E Hellwig

Summary

Affiliation: University of Freiburg
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint What is the optimum fluoride concentration needed for the remineralization process?
    E Hellwig
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Clinic of Dentistry, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 35:57-9. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Systemic versus topical fluoride
    E Hellwig
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dental Clinic and Dental School, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 38:258-62. 2004
  3. doi request reprint Fluoride uptake and remineralisation of enamel lesions after weekly application of differently concentrated fluoride gels
    M J Altenburger
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Medical Hospital and Dental School, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 42:312-8. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Brushing abrasion of eroded dentin after application of sodium fluoride solutions
    T Attin
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 32:344-50. 1998
  5. ncbi request reprint Fluoride release/uptake of polyacid-modified resin composites (compomers) in neutral and acidic buffer solutions
    T Attin
    University of Freiburg, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Germany
    J Oral Rehabil 26:388-93. 1999
  6. ncbi request reprint Fluoride release from light-curing restorative materials
    U Muller
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Germany
    Am J Dent 13:301-4. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Influence of resin cement viscosity on microleakage of ceramic inlays
    P Hahn
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dental Clinic, University of Freiburg, Hugstetterstrasse 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    Dent Mater 17:191-6. 2001
  8. doi request reprint Biofilm formation and composition on different implant materials in vivo
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 95:101-9. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA)
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    J Med Microbiol 62:467-73. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Comparison of bacterial adhesion and cellular proliferation on newly developed three-dimensional scaffolds manufactured by rapid prototyping technology
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res A 98:303-11. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint What is the optimum fluoride concentration needed for the remineralization process?
    E Hellwig
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Clinic of Dentistry, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 35:57-9. 2001
    ..However, an optimum universally valid fluoride concentration needed for this process cannot be defined...
  2. ncbi request reprint Systemic versus topical fluoride
    E Hellwig
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dental Clinic and Dental School, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 38:258-62. 2004
    ..g. in the form of fluoridated dentifrices) should be encouraged. There are still important questions open that need to be answered despite existing knowledge about the caries-preventive effect of fluoride...
  3. doi request reprint Fluoride uptake and remineralisation of enamel lesions after weekly application of differently concentrated fluoride gels
    M J Altenburger
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Medical Hospital and Dental School, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 42:312-8. 2008
    ..Under the present experimental conditions repeated application of highly concentrated fluoride gels did not promote remineralisation significantly...
  4. ncbi request reprint Brushing abrasion of eroded dentin after application of sodium fluoride solutions
    T Attin
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 32:344-50. 1998
    ..It is concluded that application of 2,000 ppm sodium fluoride solutions immediately before toothbrushing significantly reduces abrasion of eroded dentin in vitro...
  5. ncbi request reprint Fluoride release/uptake of polyacid-modified resin composites (compomers) in neutral and acidic buffer solutions
    T Attin
    University of Freiburg, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Germany
    J Oral Rehabil 26:388-93. 1999
    ..However, the conventional GIC revealed a significantly higher fluoride release after fluoridation. It is concluded that Dyract and Compoglass can not be replenished with fluoride, irrespective of the pH value of the environment...
  6. ncbi request reprint Fluoride release from light-curing restorative materials
    U Muller
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Germany
    Am J Dent 13:301-4. 2000
    ..To measure the in vitro fluoride release from three polyacid-modified resin-based composites (Dyract AP, Compoglass F, F2000) and one resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (Vitremer VLC) for 28 days in two different buffer solutions...
  7. ncbi request reprint Influence of resin cement viscosity on microleakage of ceramic inlays
    P Hahn
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dental Clinic, University of Freiburg, Hugstetterstrasse 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany
    Dent Mater 17:191-6. 2001
    ..The effect of the width of the space between inlay and tooth, on the quality of the marginal seal was also investigated...
