O Wolkenhauer

Summary

Affiliation: University of Rostock
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Interpreting Rosen
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Artif Life 13:291-2. 2007
  2. pmc Simulations of stressosome activation emphasize allosteric interactions between RsbR and RsbT
    Ulf W Liebal
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18051, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 7:3. 2013
  3. pmc Multi-compartmental modeling of SORLA's influence on amyloidogenic processing in Alzheimer's disease
    Angelyn Lao
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 6:74. 2012
  4. doi request reprint The road from systems biology to systems medicine
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Pediatr Res 73:502-7. 2013
  5. doi request reprint The role of theorem proving in systems biology
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    J Theor Biol 300:57-61. 2012
  6. pmc Studies on mechanisms of interferon-gamma action in pancreatic cancer using a data-driven and model-based approach
    Falko Lange
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Mol Cancer 10:13. 2011
  7. pmc Modeling the Calvin-Benson cycle
    Jiri Jablonsky
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 5:185. 2011
  8. pmc A systems biology approach to investigate the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture
    Sylvia Haus
    University of Rostock, Institute of Computer Science, Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 5:10. 2011
  9. pmc A systems biology approach to analyse amplification in the JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway
    Julio Vera
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 2:38. 2008
  10. pmc The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib displays significant antiproliferative effects and induces apoptosis via caspase 3, 7 and PARP in B- and T-lymphoblastic cells
    Catrin Schult
    University of Rostock, Division of Medicine, Department of Hematology Oncology, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:560. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. ncbi request reprint Interpreting Rosen
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Artif Life 13:291-2. 2007
    ..Some reflections on Robert Rosen, Chu and Ho, and Louie...
  2. pmc Simulations of stressosome activation emphasize allosteric interactions between RsbR and RsbT
    Ulf W Liebal
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18051, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 7:3. 2013
    ..Subsequent dissociation of RsbT from the stressosome activates the σB cascade. However, the sequence of physical events that occur in the stressosome during signal transduction is insufficiently understood...
  3. pmc Multi-compartmental modeling of SORLA's influence on amyloidogenic processing in Alzheimer's disease
    Angelyn Lao
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 6:74. 2012
    ..Amyloidogenic processing is also influenced by modifiers such as sorting receptor-related protein (SORLA), an inhibitor of APP breakdown and major AD risk factor...
  4. doi request reprint The road from systems biology to systems medicine
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Pediatr Res 73:502-7. 2013
    ..For an efficient and successful initiation of interdisciplinary systems medicine programs, we argue that epistemological, ontological, and sociological aspects require attention...
  5. doi request reprint The role of theorem proving in systems biology
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    J Theor Biol 300:57-61. 2012
    ..Rather, theorem proving, in conjunction with conventional mathematical (mechanistic) modeling, is an essential tool for a deeper understanding in systems biology...
  6. pmc Studies on mechanisms of interferon-gamma action in pancreatic cancer using a data-driven and model-based approach
    Falko Lange
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Mol Cancer 10:13. 2011
    ..To elucidate the molecular action of IFNγ, we have established a mathematical model of STAT1 activation and combined experimental studies with computer simulations...
  7. pmc Modeling the Calvin-Benson cycle
    Jiri Jablonsky
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 5:185. 2011
    ..Beyond a critical analysis of existing models, we furthermore investigated the question how adjacent metabolic pathways, for instance photorespiration, can be integrated in such models...
  8. pmc A systems biology approach to investigate the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture
    Sylvia Haus
    University of Rostock, Institute of Computer Science, Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 5:10. 2011
    ..acetobutylicum to be optimized and exploited on an industrial scale, the effect of pH-induced gene regulation on solvent production by C. acetobutylicum in continuous culture must be understood as fully as possible...
  9. pmc A systems biology approach to analyse amplification in the JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway
    Julio Vera
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 2:38. 2008
    ..Despite of the apparent importance of signal amplification, there have been few attempts to formalise this concept...
