K Engelke

Summary

Affiliation: University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Exercise maintains bone density at spine and hip EFOPS: a 3-year longitudinal study in early postmenopausal women
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestrasse 91, 91054, Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 17:133-42. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Long-term four-year exercise has a positive effect on menopausal risk factors: the Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    J Strength Cond Res 21:232-9. 2007
  3. doi request reprint Regional distribution of spine and hip QCT BMD responses after one year of once-monthly ibandronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Bone 46:1626-32. 2010
  4. ncbi request reprint Advanced CT based in vivo methods for the assessment of bone density, structure, and strength
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestr 91, 91052, Erlangen, Germany
    Curr Osteoporos Rep 11:246-55. 2013
  5. doi request reprint Assessment of bone quality and strength with new technologies
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 19:474-82. 2012
  6. ncbi request reprint Quality and performance measures in bone densitometry: part 1: errors and diagnosis
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestr 92, 91056 Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 17:1283-92. 2006
  7. doi request reprint Clinical use of quantitative computed tomography and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the management of osteoporosis in adults: the 2007 ISCD Official Positions
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany Synarc, Hamburg, Germany
    J Clin Densitom 11:123-62. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Stereolithographic models simulating trabecular bone and their characterization by thin-slice- and micro-CT
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Eur Radiol 11:2026-40. 2001
  9. doi request reprint Reanalysis precision of 3D quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Bone 44:566-72. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Power training is more effective than strength training for maintaining bone mineral density in postmenopausal women
    S V Stengel
    Institute of Medical Physics, Univ of Erlangen, Henkestr 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 99:181-8. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Exercise maintains bone density at spine and hip EFOPS: a 3-year longitudinal study in early postmenopausal women
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestrasse 91, 91054, Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 17:133-42. 2006
    ..In summary, over a period of 3 years our low-volume/high-intensity exercise program was successful to maintain bone mineral density at the spine, hip and calcaneus, but not at the forearm...
  2. ncbi request reprint Long-term four-year exercise has a positive effect on menopausal risk factors: the Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    J Strength Cond Res 21:232-9. 2007
    ..4%). Thus, the study demonstrated that multipurpose high-intensity exercise programs significantly affect relevant menopausal risk factors and, therefore, may be individually considered as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy...
  3. doi request reprint Regional distribution of spine and hip QCT BMD responses after one year of once-monthly ibandronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Bone 46:1626-32. 2010
    ..4%, p=0.01), and extended trabecular femoral neck (4.0%, p=0.02). Monthly oral ibandronate for 12 months improved QCT BMD versus placebo in the vertebral periphery, subcortical total hip, and all femoral extended trabecular regions...
  4. ncbi request reprint Advanced CT based in vivo methods for the assessment of bone density, structure, and strength
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestr 91, 91052, Erlangen, Germany
    Curr Osteoporos Rep 11:246-55. 2013
    ..This review explains technical developments and demonstrates how QCT based techniques advanced our understanding of bone biology...
  5. doi request reprint Assessment of bone quality and strength with new technologies
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 19:474-82. 2012
    ..To give an overview of advanced in-vivo imaging techniques for assessing bone quality beyond bone mineral density that have considerably advanced in recent years...
  6. ncbi request reprint Quality and performance measures in bone densitometry: part 1: errors and diagnosis
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestr 92, 91056 Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 17:1283-92. 2006
    ..Bone densitometry is one of the main pillars in the assessment of osteoporosis. The most important modalities are dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and quantitative ultrasound (QUS)...
  7. doi request reprint Clinical use of quantitative computed tomography and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in the management of osteoporosis in adults: the 2007 ISCD Official Positions
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany Synarc, Hamburg, Germany
    J Clin Densitom 11:123-62. 2008
    ..Measurements at the hip may have clinical relevance, as this is an important fracture site; however, due to limited medical evidence, definitive advice on its use in clinical practice cannot be provided until more data emerge...
  8. ncbi request reprint Stereolithographic models simulating trabecular bone and their characterization by thin-slice- and micro-CT
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Eur Radiol 11:2026-40. 2001
    ..The limited hydroxyapatite concentration requires enhanced exposure rates for the phantoms scans to offset the larger impact of noise due to the lower contrast in the phantoms...
  9. doi request reprint Reanalysis precision of 3D quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine
    Klaus Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Bone 44:566-72. 2009
    ..To evaluate the precision of 3D QCT of the spine...
  10. ncbi request reprint Power training is more effective than strength training for maintaining bone mineral density in postmenopausal women
    S V Stengel
    Institute of Medical Physics, Univ of Erlangen, Henkestr 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 99:181-8. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that power training is more effective than strength training in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women...