  8. doi request reprint Biofilm formation and composition on different implant materials in vivo
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 95:101-9. 2010
    ..were also detected. No significant differences in biofilm composition on the implant surfaces could be observed. In total, the influence of roughness and material on biofilm formation was compensated by biofilm maturation...
  9. doi request reprint Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA)
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    J Med Microbiol 62:467-73. 2013
    ..Taking the healing effects of wIRA on human tissue into consideration, this technique could be helpful in the treatment of peri-implantitis and periodontitis...
  10. doi request reprint Comparison of bacterial adhesion and cellular proliferation on newly developed three-dimensional scaffolds manufactured by rapid prototyping technology
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res A 98:303-11. 2011
    ..nigrescens. Salivary born aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms adhered significantly more to PLGA compared to PLLA-TCP. These results supported by SEM point out the high potential of PLLA-TCP in the field of tissue engineering...
  11. doi request reprint Microhardness of composite materials with different organic phases in deep class II cavities: an in vitro study
    J P Tchorz
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Peridontology, Dental School and Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Oper Dent 36:502-11. 2011
    ..This study compared the microhardness of three composite resins with different organic matrices in deep class II cavities...
  12. ncbi request reprint Use of variable remineralization periods to improve the abrasion resistance of previously eroded enamel
    T Attin
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 34:48-52. 2000
    ..However, even after a period of 1 h of remineralization, abrasion of previously eroded enamel is increased..
  13. ncbi request reprint Clinical evaluation of a hybrid composite and a polyacid-modified composite resin in Class-II restorations in deciduous molars
    T Attin
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs Universitat Freiburg, Germany
    Clin Oral Investig 2:115-9. 1998
    ..However, owing to the fewer treatment steps required for application of a polyacid-modified composite resin, this type of material may be more favorable for restoring primary molars...
  14. ncbi request reprint Irradiation effects on microhardness of fluoridated and non-fluoridated bovine dentin
    A M Kielbassa
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Clinic of Dentistry, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg i Br, Germany
    Eur J Oral Sci 105:444-7. 1997
    ..Fluoridation with acidic gels decreases microhardness of dentin surface, and does not prevent softening due to radiation, when saliva is absent...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effects of various forms of calcium added to chewing gum on initial enamel carious lesions in situ
    J F Schirrmeister
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University School of Dental Hospital, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 41:108-14. 2007
    ..05; ANCOVA). Under the conditions of the present study it may be concluded that the use of chewing gum offers no additional remineralizing benefit to buccal tooth surfaces, even if the chewing gum contains calcium compounds...
  16. ncbi request reprint Correlation of transversal microradiography and microhardness on in situ-induced demineralization in irradiated and nonirradiated human dental enamel
    A M Kielbassa
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Clinic of Dentistry, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Germany
    Arch Oral Biol 44:243-51. 1999
    ..In naturally induced caries lesions, MH values can be converted to mineral volume percent using the equation [21.19 + 3.66 x square root of KHN]. This equation fits the data with a reliable correlation coefficient (r2=0.915)...
  17. ncbi request reprint An in vitro assessment of the strength of porcelain veneers dependent on tooth preparation
    P Hahn
    Dental Clinic, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    J Oral Rehabil 27:1024-9. 2000
    ..Compared with the biting force described for incisors in the literature, the in vitro loadability reached in this investigation seems to jusitify the clinical use of both preparation designs tested...
  18. pmc Microscope-based imaging platform for large-scale analysis of oral biofilms
    L Karygianni
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 78:8703-11. 2012
    ..Due to the possibility of automation, Scan∧R overcomes the technical limitations of conventional CLSM...
