia, Larissa, Greece
    Clin Cancer Res 6:381-9. 2000
    ..A strong rationale is provided for subsequent clinical trials of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy with antiangiogenic agents or with specific TP inhibitors...
  67. ncbi request reprint The angiogenic "vascular endothelial growth factor/flk-1(KDR) receptor" pathway in patients with endometrial carcinoma: prognostic and therapeutic implications
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Cancer 92:2569-77. 2001
    ..This study investigates the roles of VEGF and of a functionally intact angiogenic pathway, "VEGF/flk-1(KDR)," in patients with endometrial carcinoma and their significance in prognosis and therapy...
  68. ncbi request reprint Hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy with cytoprotection (HypoARC): a short, safe, and effective postoperative regimen for high-risk breast cancer patients
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Demokritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52:144-55. 2002
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Squamous cell head and neck cancer: evidence of angiogenic regeneration during radiotherapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 21:4301-9. 2001
    ..In the present study we investigated the radiotherapy-induced changes in the microvessel density (MVD) and in the expression of the angiogenic factor thymidine phosphorylase (TP) in SCHNC...
  70. ncbi request reprint Tumour hypoxia, hypoxia signaling pathways and hypoxia inducible factor expression in human cancer
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 21:4317-24. 2001
    ..This review reports on and discusses the biology of the hypoxia pathways, the studies performed on the expression of HIFs in human cancer and the implications of hypoxia pathways in cancer therapy...
  71. ncbi request reprint Prognostic role of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 21:4373-82. 2001
    ..This review analyzes the results of clinicopathological studies on the prognostic role of MVD and of angiogenic factor expression in NSCLC...
  72. ncbi request reprint Amifostine in clinical oncology: current use and future applications
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Anticancer Drugs 13:181-209. 2002
    ..Novel schedules and routes of administration are under investigation, and may further simplify the use of amifostine and considerably broaden its applications...
  73. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1A and HIF2A), angiogenesis, and chemoradiotherapy outcome of squamous cell head-and-neck cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53:1192-202. 2002
    ..Their putative role as markers of clinically relevant hypoxia and, therefore, as predictors of response to chemoradiotherapy is herein examined...
  74. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and 2 alpha expression is independent of anemia in patients with stage I endometrial cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, PO Box 12, Greece
    Anticancer Res 22:4137-40. 2002
    ..To investigate whether anemia, a putative factor counteracting the efficacy of radiotherapy, up-regulates the endogenous markers of intratumoral hypoxia, the hypoxia inducible factors HIF1 alpha and HIF2 alpha...
  75. ncbi request reprint High dose daily amifostine and hypofractionated intensively accelerated radiotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer. A phase I/II study and report on early and late sequellae
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 21:2973-8. 2001
    ..High dose daily amifostine during hypofractionated radiotherapy is feasible. HypoARC regimen is well-tolerated, effective and has minimal acute and late toxicity to normal breast, chest and axillary tissues...
  76. ncbi request reprint Expression of hypoxia-inducible carbonic anhydrase-9 relates to angiogenic pathways and independently to poor outcome in non-small cell lung cancer
    A Giatromanolaki
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Cancer Res 61:7992-8. 2001
    ..The expression of CA9 is linked to the expression of a constellation of proteins involved in angiogenesis, apoptosis inhibition, and cell-cell adhesion disruption, which explains the strong association of CA9 with poor outcome...
  77. ncbi request reprint bcl-2 and c-erbB-2 proteins are involved in the regulation of VEGF and of thymidine phosphorylase angiogenic activity in non-small-cell lung cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Thessalia, Crete, Greece
    Clin Exp Metastasis 17:545-54. 1999
    ..Whether this is a result of a direct activity of the c-erbB-2 protein or a consequence of a c-erbB-2-related immune response remains to be further investigated...
  78. ncbi request reprint Vascular endothelial growth factor/KDR activated microvessel density versus CD31 standard microvessel density in non-small cell lung cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    Cancer Res 60:3088-95. 2000
    ..Clinical trials involving targeting of the VEGF/KDR-positive vasculature with specific antibodies, such as 11B5, are, therefore, encouraged...
  79. ncbi request reprint High intratumoral accumulation of stealth liposomal doxorubicin in sarcomas--rationale for combination with radiotherapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    Acta Oncol 39:207-11. 2000
    ....
  80. ncbi request reprint Phase I/II dose escalation study of docetaxel and carboplatin combination supported with amifostine and GM-CSF in patients with incomplete response following docetaxel chemo-radiotherapy: additional chemotherapy enhances regression of residual cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    Med Oncol 17:135-43. 2000
    ..Broad spectrum cytoprotection with amifostine and GM-CSF may also contribute to the reduction of incidence of neurosensory reactions and asthenia in patients treated with taxanes...
  81. ncbi request reprint Cancer vascularization: implications in radiotherapy?
    M I Koukourakis
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, Crete, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48:545-53. 2000
    ..Although anemia has long been focused on as an important parameter related to tumor hypoxia, differences in vascular density may also affect the intratumoral access of hemoglobin...
  82. ncbi request reprint Angiogenic interactions of vascular endothelial growth factor, of thymidine phosphorylase, and of p53 protein expression in locally advanced gastric cancer
    A Giatromanolaki
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, Iraklion, Crete, Greece
    Oncol Res 12:33-41. 2000
    ..Such a categorization may be useful for phase III trials on novel therapies targeting the major angiogenesis-related features studied here...
  83. ncbi request reprint Clinical and experimental evidence of Bcl-2 involvement in the response to photodynamic therapy
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Thessalia, Larisa, Greece
    Anticancer Res 21:663-8. 2001
    ..The role of apoptosis related proteins in the response of human malignancies to photodynamic therapy (PDT) is under investigation. The aim of the study was to examine the role of p53 and of bcl-2 protein expression in the response to PDT...
