B Hemmer

Summary

Affiliation: Philipps University
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Philipps Universitat, Marburg 35033, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:291-301. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint The role of the polio virus receptor and the herpesvirus entry mediator B genes for the development of MS
    Berit Rosche
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 156:171-7. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Accumulation of class switched IgD-IgM- memory B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid during neuroinflammation
    Sabine Cepok
    Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstr 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 180:33-9. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint Degeneracy in T-cell antigen recognition - implications for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases
    B Hemmer
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Str 8, 35033, Marburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 107:148-53. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint [New approaches in research of therapy of multiple sclerosis]
    B Hemmer
    Arbeitsgruppe für klinische Neuroimmunologie, Neurologische Klinik, Philipps Universitat Marburg
    Med Klin (Munich) 96:23-8. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: an update on immunology
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Strasse 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 15:227-31. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint CD45 isoform expression in autoimmune myasthenia gravis
    B Tackenberg
    Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Street 8, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Autoimmunity 36:117-21. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Impact of the Asp299Gly polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 4 (tlr-4) gene on disease course of multiple sclerosis
    A Kroner
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Bayerische Julius Maximilians Universität Würzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 165:161-5. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Patterns of cerebrospinal fluid pathology correlate with disease progression in multiple sclerosis
    S Cepok
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps-University, Marburg, Germany
    Brain 124:2169-76. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint New approaches to dissect degeneracy and specificity in T cell antigen recognition
    M Jacobsen
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps-University, Rudolf-Bultmann Strasse 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    J Mol Med 79:358-67. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. ncbi request reprint New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Philipps Universitat, Marburg 35033, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurosci 3:291-301. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint The role of the polio virus receptor and the herpesvirus entry mediator B genes for the development of MS
    Berit Rosche
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 156:171-7. 2004
    ..We did not find differences in the frequency of the polymorphisms or surface expression between MS patients and controls. Overall, our findings do not support a role of HVEB and PVR genes in the development of MS...
  3. ncbi request reprint Accumulation of class switched IgD-IgM- memory B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid during neuroinflammation
    Sabine Cepok
    Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstr 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 180:33-9. 2006
    ..These findings demonstrate a selective recruitment of IgM-IgD- memory B cells to the CSF suggesting a specific role of these cells during neuroinflammation...
  4. ncbi request reprint Degeneracy in T-cell antigen recognition - implications for the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases
    B Hemmer
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Str 8, 35033, Marburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 107:148-53. 2000
    ..Here we discuss recent findings on cross-recognition of T-cells and provide a new experimental approach to address specificity and cross-reactivity in autoimmune disorders...
  5. ncbi request reprint [New approaches in research of therapy of multiple sclerosis]
    B Hemmer
    Arbeitsgruppe für klinische Neuroimmunologie, Neurologische Klinik, Philipps Universitat Marburg
    Med Klin (Munich) 96:23-8. 2001
    ..Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. With a prevalence of 0.1-0.15% in Germany multiple sclerosis is the most common cause of severe disability in young adults...
  6. ncbi request reprint Pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: an update on immunology
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Strasse 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 15:227-31. 2002
    ..In this paper we review recent progress and discuss the implications for new therapeutic strategies...
  7. ncbi request reprint CD45 isoform expression in autoimmune myasthenia gravis
    B Tackenberg
    Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Street 8, D 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Autoimmunity 36:117-21. 2003
    ..Since there is no other evidence for increased thymopoiesis in late-onset MG, we propose an altered subset balance in the circulation...
  8. ncbi request reprint Impact of the Asp299Gly polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 4 (tlr-4) gene on disease course of multiple sclerosis
    A Kroner
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Bayerische Julius Maximilians Universität Würzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 165:161-5. 2005
    ..01). However, these functional changes seem not to have any impact on the clinical presentation of MS patients with different TLR-4 genotypes...
  9. ncbi request reprint Patterns of cerebrospinal fluid pathology correlate with disease progression in multiple sclerosis
    S Cepok
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps-University, Marburg, Germany
    Brain 124:2169-76. 2001
    ..Our study demonstrates the existence and potential clinical relevance of different CSF cytology patterns. We hypothesize that CSF cytology patterns may reflect the heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis...
  10. ncbi request reprint New approaches to dissect degeneracy and specificity in T cell antigen recognition
    M Jacobsen
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps-University, Rudolf-Bultmann Strasse 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    J Mol Med 79:358-67. 2001
    ..Here, we summarize recent progress on T cell recognition and method innovations with respect to future studies in autoimmune diseases...