  19. ncbi request reprint Initial tensile bond strength of resin-modified glass ionomers and polyacid-modified resins on perfused primary dentin
    A M Kielbassa
    University Clinic of Dentistry, Department of Operative Dentistry, Freiburg, Germany
    ASDC J Dent Child 64:183-7, 165. 1997
    ..The condensable glass ionomer Hi-Dense revealed a mean tensile bond strength of 0.79 MPa. Adhesion of (polyacid-modified) composite resins is superior to the other tested glass ionomer materials, when applied to perfused primary dentin...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effects of additional teaching of final-year dental students on their radiographic diagnosis of caries
    K T Wrbas
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Freiburg i Br, Germany
    Eur J Dent Educ 4:138-42. 2000
    ..The benefits of this type of additional instruction in the last semester in the Department of Operative Dentistry seem only to be important in some individual cases...
  21. ncbi request reprint Effects of irradiation on in situ remineralization of human and bovine enamel demineralized in vitro
    A M Kielbassa
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University School of Dental Medicine, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Caries Res 40:130-5. 2006
    ..It can be concluded that neither irradiation nor abrasion influenced in vitro demineralization or in situ remineralization of the human specimens, whereas abrasion hampered demineralization in irradiated, bovine specimens...
  22. ncbi request reprint Fracture toughness of pin-retained class 4 restorations
    T Attin
    University Clinic of Dentistry, Department of Operative Dentistry, Freiburg, Germany
    Oper Dent 19:110-5. 1994
    ..It was concluded that there was only a small increase of fracture toughness of large class 4 composite restorations if the acid etching technique was combined with the application of bonding/opaquer-covered retentive pins...
  23. doi request reprint An improved model for teaching use of electronic apex locators
    J P Tchorz
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Int Endod J 45:307-10. 2012
    ..To develop a simple, practical and inexpensive model, which enables the use of electronic apex locators (EALs) during pre-clinical and continuing education...
  24. doi request reprint Airborne microbes in different dental environments in comparison to a public area
    H Kimmerle
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Hugstetter Str 55, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Arch Oral Biol 57:689-96. 2012
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Bacterial and Candida albicans adhesion on rapid prototyping-produced 3D-scaffolds manufactured as bone replacement materials
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res A 87:933-43. 2008
    ..Strategies to decrease microbial adherence and to prevent infections due to oral pathogens are discussed...
  26. ncbi request reprint Effect of different luting procedures on the seating of ceramic inlays
    P Hahn
    Dental Clinic, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    J Oral Rehabil 27:1-8. 2000
    ..Reducing the film thickness of polymerized dentin bonding agents, i.e. by changing the composition of the bonding agents, could facilitate proper seating of ceramic inlays together with a better marginal seal...
  27. doi request reprint Combination of apex locator and endodontic motor for continuous length control during root canal treatment
    M J Altenburger
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Medical Hospital and Dental School, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    Int Endod J 42:368-74. 2009
    ....
  28. ncbi request reprint Two-year evaluation of a new nano-ceramic restorative material
    J F Schirrmeister
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Clin Oral Investig 10:181-6. 2006
    ..9%). No statistically significant differences were found (p>0.05). After 2 years of clinical service, 96.8% of Ceram.X/K-0127 and 100% of Tetric Ceram/Syntac Classic restorations were in place and performed clinically well...
  29. ncbi request reprint Bond strength between fibre posts and composite resin cores: effect of post surface silanization
    K T Wrbas
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University School and Dental Hospital, Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Freiburg i Br, Germany
    Int Endod J 40:538-43. 2007
    ..To evaluate the tensile bond strength between two different composite resin cores and (Clearfil Core, MultiCore Flow) and fibre posts (DT Light Post), with and without silanization of the post surface...
  30. doi request reprint Intrinsic enzymatic crosslinking and maturation of the in situ pellicle
    C Hannig
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Street 55, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Arch Oral Biol 53:416-22. 2008
    ..It has been supposed that the pellicle undergoes maturation after protein adsorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate enzyme activities with an impact on intrinsic maturation processes in in situ formed pellicles...
  31. ncbi request reprint Individual vitality pattern of in situ dental biofilms at different locations in the oral cavity
    N B Arweiler
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Hugstetter Strasse 55, DE 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 38:442-7. 2004
    ..Nevertheless, the analysis of the data of each single volunteer revealed a very similar vitality pattern in all twelve locations...