  10. pmc The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib displays significant antiproliferative effects and induces apoptosis via caspase 3, 7 and PARP in B- and T-lymphoblastic cells
    Catrin Schult
    University of Rostock, Division of Medicine, Department of Hematology Oncology, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Cancer 10:560. 2010
    ..The multikinase inhibitor Sorafenib has antitumor activity in solid tumors and its effects on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells are still unclear...
  11. pmc Non-coding RNA detection methods combined to improve usability, reproducibility and precision
    Peter Raasch
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Bioinformatics 11:491. 2010
    ..Also, for genomic scans they often need to be incorporated in detection workflows using custom scripts, which decreases transparency and reproducibility...
  12. ncbi request reprint An abstract cell model that describes the self-organization of cell function in living systems
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    J Theor Biol 246:461-76. 2007
    ..Simulations can mimic living systems, but they are not like living systems...
  13. ncbi request reprint PLMaddon: a power-law module for the Matlab SBToolbox
    Julio Vera
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Bioinformatics 23:2638-40. 2007
    ..g. Michaelis-Menten type models), as well as algorithms to estimate steady-states. The robustness and sensitivity of the models can also be analysed and visualized by computing the power-law's logarithmic gains and sensitivities...
  14. ncbi request reprint Feedback dynamics and cell function: Why systems biology is called Systems Biology
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Albert Einstein Str 21, 18059 Rostock, Mecklenburg Vorpommern, Germany
    Mol Biosyst 1:14-6. 2005
    ..Systems Biology is a success if it is widely accepted that there is nothing more practical than a good theory...
  15. ncbi request reprint A systems- and signal-oriented approach to intracellular dynamics
    O Wolkenhauer
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Albert Einstein Strasse 21, 18059 Rostock, Germany
    Biochem Soc Trans 33:507-15. 2005
    ..Using tools of control systems analysis, as embodied in the disciplines of systems biology, similar predictive modelling/simulation studies are now bearing fruit in cell signalling research...
  16. ncbi request reprint Defining systems biology: an engineering perspective
    O Wolkenhauer
    University of Rostock, Germany
    IET Syst Biol 1:204-6. 2007
  17. ncbi request reprint The dynamic systems approach to control and regulation of intracellular networks
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Computer Science, Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, Albert Einstein Str 21, 18059 Rostock, Germany
    FEBS Lett 579:1846-53. 2005
    ..Using simple examples, we show how biochemical reactions are modelled in the dynamic systems framework and visualized using block-diagrams...
  18. pmc A stem cell niche dominance theorem
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 5:4. 2011
    ..What we are seeking here is a conceptual framework to demonstrate how the "fate" of intestinal crypts is an emergent property that inherently arises from the complex yet robust underlying biology of stem cells...
  19. pmc Systems biologists seek fuller integration of systems biology approaches in new cancer research programs
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Cancer Res 70:12-3. 2010
    ....
  20. doi request reprint A mathematical analysis of nuclear intensity dynamics for Mig1-GFP under consideration of bleaching effects and background noise in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Simone Frey
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, D 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Mol Biosyst 7:215-23. 2011
    ..Our model effectively demonstrates how data, acquired with an optical microscope, can be processed and used for a systems biology analysis of signal transduction pathways...
  21. ncbi request reprint Family tree of Markov models in systems biology
    M Ullah
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, A Einstein Str 21, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    IET Syst Biol 1:247-54. 2007
    ..As a result, a 'family tree' for stochastic models in systems biology is sketched, providing explicit derivations of their formal relationship and clarifying assumptions involved...
  22. ncbi request reprint Deterministic modelling and stochastic simulation of biochemical pathways using MATLAB
    M Ullah
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, Albert Einstein Street 21, Rostock 18055, Germany
    Syst Biol (Stevenage) 153:53-60. 2006
    ..The aim is to provide a concise set of MATLAB functions that encourage the experimentation with systems biology models. All the script files are available from www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/ publications_matlab-paper.html...
