A G Ziegler

Summary

Affiliation: University of Munich
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. pmc Age- and islet autoimmunity-associated differences in amino acid and lipid metabolites in children at risk for type 1 diabetes
    Maren Pflueger
    Forschergruppe Diabetes eV at Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetes 60:2740-7. 2011
  2. pmc Primary dietary intervention study to reduce the risk of islet autoimmunity in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes: the BABYDIET study
    Sandra Hummel
    Institute for Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 34:1301-5. 2011
  3. pmc No effect of the altered peptide ligand NBI-6024 on beta-cell residual function and insulin needs in new-onset type 1 diabetes
    Markus Walter
    Diabetes Research Institute, Forschergruppe Diabetes e V, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 32:2036-40. 2009
  4. pmc Predictors of overweight during childhood in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes
    Sandra Hummel
    Forschergruppe Diabetes der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 32:921-5. 2009
  5. pmc BMI at age 8 years is influenced by the type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes HHEX-IDE and CDKAL1
    Christiane Winkler
    Institut fuer Diabetes forschung der Forschergruppe Diabetes e V at Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetes 59:2063-7. 2010
  6. pmc No effect of the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on beta-cell residual function and insulin requirement in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes
    Markus Walter
    Diabetes Research Institute, Forschergruppe Diabetes eV, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 33:1443-8. 2010
  7. doi request reprint Prospective evaluation of risk factors for the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes during puberty--TEENDIAB: study design
    Anette Gabriele Ziegler
    Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Pediatr Diabetes 13:419-24. 2012
  8. ncbi request reprint Autoantibody appearance and risk for development of childhood diabetes in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes: the 2-year analysis of the German BABYDIAB Study
    A G Ziegler
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, Krankenhaus München Schwabing, Germany
    Diabetes 48:460-8. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Early infant feeding and risk of developing type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies
    Anette G Ziegler
    Diabetes Research Institute and Hospital München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    JAMA 290:1721-8. 2003
  10. pmc Prediction and pathogenesis in type 1 diabetes
    Anette G Ziegler
    Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Kolner Platz 1, 80804 München, Germany
    Immunity 32:468-78. 2010

Research Grants

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. pmc Age- and islet autoimmunity-associated differences in amino acid and lipid metabolites in children at risk for type 1 diabetes
    Maren Pflueger
    Forschergruppe Diabetes eV at Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetes 60:2740-7. 2011
    ..To support this notion, we examined whether serum metabolite profiles differ between children with respect to islet autoantibody status and the age of islet autoantibody development...
  2. pmc Primary dietary intervention study to reduce the risk of islet autoimmunity in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes: the BABYDIET study
    Sandra Hummel
    Institute for Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 34:1301-5. 2011
    ..To determine whether delaying the introduction of gluten in infants with a genetic risk of islet autoimmunity is feasible, safe, and may reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes-associated islet autoimmunity...
  3. pmc No effect of the altered peptide ligand NBI-6024 on beta-cell residual function and insulin needs in new-onset type 1 diabetes
    Markus Walter
    Diabetes Research Institute, Forschergruppe Diabetes e V, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 32:2036-40. 2009
    ....
  4. pmc Predictors of overweight during childhood in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes
    Sandra Hummel
    Forschergruppe Diabetes der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 32:921-5. 2009
    ..To study which perinatal factors affect the risk of childhood overweight in offspring with a first-degree relative (FDR) with type 1 diabetes and to determine whether maternal diabetes is an independent contributor to overweight risk...
  5. pmc BMI at age 8 years is influenced by the type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes HHEX-IDE and CDKAL1
    Christiane Winkler
    Institut fuer Diabetes forschung der Forschergruppe Diabetes e V at Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetes 59:2063-7. 2010
    ..To determine whether HHEX-IDE and CDKAL1 genes, which are associated with birth weight and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, continue to influence growth during childhood...
  6. pmc No effect of the 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on beta-cell residual function and insulin requirement in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes
    Markus Walter
    Diabetes Research Institute, Forschergruppe Diabetes eV, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 33:1443-8. 2010
    ..To determine whether daily intake of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] is safe and improves beta-cell function in patients with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes...