  11. ncbi request reprint Analysis of the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 -2518 promoter polymorphism in patients with multiple sclerosis
    A Kroner
    Bayerische Julius Maximilians Universität, Department of Neurology, Wurzburg, Germany
    Tissue Antigens 64:70-3. 2004
    ..Thus, our data could not reveal any association between the MCP-1 -2518 polymorphism and susceptibility to or clinical disease course of MS...
  12. doi request reprint Serum antibodies to conformational and linear epitopes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein are not elevated in the preclinical phase of multiple sclerosis
    A Chan
    Department of Neurology, Ruhr University, St Josef Hospital, Bochum, Germany
    Mult Scler 16:1189-92. 2010
    ..The proposed predictive value of serum anti-myelin antibodies for the development of multiple sclerosis after a first clinically isolated syndrome was recently challenged...
  13. ncbi request reprint No association of three polymorphisms in the alpha-2-macroglobulin and lipoprotein related receptor genes with multiple sclerosis
    D Schweer
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Str 8, 35033, Marburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 118:300-3. 2001
    ..Furthermore, no differences in serum A2M levels were detected between MS patients and controls. The results do not suggest a contribution of A2M and LRP to the development of MS...
  14. ncbi request reprint The p150 subunit of dynactin (DCTN1) gene in multiple sclerosis
    C Munch
    Department of Neurology, Jewish Hospital, Berlin, Germany
    Acta Neurol Scand 116:231-4. 2007
    ..Given the common features of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS), FTD and ALS, sequence variants of the DCTN1 gene may be a contributory factor to neurodegeneration in MS...
  15. ncbi request reprint Immunosuppressive treatment of ocular myasthenia gravis
    B Tackenberg
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps-University, Rudolf-Bultmann-Strasse 8, D-35033 Marburg, Germany
    BioDrugs 15:369-78. 2001
    ....
  16. doi request reprint Differential effects of fingolimod (FTY720) on immune cells in the CSF and blood of patients with MS
    M C Kowarik
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 76:1214-21. 2011
    ..The effects of fingolimod treatment on the CSF of patients with MS have not been studied so far...
  17. doi request reprint Antibody responses to EBV and native MOG in pediatric inflammatory demyelinating CNS diseases
    R C Selter
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, Ismaninger Strasse, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 74:1711-5. 2010
    ..The relation between antibody responses to EBV and nMOG has not been addressed in children so far...
  18. ncbi request reprint A point mutation in PTPRC is associated with the development of multiple sclerosis
    M Jacobsen
    Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Nat Genet 26:495-9. 2000
    ..Our findings suggest an association of the mutation in PTPRC with the development of MS in some families...
  19. doi request reprint NK and CD4+ T cell changes in blood after seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy
    Sebastian Bauer
    Department of Neurology, University of Marburg, Rudolf Bultmann Str 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Exp Neurol 211:370-7. 2008
    ..Immunological phenomena may affect the course of focal epilepsy. We analyzed prospectively the pre- and postictal distribution of leukocyte subsets in epileptic patients...
  20. ncbi request reprint Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment
    Markus Krumbholz
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 129:200-11. 2006
    ..Therefore, both CXCL13 and CXCR5 may be promising therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis...
  21. ncbi request reprint Altered CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratios in cerebrospinal fluid of natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis
    Olaf Stuve
    Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, USA
    Arch Neurol 63:1383-7. 2006
    ....
  22. pmc Identification of a pathogenic antibody response to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in multiple sclerosis
    Dun Zhou
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19057-62. 2006
    ..Overall these findings suggest a pathogenic antibody response to native MOG in a subgroup of MS patients...
  23. ncbi request reprint Clonal expansions of CD4+ B helper T cells in autoimmune myasthenia gravis
    Björn Tackenberg
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 37:849-63. 2007
    ..Thus, our data provide evidence for persistent clonally expanded CD4+ B helper T cell populations in the blood of MG patients. These unexpected CD4+ expansions might hold valuable clues to MG immunopathogenesis...
  24. ncbi request reprint Suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis by a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist--a putative role for substance P in CNS inflammation
    Stefan Nessler
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Strasse 8, Marburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 179:1-8. 2006
    ..In summary, our findings suggest that the protective effect of CP96,345 treatment is mediated by stabilization of the blood-brain barrier and suppression of Th1 immunity...
  25. ncbi request reprint Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an acute hit against the brain
    Til Menge
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University of Dusseldorf, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:247-54. 2007
    ..ADEM is a para- or postinfectious autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and has been considered a monophasic disease. The highest incidence of ADEM is observed during childhood...
  26. ncbi request reprint Immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2:201-11. 2006
    ..Here, we review current knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of MS and corresponding animal models of disease, and discuss new immunointerventional treatment strategies based on changing pathogenetic concepts...