  23. doi request reprint Thresholds in transient dynamics of signal transduction pathways
    Katja Rateitschak
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    J Theor Biol 264:334-46. 2010
    ..Metabolic control coefficients do not reliably detect all thresholds and suffer from false positives...
  24. doi request reprint How mathematical modelling elucidates signalling in Bacillus subtilis
    Ulf W Liebal
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 77:1083-95. 2010
    ..These case studies reveal modelling as a tool to increase the understanding of complex systems, to help formulating hypotheses and to guide the design of more directed experiments that test predictions...
  25. doi request reprint Dynamical effects of epigenetic silencing of 14-3-3sigma expression
    Julio Vera
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Mol Biosyst 6:264-73. 2010
    ....
  26. pmc Dynamics of receptor and protein transducer homodimerisation
    Julio Vera
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    BMC Syst Biol 2:92. 2008
    ..Several authors have suggested in recent times that dimerisation relates to a series of physical and biological outcomes used by the cell in the regulation of signal transduction...
  27. pmc Clinico-pathologic function of cerebral ABC transporters - implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease
    Jens Pahnke
    University of Rostock, Department of Neurology, Neurodegeneration Research Laboratory NRL, Gehlsheimer Str 20, 18147 Rostock, Germany
    Curr Alzheimer Res 5:396-405. 2008
    ..Here, we summarize findings from cell culture experiments, animal models and studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, we discuss pharmacological interactions and computational methods for risk assessment...
  28. doi request reprint Modeling of cellular processes: methods, data, and requirements
    Thomas Millat
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, Institute of Computer Science, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    Methods Mol Biol 696:429-47. 2011
    ..The relation between models and data is discussed in this chapter. Thereby, we focus on the requirements on experimental data from the perspective of systems biology projects...
  29. doi request reprint Stochastic approaches in systems biology
    Mukhtar Ullah
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med 2:385-97. 2010
    ..Throughout the text, two pedagogical examples are used to key illustrate ideas. With extensive references to the literature, our goal is to clarify key concepts and thereby prepare the reader for more advanced texts...
  30. doi request reprint The role of dynamic stimulation pattern in the analysis of bistable intracellular networks
    Thomas Millat
    University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Biosystems 92:270-81. 2008
    ..Furthermore, intracellular processes, like receptor internalization, do manipulate the level of stimulus such that level and duration of the stimulus is conducive to characteristic behavior...
  31. doi request reprint Investigating the two-moment characterisation of subcellular biochemical networks
    Mukhtar Ullah
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    J Theor Biol 260:340-52. 2009
    ..This is explained through multiple resettings of M-phase promoting factor (MPF), caused by the coupling between mean and (co)variance, near the G2/M transition...
  32. ncbi request reprint Modeling and simulation of intracellular dynamics: choosing an appropriate framework
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, Rostock 18051, Germany
    IEEE Trans Nanobioscience 3:200-7. 2004
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Intracellular delay limits cyclic changes in gene expression
    Katja Rateitschak
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Math Biosci 205:163-79. 2007
    ..The second model describes Hes1 repression by the protein complex Gro/TLE1/Hes1, where Gro/TLE1 is activated by Hes1 phosphorylation. Finally, we discuss our analytical and numerical results in relation to experimental data...
  34. ncbi request reprint Approximations and their consequences for dynamic modelling of signal transduction pathways
    Thomas Millat
    University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Math Biosci 207:40-57. 2007
    ..We show how these approximations simplify the mathematical treatment of biochemical networks but we also demonstrate differences between the complete system and its approximations with respect to the transient and steady state behavior...
  35. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of biological systems: role of systems biology in medical research
    Heike E Assmus
    University of Rostock, Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 6:891-902. 2006
    ..We discuss the potential for computer-aided mathematical modeling of biological systems in medical research with examples from some of the major therapeutic areas: cancer, cardiovascular, diabetic and neurodegenerative medicine...
