L C Hofbauer

Summary

Affiliation: Philipps University
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin in bone cell biology
    L C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zentrum für Innere Medizein, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Mol Med (Berl) 79:243-53. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Clinical implications of the osteoprotegerin/RANKL/RANK system for bone and vascular diseases
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Department of Gastroenterology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    JAMA 292:490-5. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Effects of oral contraceptives on circulating osteoprotegerin and soluble RANK ligand serum levels in healthy young women
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:214-9. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and osteoprotegerin serum levels in psoriatic arthritis
    L C Hofbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 45:1218-22. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-4 differentially regulates osteoprotegerin expression and induces calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Thromb Haemost 95:708-14. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Pathophysiology of RANK ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG)
    L C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 67:139-41. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Vascular calcification and osteoporosis--from clinical observation towards molecular understanding
    L C Hofbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine LCH, CCB, MS, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 18:251-9. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Detection and characterization of RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in the thyroid gland
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 86:642-50. 2002
  9. ncbi request reprint The OPG/RANKL/RANK system in metabolic bone diseases
    L C Hofbauer
    Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 4:268-75. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin: potential implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of malignant bone diseases
    L C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Cancer 92:460-70. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin in bone cell biology
    L C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Zentrum für Innere Medizein, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Mol Med (Berl) 79:243-53. 2001
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Clinical implications of the osteoprotegerin/RANKL/RANK system for bone and vascular diseases
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Department of Gastroenterology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    JAMA 292:490-5. 2004
    ..This review summarizes the clinical implications of the OPG/RANKL/RANK system for bone and vascular diseases...
  3. ncbi request reprint Effects of oral contraceptives on circulating osteoprotegerin and soluble RANK ligand serum levels in healthy young women
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:214-9. 2004
    ..To define the effects of oestrogens on the RANKL/OPG system in vivo, we evaluated OPG and both free and total soluble RANKL (sRANKL) serum levels in healthy young women with or without oral contraceptives...
  4. ncbi request reprint Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and osteoprotegerin serum levels in psoriatic arthritis
    L C Hofbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 45:1218-22. 2006
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Interleukin-4 differentially regulates osteoprotegerin expression and induces calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Thromb Haemost 95:708-14. 2006
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Pathophysiology of RANK ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG)
    L C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 67:139-41. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Vascular calcification and osteoporosis--from clinical observation towards molecular understanding
    L C Hofbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine LCH, CCB, MS, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Osteoporos Int 18:251-9. 2007
    ..We propose a unifying hypothesis of vascular calcification that combines both active and passive mechanisms of vascular mineralization with aspects of bone resorption and age-related changes...
  8. ncbi request reprint Detection and characterization of RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in the thyroid gland
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 86:642-50. 2002
    ..Thus, these cytokines may represent important local immunoregulatory factors involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases...
  9. ncbi request reprint The OPG/RANKL/RANK system in metabolic bone diseases
    L C Hofbauer
    Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 4:268-75. 2004
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin: potential implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of malignant bone diseases
    L C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Cancer 92:460-70. 2001
    ..Finally, the authors discuss the therapeutic potential of OPG in the management of malignancies involving the skeleton...
  11. ncbi request reprint Regulation of osteoprotegerin production by androgens and anti-androgens in human osteoblastic lineage cells
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Division of Endocrinology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Eur J Endocrinol 147:269-73. 2002
    ..While estrogen has been shown to induce osteoblastic OPG production, the effects of androgens on OPG production have not been defined...
  12. ncbi request reprint Novel aspects on RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in osteoporosis and vascular disease
    A M Sattler
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Calcif Tissue Int 74:103-6. 2004
    ..In summary, there is increasing evidence that RANKL and OPG may link the skeletal with the vascular system...
  13. ncbi request reprint Cytokine-induced osteoprotegerin expression protects pancreatic beta cells through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling against cell death
    J Schrader
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Diabetologia 50:1243-7. 2007
    ..The aim of the present study was to characterise the functional role and signalling pathways of OPG that are involved in cytokine-induced beta cell death...