  32. ncbi request reprint Impact of the intraoral location on the rate of biofilm growth
    T M Auschill
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Clin Oral Investig 8:97-101. 2004
    ..The new splint system described may be a useful tool for further standardised experimental studies regarding influences on growth and structure of intraoral biofilms...
  33. ncbi request reprint Influence of acidified fluoride gel on abrasion resistance of eroded enamel
    T Attin
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg
    Caries Res 33:135-9. 1999
    ..It is assumed that treatment of enamel erosions with an acidified fluoride gel results in a higher abrasion resistance compared to gels which are either unfluoridated or neutral...
  34. ncbi request reprint Effect of toothbrushing on fluoride release of polyacid-modified composite resins
    T Attin
    Department of Operative Dentistry, and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Clin Oral Investig 3:150-4. 1999
    ..It is assumed that regular brushing of the tested materials did not influence their release of fluoride and that brushing of polyacid-modified composite resins does not lead to maintaining their initially high level of fluoride release...
  35. ncbi request reprint An in vitro investigation of penetration depth of dentine bonding agents into carious dentine
    P Hahn
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Dental Clinic, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Oral Rehabil 31:1053-60. 2004
    ..Further studies are required to determine whether further caries activity is arrested after treatment with dentine bonding procedures...
  36. ncbi request reprint In vivo study on the effectiveness of a lacquer containing CaF2/NaF in treating dentine hypersensitivity
    A M Kielbassa
    Department of Operative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Germany
    Clin Oral Investig 1:95-9. 1997
    ..It is concluded from this study that Bifluorid 12 is effective in the initial reduction of dentine hypersensitivity. The combination of CaF2/NaF can be recommended for clinical use...
  37. ncbi request reprint Microscopic studies of accessory canals in primary molar furcations
    K T Wrbas
    Department of Operative Dentistry, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    ASDC J Dent Child 64:118-22. 1997
    ..Within the limitations of a microscopic investigation it is assumed that accessory furcation canals might be responsible for interradicular bone pathology in case of pulpal inflammation or necrosis...
  38. ncbi request reprint Oral hygiene products and acidic medicines
    E Hellwig
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Clinic of Dentistry, Freiburg, Germany
    Monogr Oral Sci 20:112-8. 2006
    ..Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids...
  39. ncbi request reprint Clinical evaluation of chemomechanical caries removal in primary molars and its acceptance by patients
    G M Maragakis
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg School of Dentistry, Freiburg, Germany
    Caries Res 35:205-10. 2001
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Root lesions in a group of 50-60 year-old Germans related to clinical and social factors
    P Hahn
    Albert Ludwigs University Freiburg, Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Germany
    Clin Oral Investig 3:168-74. 1999
    ..Additionally, the prevalence of non cariogenic lesions, primarily resulting from increased but wrongly performed oral self care, seems gradually to relieve carious root destruction...
  41. doi request reprint Is Helicobacter pylori resident or transient in the human oral cavity?
    A Al-Ahmad
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    J Med Microbiol 61:1146-52. 2012
    ..To date, positive PCR results for H. pylori in the oral cavity have been overestimated and not critically interpreted in literature...
  42. ncbi request reprint Fluorescence microscopic visualization and quantification of initial bacterial colonization on enamel in situ
    C Hannig
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Street 55, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Arch Oral Biol 52:1048-56. 2007
    ..The aim of this in situ study was to visualize and to quantify these bacteria...
  43. ncbi request reprint Profilometric and microradiographic studies on the effects of toothpaste and acidic gel abrasivity on sound and demineralized bovine dental enamel
    A M Kielbassa
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University School of Dental Medicine, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Caries Res 39:380-6. 2005
    ..In vitro formed caries-like lesions can be abraded (by toothbrushing) more easily than sound enamel; hence, initial white spot lesions should preferably be brushed with oral hygiene products of low abrasivity...
