Frank Kirchhoff


Affiliation: University of Ulm
Country: Germany


  1. Kirchhoff F. Immune evasion and counteraction of restriction factors by HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:55-67 pubmed publisher
  2. Sauter D, Kirchhoff F. Key Viral Adaptations Preceding the AIDS Pandemic. Cell Host Microbe. 2019;25:27-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We aim at providing a viral point of view, focusing on known key hurdles of each cross-species transmission and the mechanisms that HIV and its simian precursors evolved to overcome them. ..
  3. Sauter D, Kirchhoff F. Multilayered and versatile inhibition of cellular antiviral factors by HIV and SIV accessory proteins. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2018;40:3-12 pubmed publisher
  4. Braun K, Stürzel C, Biskupek J, Kaiser U, Kirchhoff F, Linden M. Comparison of different cytotoxicity assays for in vitro evaluation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Toxicol In Vitro. 2018;52:214-221 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ATP-based assays seem most suitable for in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of MSNs. ..
  5. Joas S, Parrish E, Gnanadurai C, Lump E, Stürzel C, Parrish N, et al. Species-specific host factors rather than virus-intrinsic virulence determine primate lentiviral pathogenicity. Nat Commun. 2018;9:1371 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that species-specific host factors rather than intrinsic viral virulence factors determine the pathogenicity of primate lentiviruses. ..
  6. Kluge S, Mack K, Iyer S, Pujol F, Heigele A, Learn G, et al. Nef proteins of epidemic HIV-1 group O strains antagonize human tetherin. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;16:639-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Nef-mediated antagonism of human tetherin evolved prior to the spread of HIV-1 group O and likely facilitated secondary virus transmission. Our results may explain the epidemic spread of HIV-1 group O. ..
  7. Sauter D, Kirchhoff F. IFITMs: Important Factors In Trans-Mission of HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;20:407-408 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Foster et al. (2016) show that IFITMs constitute a barrier to HIV-1 transmission and that escape from adaptive immune responses increases viral sensitivity to IFITM restriction. ..
  8. Kmiec D, Iyer S, Stürzel C, Sauter D, Hahn B, Kirchhoff F. Vpu-Mediated Counteraction of Tetherin Is a Major Determinant of HIV-1 Interferon Resistance. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that these changes in Vpu significantly enhance virus replication and release in human CD4(+) T cells, particularly in the presence of IFN, thus supporting an important role in the spread of pandemic HIV-1. ..
  9. Kluge S, Sauter D, Vogl M, Peeters M, Li Y, Bibollet Ruche F, et al. The transmembrane domain of HIV-1 Vpu is sufficient to confer anti-tetherin activity to SIVcpz and SIVgor Vpu proteins: cytoplasmic determinants of Vpu function. Retrovirology. 2013;10:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, several previously described domains in the extracellular region of Vpu are not absolutely essential for tetherin antagonism but may be required for other Vpu functions. ..

More Information


  1. Heigele A, Kmiec D, Regensburger K, Langer S, Peiffer L, Stürzel C, et al. The Potency of Nef-Mediated SERINC5 Antagonism Correlates with the Prevalence of Primate Lentiviruses in the Wild. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;20:381-391 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Nef-mediated SERINC5 antagonism may determine the ability of primate lentiviruses to spread within natural hosts. ..
  2. Heigele A, Joas S, Regensburger K, Kirchhoff F. Increased susceptibility of CD4+ T cells from elderly individuals to HIV-1 infection and apoptosis is associated with reduced CD4 and enhanced CXCR4 and FAS surface expression levels. Retrovirology. 2015;12:86 pubmed publisher
  3. Krapp C, Hotter D, Gawanbacht A, McLaren P, Kluge S, Stürzel C, et al. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity. Cell Host Microbe. 2016;19:504-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains. ..
  4. McLaren P, Gawanbacht A, Pyndiah N, Krapp C, Hotter D, Kluge S, et al. Identification of potential HIV restriction factors by combining evolutionary genomic signatures with functional analyses. Retrovirology. 2015;12:41 pubmed publisher
    ..A limited number of human genes share multiple characteristics of genes encoding for known restriction factors. Most of them display anti-retroviral activity in transient transfection assays and are expressed in primary CD4+ T cells. ..
  5. Sauter D, Hotter D, Van Driessche B, Stürzel C, Kluge S, Wildum S, et al. Differential regulation of NF-κB-mediated proviral and antiviral host gene expression by primate lentiviral Nef and Vpu proteins. Cell Rep. 2015;10:586-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HIV-1 and its simian precursors employ Nef to boost NF-κB activation early during the viral life cycle to initiate proviral transcription, while Vpu is used to downmodulate NF-κB-dependent expression of ISGs at later stages. ..
  6. Mack K, Starz K, Sauter D, Langer S, Bibollet Ruche F, Learn G, et al. Efficient Vpu-Mediated Tetherin Antagonism by an HIV-1 Group O Strain. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further illustrate the enormous flexibility of HIV-1 in counteracting human defense mechanisms. ..
  7. Yu H, Khalid M, Heigele A, Schmökel J, Usmani S, van der Merwe J, et al. Lentiviral Nef proteins manipulate T cells in a subset-specific manner. J Virol. 2015;89:1986-2001 pubmed publisher
  8. Heigele A, Camerini D, van t Wout A, Kirchhoff F. Viremic long-term nonprogressive HIV-1 infection is not associated with abnormalities in known Nef functions. Retrovirology. 2014;11:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the lack of chronic immune activation and disease progression in HIV-1-infected VNPs is apparently not associated with unusual functional properties of the accessory viral Nef protein. ..
  9. Schmökel J, Li H, Shabir A, Yu H, Geyer M, Silvestri G, et al. Link between primate lentiviral coreceptor usage and Nef function. Cell Rep. 2013;5:997-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..This may explain why HIV-1, which generally lacks the CD3 downmodulation function, commonly switches to CXCR4 usage, whereas this is extremely rare for SIV strains that have retained this Nef activity. ..