  14. ncbi request reprint Functional thyrotropin receptor attenuates malignant phenotype of follicular thyroid cancer cells
    S Hoffmann
    Department of Surgery, Philipps University of Marburg, 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Endocrine 30:129-38. 2006
    ..The present data highlight the pivotal role of TSHR to affect transformed thyrocytes in vitro and in vivo. They also suggest a role for EGF as a modulator of angiogenesis in thyrocytes devoid of TSHR...
  15. doi request reprint Nuclear factor of activated T cells mediates oxidised LDL-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells
    C Goettsch
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Bone Diseases, Department of Medicine III, Technical University Medical Center, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Diabetologia 54:2690-701. 2011
    ..Therefore, we assessed the mechanisms of osteogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by oxidised LDL (oxLDL) and evaluated the role of NFAT in this process...
  16. doi request reprint Serum level of the phosphaturic factor FGF23 is associated with abdominal aortic calcification in men: the STRAMBO study
    M Schoppet
    Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps University, Marburg D 35043, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:E575-83. 2012
    ..Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a key molecule regulating mineral homeostasis...
  17. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of cetuximab and AEE 788 on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R) in thyroid cancer cell lines
    S Hoffmann
    Department of Surgery, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, Marburg, 35043, Germany
    Endocrine 31:105-13. 2007
    ..g., by AEE 788 induces reduced proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. This suggests a particular rationale for the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with dual modes of action such as AEE 788 in thyroid cancer...
  18. ncbi request reprint Bisphosphonate treatment does not affect serum levels of osteoprotegerin and RANKL in hypercalcemic cancer patients
    Niklas Zojer
    First Department of Medicine and Medical Oncology, Wilhelminenspital der Stadt Wien, Vienna, Austria
    Anticancer Res 25:3607-12. 2005
    ..0001) in serum calcium levels did not affect the serum concentrations of OPG, serum RANKL, or the serum RANKL/OPG ratio. In comparison with day 0, these factors did not change significantly at any time-point analyzed...
  19. ncbi request reprint Atorvastatin stimulates the production of osteoprotegerin by human osteoblasts
    Volker Viereck
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georg August University, Goettingen, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 96:1244-53. 2005
    ..In summary, our data suggest that atorvastatin enhances osteoblastic differentiation and production of OPG. This may contribute to the bone-sparing effects of statins...
  20. ncbi request reprint Novel aspects of osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition in myeloma bone disease
    Ulrike Heider
    Department of Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital Charite, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338:687-93. 2005
    ..Therefore, the inhibition of bone resorption could stop this vicious circle and not only decrease myeloma bone disease, but also the tumor progression...
  21. ncbi request reprint Prevention of glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis with alendronate or alfacalcidol: relations of change in bone mineral density, bone markers, and calcium homeostasis
    Johannes W G Jacobs
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology and Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    J Rheumatol 34:1051-7. 2007
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Isopropanolic extract of black cohosh stimulates osteoprotegerin production by human osteoblasts
    Volker Viereck
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georg August University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany
    J Bone Miner Res 20:2036-43. 2005
    ..The iCR effect, abrogated by the pure estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, also enhanced ALP activity (4-fold) and osteocalcin expression (3-fold), possibly contributing to the skeletal effects of black cohosh...
  23. ncbi request reprint TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy
    Michael Schoppet
    Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps University, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338:1745-50. 2005
    ..001 vs. controls). In conclusion, myocardial overexpression of antiapoptotic OPG in DCM patients may represent a compensatory mechanism to limit systemic activation of TRAIL in patients with congestive heart disease...
  24. ncbi request reprint Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) levels in atherosclerosis
    Michael Schoppet
    Atherosclerosis 184:446-7. 2006
  25. ncbi request reprint Osteoprotegerin expression in dendritic cells increases with maturation and is NF-kappaB-dependent
    Michael Schoppet
    Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 100:1430-9. 2007
    ..In summary, we describe that the expression of OPG by DC increases with maturation and is NF-kappaB-dependent, possibly regulating immune responses in lymphoid tissues...
  26. ncbi request reprint Expression of bone-regulating factors osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) in heterotopic vascular ossification
    Nadia Al-Fakhri
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Thromb Haemost 94:1335-7. 2005
  27. ncbi request reprint Retinoic acid inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth of thyroid cancer cells
    Sebastian Hoffmann
    Department of Surgery, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 264:74-81. 2007
    ..Moreover, a direct anti-proliferative effect of RA on human endothelial cells is suggested...
