Christos C Zouboulis


Country: Germany


  1. request reprint
    Zouboulis C. Isotretinoin revisited: pluripotent effects on human sebaceous gland cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:2154-6 pubmed
    ..These events were specific to sebocytes, as isotretinoin failed to induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Isotretinoin-induced apoptosis was shown to be an RAR-independent mechanism. ..
  2. Tzellos T, Zampeli V, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis C. Treating acne with antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonization. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:1233-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Benzoyl-peroxide-based treatment is the most evidence-based approach. Oral isotretinoin remains the most efficacious option for severe acne. ..
  3. Zouboulis C, Makrantonaki E. Clinical and laboratory skin biomarkers of organ-specific diseases. Mech Ageing Dev. 2018;: pubmed publisher
  4. Zouboulis C. [Acne vulgaris]. Hautarzt. 2014;65:733-47; quiz 748-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to advances in the understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms in recent years the development of new therapeutic agents with good efficacy and better side effect profile should be expected in the future. ..
  5. Zouboulis C, Okun M, Prens E, Gniadecki R, Foley P, Lynde C, et al. Long-term adalimumab efficacy in patients with moderate-to-severe hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa: 3-year results of a phase 3 open-label extension study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..The OLE was uncontrolled. Continuous weekly dosing with ADA, 40 mg, is a reasonable treatment option for long-term control of moderate-to-severe HS. ..
  6. Nikolakis G, Join Lambert O, Karagiannidis I, Guet Revillet H, Zouboulis C, Nassif A. Bacteriology of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa: A review. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73:S12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review of prospective investigations suggests a synergistic relationship between impaired innate immunity and microbial factors in the etiology of HS. ..
  7. Zouboulis C, Schagen S, Alestas T. The sebocyte culture: a model to study the pathophysiology of the sebaceous gland in sebostasis, seborrhoea and acne. Arch Dermatol Res. 2008;300:397-413 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the data of newest research of sebostasis, seborrhoea and acne made possible through the development of human and animal sebocyte culture models. ..
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    Zouboulis C, Fischer T, Wohlrab J, Barnard J, Alió A. Study of the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of 2 fixed-dose combination gels in the management of acne vulgaris. Cutis. 2009;84:223-9 pubmed
  9. Zouboulis C. Further Evidence of Sebaceous Differentiation Uniqueness: Holocrine Secretion of Sebocytes Is a Multistep, Cell-Specific Lysosomal DNase2-Mediated Mode of Programmed Cell Death. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:537-539 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Hossini A, Megges M, Prigione A, Lichtner B, Toliat M, Wruck W, et al. Erratum: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells from a sporadic Alzheimer's disease donor as a model for investigating AD-associated gene regulatory networks. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:433 pubmed publisher
  2. Zouboulis C, Seltmann H, Abdel Naser M, Hossini A, Menon G, Kubba R. Effects of Extracellular Calcium and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Sebaceous Gland Cells In vitro and In vivo. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;97:313-320 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased ionized calcium and the reduced 1,25(OH)2D3 levels detected in the serum of younger patients with acne may contribute respectively to increased sebaceous gland volume and enhanced lipogenesis. ..
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    Karagiannidis I, Nikolakis G, Sabat R, Zouboulis C. Hidradenitis suppurativa/Acne inversa: an endocrine skin disorder?. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016;17:335-341 pubmed
    ..In this review we describe the current view on the hormonal dysregulation and metabolic syndrome and their role in HS. ..
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    Kanaki T, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis C. Biomarkers of skin aging. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016;17:433-442 pubmed
    ..e., the administration of biomarkers. Because of the complexity of skin aging, the exact definition of biomarkers is a major research challenge. In this article, we summarize the basic knowledge involving skin aging and its biomarkers. ..
  5. Nikolakis G, Zoschke C, Makrantonaki E, Hausmann C, Schäfer Korting M, Zouboulis C. [Experimental models of human skin aging]. Hautarzt. 2016;67:93-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Makrantonaki E, Pfeifer G, Zouboulis C. [Intrinsic factors, genes, and skin aging]. Hautarzt. 2016;67:103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, new knowledge about genes and biological processes that can significantly affect skin homeostasis in old age and can lead to the typical morphological and physiological characteristics of aging skin are summarized. ..
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    Ju Q, Zouboulis C. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and skin manifestations. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016;17:449-457 pubmed
    ..Further studies on EDCs and skin diseases are necessary to elucidate these mechanisms. ..
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    Zouboulis C, Picardo M, Ju Q, Kurokawa I, Törőcsik D, Bíró T, et al. Beyond acne: Current aspects of sebaceous gland biology and function. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016;17:319-334 pubmed
  9. Karagiannidis I, Nikolakis G, Zouboulis C. Endocrinologic Aspects of Hidradenitis Suppurativa. Dermatol Clin. 2016;34:45-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More studies are required to clarify a potential hormonal dysregulation in HS. ..
  10. Zouboulis C, Makrantonaki E. Clinical aspects and molecular diagnostics of skin aging. Clin Dermatol. 2011;29:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the molecular mechanisms of aging may open new strategies to deal with the various diseases accompanying high age, including cancer. ..
  11. Hossini A, Megges M, Prigione A, Lichtner B, Toliat M, Wruck W, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells from a sporadic Alzheimer's disease donor as a model for investigating AD-associated gene regulatory networks. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:84 pubmed publisher
  12. request reprint
    Zouboulis C. HLA-independent antibacterial host response toward Th1 immunity mediated by IL-12: a new concept for the pathogenesis of Adamantiades-Behçet's disease. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1444-7 pubmed
    ..The authors provide evidence for an antibacterial host response toward T-helper type 1 immunity mediated by IL-12 in patients with ABD, which is HLA independent...
  13. Zouboulis C, Baron J, Bohm M, Kippenberger S, Kurzen H, Reichrath J, et al. Frontiers in sebaceous gland biology and pathology. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These multiple homeostatic functions award the sebaceous gland the role 'brain of the skin' and the most important cutaneous endocrine gland...
  14. Zouboulis C, Elewa R, Ottaviani M, Fluhr J, Picardo M, Bernois A, et al. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products. Mech Ageing Dev. 2018;170:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. ..
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    Zouboulis C, Chen W, Thornton M, Qin K, Rosenfield R. Sexual hormones in human skin. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:85-95 pubmed
    ..However, they reliably reduce acne. Cyproterone acetate and spironolactone are similarly effective as anti-androgens in reducing hirsutism, although there is wide variability in individual responses...
  16. Zouboulis C. [The sebaceous gland]. Hautarzt. 2010;61:467-8, 4704, 476-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne vulgaris are some of the disease on which pathogenesis and severity sebaceous lipids may or are surely involved...