  27. ncbi request reprint Treatment and treatment trials in multiple sclerosis
    Bernd C Kieseier
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 20:286-93. 2007
    ..This review focuses on advances in current and novel treatment approaches in multiple sclerosis...
  28. ncbi request reprint Neutralising antibodies to interferon beta in multiple sclerosis : expert panel report
    Hans P Hartung
    Dept of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225, Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Neurol 254:827-37. 2007
    ....
  29. pmc HLA-DRB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0408 are strongly associated with the development of antibodies against interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis
    Steve Hoffmann
    Department of Bioinformatics, Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, University Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    Am J Hum Genet 83:219-27. 2008
    ..In summary, we identified genetic factors determining the immunogenicity of IFN-beta, a protein-based disease-modifying agent for the treatment of MS...
  30. doi request reprint Early identification of interferon-beta responders by ex vivo testing in patients with multiple sclerosis
    Elke Wiesemann
    Department of Neurology, Medical School Hannover, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Clin Immunol 128:306-13. 2008
    ..The results suggest that serum IL-10 is useful to predict treatment response to IFN-beta particularly in combination with a panel of other IFN-beta dependent parameters...
  31. ncbi request reprint Pharmacological treatment of early multiple sclerosis
    Olaf Stuve
    Neurology Section, VA North Texas Health Care System, Medical Service, Dallas, Texas 75216, USA
    Drugs 68:73-83. 2008
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Toward the development of rational therapies in multiple sclerosis: what is on the horizon?
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Ann Neurol 62:314-26. 2007
    ..Future treatments will likely need both to target inflammation and to focus on promotion of neuroprotection and repair. In this review, we discuss the most promising therapeutic approaches for MS currently in the pipeline...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effects of interferon-beta on co-signaling molecules: upregulation of CD40, CD86 and PD-L2 on monocytes in relation to clinical response to interferon-beta treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis
    Elke Wiesemann
    Department of Neurology, Medical School Hannover, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Mult Scler 14:166-76. 2008
    ..Upregulation of the expression of CD40, CD86 and PD-L2 may be useful as a predictive marker for clinical response to IFN-beta treatment at early timepoints during IFN-beta therapy...
  34. ncbi request reprint Early MRI changes in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis are predictive of severe inflammatory tissue damage
    Stefan Nessler
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Brain 130:2186-98. 2007
    ..Taken together, MRI of mouse EAE models with brain lesions provide new insights into lesion pathology and evolution and may prove useful for the in vivo assessment of new therapeutic strategies in MS...
  35. ncbi request reprint Impact of HMG-CoA reductase inhibition on brain pathology
    Frauke Zipp
    Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, and Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 28:342-9. 2007
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Central nervous system infections - a potential complication of systemic immunotherapy
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany USA
    Curr Opin Neurol 19:271-6. 2006
    ..This review will address the role of the systemic immune system in central nervous system immune surveillance and discuss implications for the development of novel immunotherapies in multiple sclerosis...
  37. ncbi request reprint Immune surveillance in multiple sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab
    Olaf Stuve
    Neurology Section, VA North Texas Health Care System, Medical Service, Dallas, USA
    Ann Neurol 59:743-7. 2006
    ....
  38. pmc Immunomodulatory synergy by combination of atorvastatin and glatiramer acetate in treatment of CNS autoimmunity
    Olaf Stuve
    Department of Neurology and Program in Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:1037-44. 2006
    ..Our results demonstrate that agents with different mechanisms of immune modulation can combine in a synergistic manner for the treatment of CNS autoimmunity and provide rationale for testing the combination of atorvastatin and GA in MS...
  39. ncbi request reprint Short-lived plasma blasts are the main B cell effector subset during the course of multiple sclerosis
    Sabine Cepok
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Brain 128:1667-76. 2005
    ..This study identifies short-lived plasma blasts as the main effector B cell population involved in ongoing active inflammation in multiple sclerosis patients...
  40. ncbi request reprint Viral pathogens in multiple sclerosis: an intriguing (hi)story
    Olaf Stuve
    Arch Neurol 61:1500-2. 2004
  41. ncbi request reprint Myositis in a patient with large granular leukocyte leukemia
    Berit Rosche
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Strasse 8, Marburg 35033, Germany
    Muscle Nerve 29:873-7. 2004
    ..The immunological phenotype of the patient and the positive response to treatment adds further to the concept that CD8(+) T cells mediate disease in autoimmune myositis...