  7. doi request reprint Prospective evaluation of risk factors for the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes during puberty--TEENDIAB: study design
    Anette Gabriele Ziegler
    Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Pediatr Diabetes 13:419-24. 2012
    ..The findings of this study will increase the understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms behind the increasing diabetes incidence in youth and the impact of obesity on diabetes development in this age period...
  8. ncbi request reprint Autoantibody appearance and risk for development of childhood diabetes in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes: the 2-year analysis of the German BABYDIAB Study
    A G Ziegler
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, Krankenhaus München Schwabing, Germany
    Diabetes 48:460-8. 1999
    ..Autoimmunity associated with childhood diabetes is an early event and a dynamic process. Presence of IAAs is a consistent feature of this autoimmunity, and IAA detection can identify children at risk...
  9. ncbi request reprint Early infant feeding and risk of developing type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies
    Anette G Ziegler
    Diabetes Research Institute and Hospital München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    JAMA 290:1721-8. 2003
    ..Dietary factors modifying type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk have been proposed, but little is known if they trigger the islet autoimmunity that precedes clinical disease...
  10. pmc Prediction and pathogenesis in type 1 diabetes
    Anette G Ziegler
    Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Kolner Platz 1, 80804 München, Germany
    Immunity 32:468-78. 2010
    ....
  11. pmc Accelerated progression from islet autoimmunity to diabetes is causing the escalating incidence of type 1 diabetes in young children
    Anette G Ziegler
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
    J Autoimmun 37:3-7. 2011
    ..01). The findings suggest that recent increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes in young children could be due to weakening of mechanisms that normally regulate autoimmune destruction of islet beta cells...
  12. doi request reprint Maternal type 1 diabetes reduces the risk of islet autoantibodies: relationships with birthweight and maternal HbA(1c)
    E Bonifacio
    Diabetes Research Institute, Kolner Platz 1, D 80804, Munich, Germany
    Diabetologia 51:1245-52. 2008
    ..We asked whether children of mothers with type 1 diabetes also have a decreased risk of developing islet autoantibodies, and which factors associated with maternal diabetes contribute to a reduced islet autoantibody risk in offspring...
  13. ncbi request reprint IDDM2/insulin VNTR modifies risk conferred by IDDM1/HLA for development of Type 1 diabetes and associated autoimmunity
    M Walter
    Diabetes Research Institute, Munich Schwabing Hospital, Kolner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany
    Diabetologia 46:712-20. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether combining IDDM1/HLA and IDDM2/ insulin( INS) 5' variable number of tandem repeat locus (VNTR) genotypes improves T1D risk assessment...
  14. doi request reprint Age-related islet autoantibody incidence in offspring of patients with type 1 diabetes
    A G Ziegler
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetologia 55:1937-43. 2012
    ..Seroconversion to islet autoantibodies precedes type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to identify periods of high seroconversion incidence, which could be targeted for mechanistic and therapeutic studies...
  15. pmc Immune responses to glutamic acid decarboxylase and insulin in patients with gestational diabetes
    M Füchtenbusch
    Diabetes Research Institute, 3rd Medical Department, Academic Hospital München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Clin Exp Immunol 135:318-21. 2004
    ..004). Antibody responses in women with gestational diabetes appear to be dampened and restricted, but without change in subclass usage...
  16. ncbi request reprint Development of autoimmunity to transglutaminase C in children of patients with type 1 diabetes: relationship to islet autoantibodies and infant feeding
    S Hummel
    Diabetes Research Institute, Munich, Germany
    Diabetologia 50:390-4. 2007
    ..We investigated the development of transglutaminase antibodies and analysed potential risk factors for coeliac disease autoimmunity in first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes...
  17. ncbi request reprint Exposure to environmental factors in drinking water: risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes--the BABYDIAB study
    C Winkler
    Diabetes Research Institute and Academic Hospital Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Horm Metab Res 40:566-71. 2008
    ..The association is marginal and requires validation in other prospective cohorts...