  84. ncbi request reprint Nuclear expression of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (HAP1/Ref-1) in head-and-neck cancer is associated with resistance to chemoradiotherapy and poor outcome
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, Iraklion 71306, Crete, Greece
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:27-36. 2001
    ..HAP1 is also a potent activator of wild type p53. It therefore has multiple possible roles in the response of human cancer to radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
  85. pmc Hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha and 2alpha overexpression in inflammatory bowel disease
    A Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, PO Box 12, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    J Clin Pathol 56:209-13. 2003
    ..Because angiogenesis and tissue regeneration are integral components of the inflammatory process, this study was designed to investigate the role of HIFalpha molecules in inflammatory bowel disease...
  86. pmc Molecular analysis of local relapse in high-risk breast cancer patients: can radiotherapy fractionation and time factors make a difference?
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Br J Cancer 88:711-7. 2003
    ..High angiogenesis, however, was linked with local relapse regardless of the radiotherapy regimen...
  87. pmc LYVE-1 immunohistochemical assessment of lymphangiogenesis in endometrial and lung cancer
    M I Koukourakis
    Tumour and Angiogenesis Research Group, Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Pathology, and Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    J Clin Pathol 58:202-6. 2005
    ..Normal and malignant pulmonary and endometrial tissues were analysed for lymphatic vessels to assess the process of lymphangiogenesis and its role at these sites, using specific immunostaining for LYVE-1 and the panendothelial marker CD31...
  88. ncbi request reprint The HIF-2alpha/VEGF pathway activation in cutaneous capillary haemangiomas
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Pathology 37:149-51. 2005
    ..To investigate the pathogenesis of capillary haemangiomas, a common form of vascular malformation...
  89. ncbi request reprint Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5) relates to up-regulated hypoxia inducible factor pathway and metastasis in colorectal cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Clin Exp Metastasis 22:25-30. 2005
    ..It is concluded that a high LDH5 content in tumor cells is directly related to an up-regulated HIF pathway and is linked with an aggressive phenotype in colorectal adenocarcinomas...
  90. ncbi request reprint Comparison of metabolic pathways between cancer cells and stromal cells in colorectal carcinomas: a metabolic survival role for tumor-associated stroma
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, PO Box 12, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Cancer Res 66:632-7. 2006
    ..Tumors survive and grow because they are capable of organizing the regional fibroblasts and endothelial cells into a harmoniously collaborating metabolic domain...
  91. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2 alpha) induces angiogenesis in breast carcinomas
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 14:78-82. 2006
    ..The authors conclude that HIF-2alpha overexpression, a common event in infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast, is related to high metastatic potential via increased angiogenic and c-erbB-2 activity...
  92. ncbi request reprint Phosphorylated KDR expression in endometrial cancer cells relates to HIF1alpha/VEGF pathway and unfavourable prognosis
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Mod Pathol 19:701-7. 2006
    ..The unfavourable prognosis that VEGF confers to endometrial adenocarcinomas could be attributed to its angiogenic activity, but also to a direct effect on cancer cells through an autocrine VEGF/KDR loop...
  93. ncbi request reprint External beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: current position and trends
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Anticancer Res 26:485-94. 2006
    ..e. anti-erbB, anti-angiogenic and apoptosis-modulating agents) have shown significant radiosensitizing activity and deserve clinical evaluation in conjunction with radiotherapy...
  94. ncbi request reprint C2028T polymorphism in exon 12 and dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 13 of the HIF-1alpha gene define HIF-1alpha protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Lung Cancer 53:257-62. 2006
    ..In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms of the HIF-1alpha gene may account for the patterns of HIF-1alpha protein expression in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and the expression of HIF-1alpha down-stream proteins...
  95. ncbi request reprint Tumour angiogenesis: vascular growth and survival
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus Inoversity of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    APMIS 112:431-40. 2004
    ..It is expected that this scheme will prove useful in the field of chemoradiotherapy and anti-angiogenic treatment...
  96. ncbi request reprint VEGF gene sequence variation defines VEGF gene expression status and angiogenic activity in non-small cell lung cancer
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Lung Cancer 46:293-8. 2004
    ..The large variation in angiogenicity between tumors of similar histologic morphology emerges as a consequence of the 'parental' VEGF gene ability to produce VEGF...
  97. ncbi request reprint The effect of trastuzumab/docatexel combination on breast cancer angiogenesis: dichotomus effect predictable by the HIFI alpha/VEGF pre-treatment status?
    Michael I Koukourakis
    Departments of Radiotherapy Oncology, Surgery and Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Anticancer Res 23:1673-80. 2003
    ..Adjustment of the chemotherapy regimen accordingly would prove of clinical importance...
  98. pmc Lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5) overexpression in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues is linked to tumour hypoxia, angiogenic factor production and poor prognosis
    M I Koukourakis
    Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100, Greece
    Br J Cancer 89:877-85. 2003
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint Hypoxia-inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha are related to vascular endothelial growth factor expression and a poorer prognosis in nodular malignant melanomas of the skin
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Departments of Pathology, Dermatology and Radiotherapy Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Melanoma Res 13:493-501. 2003
    ..HIF2alpha, VEGF and, to a lesser extent, VD are important prognostic factors in these cutaneous tumours...
  100. ncbi request reprint Assessment of highly angiogenic and disseminated in the peripheral blood disease in breast cancer patients predicts for resistance to adjuvant chemotherapy and early relapse
    Alexandra Giatromanolaki
    Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece
    Int J Cancer 108:620-7. 2004
    ..The simultaneous presence of high MVD and CK19-positive cells in the blood of patients with early breast is linked with poor prognosis, which cannot be improved with standard chemotherapy regimens...