  42. ncbi request reprint Osteoprotegerin is highly expressed in the spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid
    Lorenz C Hofbauer
    Acta Neuropathol 107:575-7, author reply 578. 2004
  43. ncbi request reprint Specificity and degeneracy: T cell recognition in CNS autoimmunity
    Dun Zhou
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Strasse 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Mol Immunol 40:1057-61. 2004
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint The immune response at onset and during recovery from Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis
    Sabine Cepok
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany
    Arch Neurol 60:849-55. 2003
    ..Borrelia burgdorferi causes a wide range of neurologic syndromes. In Europe, acute meningoradiculitis is the most common manifestation...
  45. ncbi request reprint New immunopathologic insights into multiple sclerosis
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Moorenstrasse 5, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 3:246-55. 2003
    ..We review the role of the immune system for the manifestation and evolution of MS and discuss different pathogenetic concepts. We conclude with an outlook on future strategies to identify the cause of MS...
  46. ncbi request reprint A novel mutation in PTPRC interferes with splicing and alters the structure of the human CD45 molecule
    Marc Jacobsen
    Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Strasse 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Immunogenetics 54:158-63. 2002
    ..Overall, we describe the first mutation in PTPRCthat interferes with splicing and results in surface expression of a structurally altered CD45 molecule in humans...
  47. pmc Identification of Epstein-Barr virus proteins as putative targets of the immune response in multiple sclerosis
    Sabine Cepok
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    J Clin Invest 115:1352-60. 2005
    ..In summary, these findings demonstrate an increased immune response to EBV in MS patients, which suggests that the virus plays an important role in the pathogenesis of disease...
  48. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis--novel insights and new therapeutic strategies
    Bernd C Kieseier
    Curr Opin Neurol 18:211-20. 2005
    ..This review focuses on novel aspects of the pathogenesis and advances in the therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  49. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis and the autonomic nervous system
    Stefan Merkelbach
    Dept of Neurology, HELIOS Klinikum, Nordhauser Str 74, 99089, Erfurt, Germany
    J Neurol 253:I21-5. 2006
    ..Beside these clinical aspects, alterations of the autonomic nervous system have also been reported to alter immunological cascades in experimental conditions. However, corresponding results have not been confirmed in clinical trials yet...
  50. ncbi request reprint Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an update
    Til Menge
    Department of Neurology, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif, USA
    Arch Neurol 62:1673-80. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Purely systemically active anti-inflammatory treatments are adequate to control multiple sclerosis
    Hans Peter Hartung
    Neurologische Klinik, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225, Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Neurol 252:v30-7. 2005
    ..All have been shown to reduce the number of gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions observed with magnetic resonance imaging, an index of acute inflammatory invasion of the central nervous system...
  52. ncbi request reprint Clinical stabilization and effective B-lymphocyte depletion in the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of a patient with fulminant relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
    Olaf Stuve
    Department of Neurology and Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Arch Neurol 62:1620-3. 2005
    ..A limited effect of rituximab on B lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) was recently reported...
  53. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis -- a coordinated immune attack across the blood brain barrier
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Heinrich Heine Universitat, MNR Klinik Geb 13 53, Klinik fur Neurologie, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Curr Neurovasc Res 1:141-50. 2004
    ..Based on these considerations we discuss new strategies to investigate pathogenetic pathways in multiple sclerosis...
  54. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: Mitoxantrone promotes differential effects on immunocompetent cells in vitro
    Oliver Neuhaus
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Moorenstr 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 168:128-37. 2005
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint High level of cross-reactivity in influenza virus hemagglutinin-specific CD4+ T-cell response: implications for the initiation of autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis
    Silva Markovic-Plese
    Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 169:31-8. 2005
    ..The results have implications for vaccine design and for antigen-specific treatment strategies for autoimmune diseases...
  56. ncbi request reprint Immune response to immunotherapy: the role of neutralising antibodies to interferon beta in the treatment of multiple sclerosis
    Bernhard Hemmer
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Lancet Neurol 4:403-12. 2005
    ..Strategies to assess and manage the long-term impact of neutralising antibodies will be outlined...
  57. ncbi request reprint A PD-1 polymorphism is associated with disease progression in multiple sclerosis
    Antje Kroner
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Bayerische Julius Maximilians Universität, Wurzburg, Germany
    Ann Neurol 58:50-7. 2005
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that PD-1 polymorphism is a genetic modifier of the progression of MS, possibly through inducing a partial defect in PD-1-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation...
  58. ncbi request reprint Oligoclonal expansion of memory CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid from multiple sclerosis patients
    Marc Jacobsen
    Clinical Neuroimmunology Group, Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Rudolf Bultmann Strasse 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany
    Brain 125:538-50. 2002
    ..Our study provides a basis for future trials to identify disease-associated antigens and disease pathogenesis in multiple sclerosis...