  18. ncbi request reprint Fetal growth is increased by maternal type 1 diabetes and HLA DR4-related gene interactions
    M Hummel
    Institute of Diabetes Research and Academic Hospital Schwabing, Kolner Platz 1, 80804, Munchen, Germany
    Diabetologia 50:850-8. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether HLA DR4 was associated with increased birthweight in a maternal diabetes environment and whether effects persisted during early childhood...
  19. doi request reprint Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives
    P Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute, Munich, Germany
    Diabetologia 51:488-92. 2008
    ....
  20. doi request reprint Early infant diet in children at high risk for type 1 diabetes
    M Pflüger
    Forschergruppe Diabetes der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany
    Horm Metab Res 42:143-8. 2010
    ..04). Our findings indicate that WHO infant feeding recommendations were poorly followed by families with a family history of T1D. Action to improve levels of infant feeding behaviour is essential, especially among young mothers with T1D...
  21. ncbi request reprint Is islet autoimmunity related to insulin sensitivity or body weight in children of parents with type 1 diabetes?
    C Winkler
    Institut für Diabetesforschung der Forschergruppe Diabetes e V, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetologia 52:2072-8. 2009
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine whether insulin demand is increased in children with islet autoantibodies...
  22. pmc Insulin autoantibodies with high affinity to the bovine milk protein alpha casein
    K Adler
    Diabetes Research Institute, Forschergruppe Diabetes e V, Munich Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
    Clin Exp Immunol 164:42-9. 2011
    ..These results suggest that autoimmunity to insulin can occur infrequently via cross-reactivity to food proteins, but this form of IAA immunization does not appear to be associated with progression to diabetes...
  23. ncbi request reprint Reduced IL-4 associated antibody responses to vaccine in early pre-diabetes
    S Schmid
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, München Schwabing Hospital, Germany
    Diabetologia 45:677-85. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-cell autoimmunity is associated with immune response bias to exogenous antigens...
  24. ncbi request reprint Modulating the natural history of type 1 diabetes in children at high genetic risk by mucosal insulin immunization
    Peter Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute, Koelner Platz 1, Munich 80804, Germany
    Curr Diab Rep 8:87-93. 2008
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Characteristics of rapid vs slow progression to type 1 diabetes in multiple islet autoantibody-positive children
    P Achenbach
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetologia 56:1615-22. 2013
    ..Islet autoantibody-positive children progress to type 1 diabetes at variable rates. In our study, we asked whether characteristic autoantibody and/or gene profiles could be defined for phenotypes showing extreme progression...
  26. pmc Maternal immunity to insulin does not affect diabetes risk in progeny of non obese diabetic mice
    K Koczwara
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, Krankenhaus München Schwabing, Germany
    Clin Exp Immunol 136:56-9. 2004
    ....
  27. doi request reprint Autoantibodies to zinc transporter 8 and SLC30A8 genotype stratify type 1 diabetes risk
    P Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute of Forschergruppe Diabetes e V, Helmholtz Center Munich, Ingolstaedter Landstr 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany
    Diabetologia 52:1881-8. 2009
    ..Our aim was to determine the relationships between autoantibodies to zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), genotypes of the ZnT8-encoding gene SLC30A8 and type 1 diabetes risk...
  28. ncbi request reprint Type 1 diabetes risk assessment: improvement by follow-up measurements in young islet autoantibody-positive relatives
    P Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute, Koelner Platz 1, Munich, Germany
    Diabetologia 49:2969-76. 2006
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether autoantibody characteristics change over time, the nature of such changes, and their implications for the development of diabetes...
  29. ncbi request reprint Breastfeeding habits in families with Type 1 diabetes
    S Hummel
    Diabetes Research Institute and Academic Hospital Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Diabet Med 24:671-6. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal Type 1 diabetes on breastfeeding habits...