  36. doi request reprint A system biology approach to understand functional activity of cell communication systems
    Julio Vera
    Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Methods Cell Biol 90:399-415. 2008
    ..We, furthermore, show the use of such a methodology in a case study, analyzing receptor and transcription factor modulation affecting the responsiveness of the JAK2/STAT5 pathway...
  37. doi request reprint SysBioMed report: advancing systems biology for medical applications
    O Wolkenhauer
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    IET Syst Biol 3:131-6. 2009
    ..6. The hesitant stance of the pharmaceutical industry towards major investment in systems biology research has to be addressed. 7. Leading medical journals should be encouraged to promote mathematical modelling...
  38. doi request reprint Model-based investigation of the transcriptional activity of p53 and its feedback loop regulation via 14-3-3σ
    J Vera
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany
    IET Syst Biol 5:293-307. 2011
    ..Moreover, the interplay between DNA damage and 14-3-3σ may induce bistability in the oscillation of p53...
  39. ncbi request reprint Power-law models of signal transduction pathways
    Julio Vera
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Sciences, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Cell Signal 19:1531-41. 2007
    ..In particular, the investigation on the effects of signal inhibition and feedback loops and the validation of structural hypotheses are discussed...
  40. doi request reprint Mathematical modelling unravels regulatory mechanisms of interferon-γ-induced STAT1 serine-phosphorylation and MUC4 expression in pancreatic cancer cells
    C Kossow
    Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    IET Syst Biol 6:73-85. 2012
    ..In addition, our results propose that unphosphorylated or serine-phosphorylated STAT1 can act as transcription factors of MUC4, either alone by progressive binding to different sites in the promoter or both together...
  41. doi request reprint A multi-level model accounting for the effects of JAK2-STAT5 signal modulation in erythropoiesis
    Xin Lai
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Comput Biol Chem 33:312-24. 2009
    ....
  42. doi request reprint How quantitative measures unravel design principles in multi-stage phosphorylation cascades
    Simone Frey
    University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    J Theor Biol 254:27-36. 2008
    ..Several popular models of MAPK cascades form the basis of our study. These models represent different levels of approximation, which we compare and discuss with respect to the quantitative measures...
  43. doi request reprint Mathematical modelling of interferon-gamma signalling in pancreatic stellate cells reflects and predicts the dynamics of STAT1 pathway activity
    Katja Rateitschak
    Systems Biology and Bioinformatics Group, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
    Cell Signal 22:97-105. 2010
    ..We believe that further investigations into mathematical modelling of the STAT1 pathway will improve the understanding of the antifibrotic interferon action...
  44. ncbi request reprint A hybrid systems framework for cellular processes
    Kwang Hyun Cho
    College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110 799, Korea
    Biosystems 80:273-82. 2005
    ..This includes Rosen's (M,R)-systems. This paper presents an abstract and general compact mathematical framework of intracellular dynamics, regulation and regime switching inspired by (M,R)-theory and based on hybrid automata...
  45. ncbi request reprint Microarray data clustering based on temporal variation: FCV with TSD preclustering
    Carla S Moller-Levet
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Control Systems Centre, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology UMIST, Manchester, UK
    Appl Bioinformatics 2:35-45. 2003
    ..The performance was evaluated with a measure for internal cluster correlation and the geometrical properties of the clusters, showing that the FCV-TSD algorithm had better performance than the k -means algorithm on both datasets...
  46. ncbi request reprint The statistical distribution of the intensity of pixels within spots of DNA microarrays: what is the appropriate single-value representative?
    Javier Nunez-Garcia
    Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
    Appl Bioinformatics 2:229-39. 2003
    ..As a consequence, the distribution of the intensity of the pixels is usually negatively skewed. This asymmetry results in a larger displacement for the mean and median than for the mode from the ideal situation mentioned above...