  28. ncbi request reprint Increased osteoprotegerin serum levels in men with coronary artery disease
    Michael Schoppet
    Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:1024-8. 2003
    ..We conclude that increased OPG serum levels may reflect advanced cardiovascular disease in men...
  29. doi request reprint Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 stimulate the osteoclast inhibitor osteoprotegerin by human endothelial cells through the STAT6 pathway
    Nicola C Stein
    Department of Medicine, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Bone Miner Res 23:750-8. 2008
    ..RANKL is the essential factor for differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, whereas osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor and inhibitor for RANKL...
  30. ncbi request reprint Paneling human thyroid cancer cell lines for candidate proteins for targeted anti-angiogenic therapy
    Sebastian Hoffmann
    Department of Surgery, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, D 35039 Marburg, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 98:954-65. 2006
    ..For the first time, angiostatin, endostatin, and possibly also aaATIII are identified as novel candidate regulators of angiogenesis in thyroid carcinoma cells...
  31. ncbi request reprint VEGF-mediated angiogenesis of human pheochromocytomas is associated to malignancy and inhibited by anti-VEGF antibodies in experimental tumors
    Andreas Zielke
    Department of Surgery, Philipps University of Marburg, 35043 Marburg, Germany
    Surgery 132:1056-63; discussion 1063. 2002
    ..Pheochromocytomas are well-vascularized tumors of the adrenal medulla. In human pheochromocytomas, angiogenesis has been associated with tumor progression. The mechanisms, however, are unknown...
  32. ncbi request reprint Low serum levels of soluble RANK ligand are associated with the presence of coronary artery disease in men
    Michael Schoppet
    Circulation 107:e76; author reply e76. 2003
  33. ncbi request reprint Cytokine inhibition: a new therapeutic avenue for skeletal diseases
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Drug Discov Today 7:289. 2002
  34. ncbi request reprint Skeletal effects of cyclosporin A are gender related in rats
    Reinhold G Erben
    Institute of Physiology, Physiological Chemistry and Animal Nutrition, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80539 Munich, Germany
    Endocrinology 144:40-9. 2003
    ..Although the mechanism for the gender-specific skeletal effects of CsA is still obscure, our findings may have important implications for clinical therapy with CsA...
  35. ncbi request reprint Osteoprotegerin deficiency and juvenile Paget's disease
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    N Engl J Med 347:1622-3; author reply 1622-3. 2002
  36. ncbi request reprint High bone density due to a mutation in LDL-receptor-related protein 5
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    N Engl J Med 347:943-4; author reply 943-4. 2002
  37. ncbi request reprint Osteoprotegerin gene polymorphism and the risk of osteoporosis and vascular disease
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4078-9. 2002
  38. ncbi request reprint RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin: paracrine regulators of bone metabolism and vascular function
    Michael Schoppet
    Divisions of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 22:549-53. 2002
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Bisphosphonates pamidronate and zoledronic acid stimulate osteoprotegerin production by primary human osteoblasts
    Volker Viereck
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georg August University of Goettingen, Goettingen, D 37075, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 291:680-6. 2002
    ..Since, OPG production increases with osteoblastic cell maturation, enhancement of OPG by bisphosphonates could be related to their stimulatory effects on osteoblastic differentiation...
  40. ncbi request reprint Expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand on bone marrow plasma cells correlates with osteolytic bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma
    Ulrike Heider
    Department of Oncology and Hematology, Universitatsklinikum Charite, Berlin 10098, Germany
    Clin Cancer Res 9:1436-40. 2003
    ..We found that human myeloma cells express RANKL and analyzed the association of the RANKL expression with the presence of osteolytic bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma...
  41. ncbi request reprint Raloxifene concurrently stimulates osteoprotegerin and inhibits interleukin-6 production by human trabecular osteoblasts
    Volker Viereck
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georg August University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany D 37075
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4206-13. 2003
    ..Because OPG production increases with osteoblastic maturation, enhancement of OPG production by raloxifene could be related to its stimulatory effects on osteoblastic differentiation...