  30. doi request reprint A strategy for combining minor genetic susceptibility genes to improve prediction of disease in type 1 diabetes
    C Winkler
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat, Munchen, Germany
    Genes Immun 13:549-55. 2012
    ..Genotyping at multiple susceptibility loci in children from affected families can identify neonates with sufficient genetic risk of type 1 diabetes to be considered for early intervention...
  31. ncbi request reprint Prevalence, characteristics and diabetes risk associated with transient maternally acquired islet antibodies and persistent islet antibodies in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes
    H E Naserke
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Academic Hospital Schwabing, , D-80804 Munich, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4826-33. 2001
    ..These strategies are helpful in discriminating high and low risk antibodies before age 1 yr and should be important for prognosis and reducing unnecessary parent anxiety...
  32. ncbi request reprint Psychological impact of childhood islet autoantibody testing in families participating in the BABYDIAB study
    M Hummel
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, Academic Hospital München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Diabet Med 21:324-8. 2004
    ..To determine anxiety in parents of children undergoing testing for islet autoantibodies...
  33. ncbi request reprint Neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination and type 1 diabetes
    Marceline Huppmann
    Institut fur Diabetesforschung, Kolner Platz 1, D 80804 Munich, Germany
    Diabetes Care 28:1204-6. 2005
  34. pmc Mature high-affinity immune responses to (pro)insulin anticipate the autoimmune cascade that leads to type 1 diabetes
    Peter Achenbach
    Institut fur Diabetesforschung, Kolner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany
    J Clin Invest 114:589-97. 2004
    ....
  35. pmc The effect of gestation and fetal mismatching on the development of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice
    K Adler
    Diabetes Research Institute, Forschergruppe Diabetes e V, Munich, Germany
    Clin Exp Immunol 168:274-8. 2012
    ..Gestation per se appears to have no aggravating or ameliorating effects on pre-existent autoimmune beta cell destruction, but pregnancy from MHC partially mismatched males delays diabetes onset in female NOD mice...
  36. doi request reprint [Prospective observational studies of the development of type 1 diabetes during childhood and puberty]
    F Meier-Stiegen
    Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitat Munchen, Munchen
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 136:271-5. 2011
    ..Aim of this article is to provide an overview of the most relevant observational studies...
  37. ncbi request reprint Stratification of type 1 diabetes risk on the basis of islet autoantibody characteristics
    Peter Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, Hospital München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes 53:384-92. 2004
    ..Using models based on these antibody characteristics, autoantibody-positive relatives can be classified into groups with risks of diabetes ranging from 7 to 89% within 5 years...
  38. ncbi request reprint Identification of insulin autoantibodies of IgA isotype that preferentially target non-human insulin
    Kerstin Koczwara
    Diabetes Research Institute, Munich, Germany
    Clin Immunol 124:77-82. 2007
    ..The findings suggest that some IAA can result from immunization against molecules other than human insulin at mucosal sites...
  39. ncbi request reprint Delayed exposure to wheat and barley proteins reduces diabetes incidence in non-obese diabetic mice
    Sandra Schmid
    Diabetes Research Institute, Krankenhaus München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Clin Immunol 111:108-18. 2004
    ..These data support a link between dietary wheat and barley proteins and the development of autoimmune diabetes...
  40. ncbi request reprint No evidence for an association of coxsackie virus infections during pregnancy and early childhood with development of islet autoantibodies in offspring of mothers or fathers with type 1 diabetes
    M Füchtenbusch
    Diabetes Research Institute, 3rd Medical Department, Academic Hospital München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    J Autoimmun 17:333-40. 2001
    ..These data make it unlikely that CV infections during pregnancy or in early childhood play a major role in the induction of islet autoimmunity in offspring of mothers or fathers with T1D or of mothers with gestational diabetes...
  41. ncbi request reprint Brief communication: early appearance of islet autoantibodies predicts childhood type 1 diabetes in offspring of diabetic parents
    Michael Hummel
    Diabetes Research Institute and Academic Hospital Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Ann Intern Med 140:882-6. 2004
    ..The development of type 1 diabetes mellitus is preceded by autoimmunity against islet beta cells...