  47. pmc Advanced significance analysis of microarray data based on weighted resampling: a comparative study and application to gene deletions in Mycobacterium bovis
    Zoltan Kutalik
    Control Systems Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, P O Box 88, UMIST, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
    Bioinformatics 20:357-63. 2004
    ..The results of our study justified the theoretical basis of the weighted resampling approach, which clearly outperforms the others...
  48. ncbi request reprint SBML export interface for the systems biology toolbox for MATLAB
    Hening Schmidt
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Bioinformatics 23:1297-8. 2007
    ..sbtoolbox.org. The website also contains a tutorial, extensive documentation and examples...
  49. pmc Investigations into the analysis and modeling of the TNF alpha-mediated NF-kappa B-signaling pathway
    Kwang Hyun Cho
    School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680 749, Korea
    Genome Res 13:2413-22. 2003
    ..The proposed system-theoretic approach is expected to be further applicable to predict the signaling behavior of NF-kappaB in a quantitative manner for any variation of the ligand, TNFalpha...
  50. ncbi request reprint Analysis of DNA microarray data
    Hubert Hackl
    Institute for Genomics and Bioinformatics and Christian Doppler Laboratory for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 14, A 8010 Graz, Austria
    Curr Top Med Chem 4:1357-70. 2004
    ..This review guides through all steps in the cDNA microarray data analysis pipeline and gives a basic understanding of the challenges in interpreting large microarray datasets...
  51. ncbi request reprint Optimal sampling time selection for parameter estimation in dynamic pathway modeling
    Zoltan Kutalik
    School of Computing Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
    Biosystems 75:43-55. 2004
    ..With few sampling time points feasible, their selection is of practical importance in experimental design. Finally, the theoretical results are supported with an application...
  52. ncbi request reprint A unified framework for unraveling the functional interaction structure of a biomolecular network based on stimulus-response experimental data
    Kwang Hyun Cho
    College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Jongno gu, Seoul 110 799, Republic of Korea
    FEBS Lett 579:4520-8. 2005
    ..Finally, we propose an experiment design methodology, which is not limited by the amount of parameter perturbations, and illustrate its use with an in numero example...
  53. ncbi request reprint Mathematical modelling in the post-genome era: understanding genome expression and regulation--a system theoretic approach
    Olaf Wolkenhauer
    Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Control Systems Centre, UMIST, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
    Biosystems 65:1-18. 2002
    ..Microarray technology allows us to generate large sets of time series data and is, therefore, discussed with regard to its use in mathematical modelling of gene expression and regulation...
  54. ncbi request reprint Principal difference between stability and structural stability (robustness) as used in systems biology
    Svetoslav Nikolov
    Institute of Mechanics and Biomechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad G Bonchev Str, Bl 4, Sofia, 1113, Bulgaria
    Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 11:413-33. 2007
    ..In the last section we formulate when, according to us, in biology (and in systems biology in particular), it should be said that a system (process) is stable, and when it is structurally stable...
  55. ncbi request reprint Report of an EU projects workshop on systems biology held in Brussels, Belgium on 8 December 2004
    Ewan Birney
    Syst Biol (Stevenage) 152:55-60. 2005
  56. ncbi request reprint Switching feedback mechanisms realize the dual role of MCIP in the regulation of calcineurin activity
    Sung Young Shin
    School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680 749, Republic of Korea
    FEBS Lett 580:5965-73. 2006
    ..The simulations demonstrate how the apparently paradoxical behavior can emerge as a result of cellular conditions...
  57. ncbi request reprint Information-theoretic analysis of protein sequences shows that amino acids self-cluster
    Yudong Cai
    Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
    J Theor Biol 218:409-18. 2002
    ..In particular, a favoured gap of 7 for Leu is found in coiled coils. Our method contributes to the characterization of whole sequences by extracting and quantifying stable stochastic features...