  44. ncbi request reprint Detectability of residual Epiphany and gutta-percha after root canal retreatment using a dental operating microscope and radiographs--an ex vivo study
    J F Schirrmeister
    Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
    Int Endod J 39:558-65. 2006
    ..To compare the detectability of residual Epiphany and gutta-percha after root canal retreatment using a dental operating microscope and radiographic examination with the residual area measured after rendering the roots transparent...
  45. ncbi request reprint Erosive potential of oral care products
    A Lussi
    Department of Operative, Preventive and Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland
    Caries Res 35:52-6. 2001
    ..It may, therefore, be concluded that the tested fluoride-containing oral care products do not exhibit any erosive potential, which could be picked up with the methodologies under study...
  46. ncbi request reprint Fluoride uptake, retention, and remineralization efficacy of a highly concentrated fluoride solution on enamel lesions in situ
    W Buchalla
    Oral Health Research Institute, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    J Dent Res 81:329-33. 2002
    ..Volunteers with higher stimulated salivary flow rates had lower fluoride uptake, but higher mineral gain. In conclusion, a single application of highly concentrated fluoride solution increases remineralization...
  47. ncbi request reprint Influence of olive oil emulsions on dentin demineralization in vitro
    W Buchalla
    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Preventive Dentistry and Periodontology, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
    Caries Res 37:100-7. 2003
    ..Ratio (deltaZ/ld) remained constant around 30 vol% for groups 1-3, but decreased for group 4. In conclusion, externally provided lipids have the potential to reduce dentin demineralization in vitro...
  48. ncbi request reprint Assessing the oral health of school-age children and the current school-based dental screening programme in Freiburg (Germany)
    D Sagheri
    Department of Orthodontics, Cologne University Hospital, Cologne, Germany
    Int J Dent Hyg 5:236-41. 2007
    ..All students receive, when aged 6-12 years, a uniform annual dental examination and oral health education programme...
  49. ncbi request reprint Influence of buffering effects of dentifrices and fluoride gels on abrasion on eroded dentine
    A Wiegand
    Department of Operative and Preventive Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Str 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Arch Oral Biol 49:259-65. 2004
    ..Evaluation of abrasion resistance of eroded and non-eroded dentine brushed with experimental dentifrices and gels of varying buffering capacities...
  50. ncbi request reprint Influence of the condition of the adjacent tooth surface on fluorescence measurements for the detection of approximal caries
    A Lussi
    Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland
    Eur J Oral Sci 114:478-82. 2006
    ..It can be concluded that caries detection of approximal tooth surfaces with the new LF system might be influenced by the condition of the adjacent tooth surface...
  51. ncbi request reprint Risk assessment and preventive measures
    A Lussi
    Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
    Monogr Oral Sci 20:190-9. 2006
    ..Since erosion, attrition and abrasion often occur simultaneously all causative components must be taken into consideration when planning preventive strategies...
  52. ncbi request reprint Performance of a new laser fluorescence device for the detection of occlusal caries in vitro
    A Lussi
    Department of Operative, Preventive and Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland
    J Dent 34:467-71. 2006
    ..The new device comes with two different sapphire fibre tips: a cylindrical tip and a conical tip. The two new sapphire fibre tips were used and compared with the tip currently available with DIAGNOdent (DD)...
  53. ncbi request reprint Effect of mineral supplements to citric acid on enamel erosion
    T Attin
    Department of Operative and Preventive Dentistry and Periodontology, Georg August University Gottingen, Robert Koch Str 40, D 37075, Gottingen, Germany
    Arch Oral Biol 48:753-9. 2003
    ..Modification of citric acid with calcium, phosphate and fluoride exerts a significant protective potential with respect to dental erosion. However, with the low concentrations applied enamel dissolution could not be completely prevented...