  11. ncbi request reprint The effect of habitual physical activity, non-athletic exercise, muscle strength, and VO2max on bone mineral density is rather low in early postmenopausal osteopenic women
    W Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 4:325-34. 2004
    ..Although the positive effect of well-designed exercise regimes on bone mineral density (BMD) is established the osteo-anabolic relevance of habitual physical activity and non-athletic exercise is still under discussion...
  12. ncbi request reprint The Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study: a controlled exercise trial in early postmenopausal women with low bone density-first-year results
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Arch Phys Med Rehabil 84:673-82. 2003
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Effect of block-periodized exercise training on bone and coronary heart disease risk factors in early post-menopausal women: a randomized controlled study
    W Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Scand J Med Sci Sports 23:121-9. 2013
    ..In summary, short periods of bone-specific intervention embedded in longer periods of exercises dedicated to improve cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors positively affected BMD at the LS...
  14. doi request reprint Bone marrow lesions identified by MRI in knee osteoarthritis are associated with locally increased bone mineral density measured by QCT
    T Lowitz
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nuernberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 21:957-64. 2013
    ..However, the correlation of BMLs with bone mineral density (BMD) has rarely been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine whether BMD in BMLs is altered compared to the surrounding bone...
  15. doi request reprint Exercise and fractures in postmenopausal women: 12-year results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS)
    W Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestrasse 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 23:1267-76. 2012
    ..074) or rate ratio (p = .095), our findings further increased the evidence that exercise relevantly prevents fractures in the elderly...
  16. ncbi request reprint Volumetric quantitative computed tomography of the proximal femur: relationships linking geometric and densitometric variables to bone strength. Role for compact bone
    V Bousson
    Service de radiologie ostéo articulaire, Hopital Lariboisiere, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75010, Paris, France, and Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 17:855-64. 2006
    ..A novel three-dimensional (3D) analysis tool [medical image analysis framework (MIAF-Femur)] was used to analyze QCT scans...
  17. ncbi request reprint In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max
    I Schoffl
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 8:363-74. 2008
    ..Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone...
  18. ncbi request reprint Effect of exercise, body composition, and nutritional intake on bone parameters in male elite rock climbers
    W Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Int J Sports Med 27:653-9. 2006
    ....
  19. doi request reprint Effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density and falls: results of the randomized controlled ELVIS study with postmenopausal women
    S von Stengel
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestr 91, 91052, Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 22:317-25. 2011
    ..In summary, the multi-purpose exercise training was effective to increase lumbar BMD but added WBV did not enhance this effect. However, falls were lowest in the exercise program combined with WBV...
  20. doi request reprint Accuracy of trabecular structure by HR-pQCT compared to gold standard μCT in the radius and tibia of patients with osteoporosis and long-term bisphosphonate therapy
    M Krause
    Department of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 25:1595-606. 2014
    ..This study shows that HR-pQCT provides acceptable in vivo accuracy for bone volume fraction (BV/TV) in patients with osteoporosis and bisphosphonate (BP) treatment...
  21. doi request reprint Short-term in vivo precision of BMD and parameters of trabecular architecture at the distal forearm and tibia
    K Engelke
    Synarc Inc, Lübecker Strasse 128, Hamburg, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 23:2151-8. 2012
    ..Errors, e.g., at the radius below 1.3% for BMD and below 6.3% for trabecular structure, were comparable to single-center results. Motion artifacts remain a challenge, particularly at the forearm...
  22. doi request reprint Effect of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular performance and body composition for females 65 years and older: a randomized-controlled trial
    S von Stengel
    Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nuernberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Scand J Med Sci Sports 22:119-27. 2012
    ..In summary, WBV embedded in a multipurpose exercise program showed minor additive effects on body composition and neuromuscular performance...
  23. ncbi request reprint Acute hormonal responses of a high impact physical exercise session in early postmenopausal women
    W Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Appl Physiol 90:199-209. 2003
    ..In summary, this study showed that a single bout of exercise typically used in osteoporosis prevention programs could have an influence on hormones affecting bone metabolism...
  24. doi request reprint An integrated segmentation and analysis approach for QCT of the knee to determine subchondral bone mineral density and texture
    P Zerfass
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nuernberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
    IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 59:2449-58. 2012
    ..Precision errors for volume were about 2-3% in the femur and 3-5% in the tibia. Precision errors for BMD were about 1-2% lower. Homogeneity parameters showed precision errors up to about 2% and anisotropy parameters up to about 4%...
  25. ncbi request reprint Implementation of a cone-beam reconstruction algorithm for the single-circle source orbit with embedded misalignment correction using homogeneous coordinates
    M Karolczak
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    Med Phys 28:2050-69. 2001
    ..We verify the algorithm on simulations of virtual phantoms and scans of a physical multidisk (Defrise) phantom...