  42. ncbi request reprint Lupus-like panniculitis in a patient with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED)
    M Füchtenbusch
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Gastroenterology, Academic Hospital München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 111:288-93. 2003
    ..Here, autoimmune panniculitis appears to be an associated feature of the APECED syndrome. Our findings support the use of immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune disease components of the APECED syndrome...
  43. doi request reprint Reduced blood leukocyte and neutrophil numbers in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes
    M H Harsunen
    Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Horm Metab Res 45:467-70. 2013
    ..Our findings demonstrate a perturbation of leukocyte homeostasis at and prior to onset of type 1 diabetes suggesting a general involvement of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes...
  44. ncbi request reprint Predictors of postpartum diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus
    Kristian Löbner
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, Krankenhaus München Schwabing, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes 55:792-7. 2006
    ..Prospective diabetes assessment is indicated and intervention should be considered in women with gestational diabetes who are autoantibody positive, require insulin treatment during pregnancy, or are obese...
  45. doi request reprint The effect of maternal T1DM on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in infants during early life
    Christiane Winkler
    Institut fur Diabetesforschung, Kolner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany
    Eur J Nutr 47:145-52. 2008
    ..We asked, therefore, whether EPA and DHA FA nutritional status in offspring of mothers with T1DM could contribute to their reduced T1DM risk...
  46. ncbi request reprint IDDM1 and multiple family history of type 1 diabetes combine to identify neonates at high risk for type 1 diabetes
    Ezio Bonifacio
    Immunology of Diabetes Unit, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    Diabetes Care 27:2695-700. 2004
    ..The objective of this study was to determine and stratify the risk for islet autoimmunity and childhood diabetes in newborn offspring of affected parents using family history and HLA genetic markers...
  47. ncbi request reprint Predominantly recognized proinsulin T helper cell epitopes in individuals with and without islet cell autoimmunity
    Ivana Durinovic-Bello
    Diabetes Research Institute of the Academic Hospital München Schwabing, Koelner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany
    J Autoimmun 18:55-66. 2002
    ..In individuals with humoral markers of islet cell autoimmunity and in patients with T1D, spread response to distinct ProInsulin regions was observed...
  48. ncbi request reprint Predicting type 1 diabetes
    Peter Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute, Koelner Platz 1, Munich 80804, Germany
    Curr Diab Rep 5:98-103. 2005
    ..Further stratification of diabetes risk in autoantibody-positive subjects can be made on the basis of autoantibody characteristics that correspond to the magnitude of the autoantibody response...
  49. ncbi request reprint Two distinctly HLA-associated contiguous linear epitopes uniquely expressed within the islet antigen 2 molecule are major autoantibody epitopes of the diabetes-specific tyrosine phosphatase-like protein autoantigens
    Massimo Bearzatto
    Department of Medicine 1 and Medicine Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 168:4202-8. 2002
    ..This is a unique demonstration of HLA-associated B cell responses to epitopes within a single autoantigen in humans and is consistent with modification of Ag processing by specific Ab-influencing peptide presentation by HLA molecules...
  50. ncbi request reprint Natural history of type 1 diabetes
    Peter Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute, Koelner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany
    Diabetes 54:S25-31. 2005
    ..Characteristics that describe the magnitude of the autoimmunity can stage progression to type 1 diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive subjects regardless of genetic background or age...
  51. ncbi request reprint Diabetes-related antibodies in euglycemic subjects
    Peter Achenbach
    Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department Academic, Hospital München Schwabing, Koelner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 19:101-17. 2005
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Relationship between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and enterovirus infections in different European populations: results from the EPIVIR project
    Hanna Viskari
    JDRF Center for Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes, Finland
    J Med Virol 72:610-7. 2004
    ....

Research Grants2

  1. Type 1 Diabetes triggers: diet modification in neonates
    ANETTE ZIEGLER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..If successful this consortium will identify environmental factors which can be manipulated in order to reduce T1DM incidence. ..