  42. ncbi request reprint Thyrotropin (TSH)-induced production of vascular endothelial growth factor in thyroid cancer cells in vitro: evaluation of TSH signal transduction and of angiogenesis-stimulating growth factors
    Sebastian Hoffmann
    Department of Surgery, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:6139-45. 2004
    ..In the absence of a functioning TSHr, additional growth factors, such as TGF-alpha, increase capacity for VEGF stimulation...
  43. ncbi request reprint Localization of osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand in Mönckeberg's sclerosis and atherosclerosis
    Michael Schoppet
    Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University, Baldingerstrasse, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4104-12. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Osteoprotegerin gene polymorphisms in men with coronary artery disease
    Muhidien Soufi
    Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3764-8. 2004
    ..02). In summary, linkage of genetic variations of the OPG gene at positions 950 and 1181 may confer an increased risk of CAD in Caucasian men...
  45. ncbi request reprint Expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) mRNA in human multiple myeloma cells
    Ulrike Heider
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Universitatsklinikum Charite, Humboldt Universitat Berlin, 10098 Berlin, Germany
    J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 130:469-74. 2004
    ..Studies showed that myeloma cells induce RANKL expression in bone marrow stromal cells, but it remained a controversy whether myeloma cells directly express RANKL...
  46. ncbi request reprint Osteoprotegerin is highly expressed in the spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Acta Neuropathol 107:575-7, author reply 578. 2004
  47. ncbi request reprint DKK1 in multiple myeloma
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    N Engl J Med 350:1464-6; author reply 1464-6. 2004
  48. ncbi request reprint Phytoestrogen genistein stimulates the production of osteoprotegerin by human trabecular osteoblasts
    Volker Viereck
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georg August University of Goettingen, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 84:725-35. 2002
    ..Thus, dietary sources of phytoestrogens may help to prevent bone resorption and bone loss by enhanced osteoblastic production of OPG...
  49. ncbi request reprint Effect of systemic glucocorticoid therapy on bone metabolism and the osteoprotegerin system in patients with active Crohn's disease
    Christian Von Tirpitz
    Department of Medicine I, University of Ulm, Germany
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:1165-70. 2003
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in bone density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism before and during a 3-month period of high-dose glucocorticoid treatment for acute flare-up of Crohn's disease...
  50. doi request reprint 17beta-Estradiol inhibits osteoprotegerin production by the estrogen receptor-alpha-positive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7
    Tilman D Rachner
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 368:736-41. 2008
    ..In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol suppressed OPG production by human breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent and specific manner, indicating that the RANKL/OPG cytokine system is an estrogen-responsive target in breast cancer...
  51. pmc Fatal attraction: why breast cancer cells home to bone
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Bone Diseases, Department of Medicine III, Technical University, D 01307 Dresden, Germany
    Breast Cancer Res 10:101. 2008
    ..Recent data now indicate that migration of breast cancer cells into bone and their subsequent growth into metastases depends upon the interaction of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) with its receptor RANK...
  52. ncbi request reprint Estrogen therapy and coronary-artery calcification
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    N Engl J Med 357:1253-4; author reply 1254. 2007
  53. ncbi request reprint Gorham-Stout disease--stabilization during bisphosphonate treatment
    Fabian Hammer
    Department of Medicine, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Bone Miner Res 20:350-3. 2005
    ..v. every 3 months) was initiated, leading to rapid disappearance of local pain. Follow-up over 24 months documented a stable clinical and radiological picture without evidence of progressive bone destruction...
  54. ncbi request reprint Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in elderly men: the role of estrogens versus androgens on the male skeleton
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4009; author reply 4009. 2002
  55. ncbi request reprint Interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP; IRF-8) antagonizes BCR/ABL and down-regulates bcl-2
    Andreas Burchert
    Klinikum der Philipps Universität Marburg, Klinik für Hämatologie, Onkologie und Immunologie, Marburg, Germany
    Blood 103:3480-9. 2004
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Osteoporosis in patients with diabetes mellitus
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Division of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    J Bone Miner Res 22:1317-28. 2007
    ..Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may additionally benefit from early visual assessment, regular exercise to improve muscle strength and balance, and specific measures for preventing falls...