  26. doi request reprint [Effect of whole body vibration exercise on osteoporotic risk factors]
    S von Stengel
    Institut für Medizinische Physik, Friedrich Alexander Universitat Erlangen Nurnberg
    Dtsch Med Wochenschr 134:1511-6. 2009
    ..The study was undertaken to determine the effect of one-year WBV exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and the number of falls...
  27. ncbi request reprint Bone status in elite male runners
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestrasse 91, 91052, Erlangen, Germany
    Eur J Appl Physiol 96:78-85. 2006
    ..The effect of long distance running per se on bone parameters is not deleterious...
  28. doi request reprint Exercise effects on bone mineral density, falls, coronary risk factors, and health care costs in older women: the randomized controlled senior fitness and prevention (SEFIP) study
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Henkestrasse 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
    Arch Intern Med 170:179-85. 2010
    ..We sought to determine whether a single exercise program affects fracture risk (bone mineral density [BMD] and falls), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, and health care costs in community-dwelling elderly women...
  29. doi request reprint Comparison of anatomic coordinate systems with rigid multi-resolution 3D registration for the reproducible positioning of analysis volumes of interest in QCT
    Fabian Eisa
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Phys Med Biol 55:1429-39. 2010
    ..With advanced image processing methods a time-consuming 3D registration between baseline and follow-up images before the analysis does not improve analysis precision compared to the use of anatomical coordinate systems...
  30. doi request reprint Exercise, body composition, and functional ability: a randomized controlled trial
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestrasse 91, Erlangen, Germany
    Am J Prev Med 38:279-87. 2010
    ..In women, age and the menopausal transition contribute to an increase of body fat and a reduction of lean body mass associated with functional decline, affecting independent living...
  31. doi request reprint Binary segmentation masks can improve intrasubject registration accuracy of bone structures in CT images
    Oleg Museyko
    Institute for Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Henkestrasse 91, Erlangen, Germany
    Ann Biomed Eng 38:2464-72. 2010
    ..The use of binary VOI masks was significantly superior to the use of gray value VOIs...
  32. doi request reprint Effect of exercise and Cimicifuga racemosa (CR BNO 1055) on bone mineral density, 10-year coronary heart disease risk, and menopausal complaints: the randomized controlled Training and Cimicifuga racemosa Erlangen (TRACE) study
    Michael Bebenek
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Menopause 17:791-800. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effect of periodized exercise training with and without Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) on bone mineral density (BMD) and 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in early postmenopausal women...
  33. ncbi request reprint Benefits of 2 years of intense exercise on bone density, physical fitness, and blood lipids in early postmenopausal osteopenic women: results of the Erlangen Fitness Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS)
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Krankenhausstrasse 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Arch Intern Med 164:1084-91. 2004
    ..Here we determine the effects of intense exercise on physical fitness, bone mineral density (BMD), back pain, and blood lipids in early postmenopausal women...
  34. doi request reprint Exercise decreases the risk of metabolic syndrome in elderly females
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:297-305. 2009
    ..To determine the effect of exercise based on a multiple purpose, high-intensity philosophy on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older females with the MetS...
  35. ncbi request reprint Implant stability and histomorphometry: a correlation study in human cadavers using stepped cylinder implants
    Emeka Nkenke
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany
    Clin Oral Implants Res 14:601-9. 2003
    ..However, it seems that the noninvasive determination of implant stability has to be improved in order to give a more comprehensive prediction of the bone characteristics of the implant site...
  36. ncbi request reprint Effects of single- vs. multiple-set resistance training on maximum strength and body composition in trained postmenopausal women
    Wolfgang K Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    J Strength Cond Res 18:689-94. 2004
    ..1 to -2.0%). Body mass and body composition did not change during the study. The results show that, in pretrained subjects, multiple-set protocols are superior to single-set protocols in increasing maximum strength...
  37. ncbi request reprint Exercise effects on menopausal risk factors of early postmenopausal women: 3-yr Erlangen fitness osteoporosis prevention study results
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Krankenhausstr 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:194-203. 2005
    ..To determine the impact of multipurpose exercise training on bone, body composition, blood lipids, physical fitness, and menopausal symptoms in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia...
  38. ncbi request reprint An anatomic coordinate system of the femoral neck for highly reproducible BMD measurements using 3D QCT
    Yan Kang
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Krankenhausstr 12, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Comput Med Imaging Graph 29:533-41. 2005
    ..Relative precision errors for cortical BMD were smaller than 3% for both VOIs. An increase of noise up to a factor of 5 caused a maximal displacement of the NCS origin position by less than 1mm and a rotation by less than 2 degrees ...
  39. ncbi request reprint A hierarchical 3D segmentation method and the definition of vertebral body coordinate systems for QCT of the lumbar spine
    André Mastmeyer
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nuernberg, Henkestrasse 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
    Med Image Anal 10:560-77. 2006
    ..A true 3D segmentation also enables an accurate measurement of geometrical parameters that may augment the clinical value of a pure BMD analysis...
  40. pmc Differential effects of strength versus power training on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a 2-year longitudinal study
    Simon von Stengel
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Henkestr 91, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
    Br J Sports Med 41:649-55; discussion 655. 2007
    ..To investigate the effect of two different schemes of loading in resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and pain in pretrained postmenopausal women...
  41. ncbi request reprint Exercise effects on fitness and bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women: 1-year EFOPS results
    Wolfgang Kemmler
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Krankenhausstr 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:2115-23. 2002
    ..To determine the effect of an intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease (CHD), bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia...
  42. doi request reprint A low-radiation exposure protocol for 3D QCT of the spine
    O Museyko
    Institute of Medical Physics IMP, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Henkestr 91, 91052, Erlangen, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 25:983-92. 2014
    ..3 mm should be usable but obese patient will require higher milliampere-second settings...
  43. ncbi request reprint Structural analysis of high resolution in vitro MR images compared to stained grindings
    K Engelke
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Calcif Tissue Int 68:163-71. 2001
    ..New efforts should be undertaken to develop analysis strategies that are more adequate for in vivo high resolution images instead of using analysis techniques applied in classical histomorphometry...
  44. ncbi request reprint Accuracy and precision of bone mineral density and bone mineral content in excised rat humeri using fan beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
    S Kastl
    Department of Surgery, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany
    Bone 30:243-6. 2002
    ..A physiological saline concentration in the water bath had a significant impact on BMC and area, but not on BMD, and should therefore be strictly controlled to avoid an underestimation of BMC...
  45. ncbi request reprint Interactive 3D editing tools for image segmentation
    Yan Kang
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Kraukenhausstr 12, Erlangen 91054, Germany
    Med Image Anal 8:35-46. 2004
    ..We conclude that performance criteria for automatic segmentation algorithms may be eased significantly by including 3D editing tools early in the design process...
  46. ncbi request reprint Hypertension, sodium retention, calcium excretion and osteopenia in Dahl rats
    Jens Titze
    Department of Medicine IV, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany
    J Hypertens 22:803-10. 2004
    ..Salt-sensitive hypertension in the Dahl rat is associated with abnormalities in both calcium (Ca2+) and sodium (Na) homeostasis...
  47. doi request reprint Increased bone density and resistance to ovariectomy-induced bone loss in FoxP3-transgenic mice based on impaired osteoclast differentiation
    Mario M Zaiss
    University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Arthritis Rheum 62:2328-38. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether immune regulatory mechanisms, such as naturally occurring Treg cells, also extend their protective effects to bone homeostasis in vivo...
  48. doi request reprint Periarticular bone structure in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy individuals assessed by high-resolution computed tomography
    Christian M Stach
    University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    Arthritis Rheum 62:330-9. 2010
    ..To define the nature of structural bone changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with those in healthy individuals by using the novel technique of high-resolution microfocal computed tomography (micro-CT)...
  49. ncbi request reprint High-resolution imaging of osteoarthritis using microcomputed tomography
    Lydia Wachsmuth
    Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    Methods Mol Med 101:231-48. 2004
    ..We discuss sample preparation, scanning procedures, data processing, and analysis as well as implications and restrictions for in vivo and in vitro applications...
  50. doi request reprint Regulatory T cells protect from local and systemic bone destruction in arthritis
    Mario M Zaiss
    Department of Internal Medicine 3, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
    J Immunol 184:7238-46. 2010
    ..Thus, enhancing the activity of Treg cells would be beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-induced bone loss observed in rheumatoid arthritis...
  51. ncbi request reprint Universal standardization of forearm bone densitometry
    John A Shepherd
    Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 94143 1349, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 17:734-45. 2002
    ....
  52. doi request reprint Advanced imaging of bone macrostructure and microstructure in bone fragility and fracture repair
    Banu B Kalpakcioglu
    Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco, 550 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 90:68-78. 2008
    ..This review presents perspectives on the advanced imaging modalities that are currently available and on recent developments that may improve the detection and understanding of bone fragility and fracture-healing...
  53. ncbi request reprint A new accurate and precise 3-D segmentation method for skeletal structures in volumetric CT data
    Yan Kang
    Institute of Medical Physics University of Erlangen Nürnberg, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    IEEE Trans Med Imaging 22:586-98. 2003
    ..Our segmentation approach shows: 1) high accuracy and precision and is 2) robust to noise, 3) insensitive to user-defined thresholds, 4) highly automated and fast, and 5) easy to initialize...