Wolfgang Kern

Summary

Affiliation: MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Monitoring of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine III, 81366 Muenchen, Germany
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 56:283-309. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Monitoring of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 112:4-16. 2008
  3. ncbi request reprint Comparison of mRNA abundance quantified by gene expression profiling and percentage of positive cells using immunophenotyping for diagnostic antigens in acute and chronic leukemias
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 107:2401-7. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint High-dose cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia: Review of three randomized trials
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 107:116-24. 2006
  5. doi request reprint The role of multiparameter flow cytometry for disease monitoring in AML
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 23:379-90. 2010
  6. doi request reprint Correlation of flow cytometrically determined expression of ZAP-70 using the SBZAP antibody with IgVH mutation status and cytogenetics in 1,229 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, Munich 81377, Germany
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 76:385-93. 2009
  7. doi request reprint Clinical utility of multiparameter flow cytometry in the diagnosis of 1013 patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome: correlation to cytomorphology, cytogenetics, and clinical data
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 116:4549-63. 2010
  8. ncbi request reprint Detailed analysis of FLT3 expression levels in acute myeloid leukemia
    Florian Kuchenbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 90:1617-25. 2005
  9. doi request reprint Toward a comprehensive prognostic scoring system in chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on a combination of genetic parameters
    Claudia Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 49:851-9. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint The influence of age on prognosis of de novo acute myeloid leukemia differs according to cytogenetic subgroups
    Claudia Schoch
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 89:1082-90. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Monitoring of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine III, 81366 Muenchen, Germany
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 56:283-309. 2005
    ..Thus, it is desirable to establish new molecular markers for PCR-based studies. Large clinical trials will determine the role and place of immunologic and PCR-based monitoring in the prognostic stratification of patients with AML...
  2. ncbi request reprint Monitoring of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 112:4-16. 2008
    ..Large clinical trials will determine the exact role and place of immunologic and RQ-PCR-based monitoring of MRD in the therapy of patients with AML...
  3. ncbi request reprint Comparison of mRNA abundance quantified by gene expression profiling and percentage of positive cells using immunophenotyping for diagnostic antigens in acute and chronic leukemias
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 107:2401-7. 2006
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint High-dose cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia: Review of three randomized trials
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 107:116-24. 2006
    ..The objective of this review was to assess the impact of HDAraC during induction therapy for patients with AML based on results from randomized trials...
  5. doi request reprint The role of multiparameter flow cytometry for disease monitoring in AML
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 23:379-90. 2010
    ..Clinical studies need to focus on a standardization of these approaches to facilitate the translation of MFC-based MRD assessment into therapeutic decisions in patients with AML...
  6. doi request reprint Correlation of flow cytometrically determined expression of ZAP-70 using the SBZAP antibody with IgVH mutation status and cytogenetics in 1,229 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, Munich 81377, Germany
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 76:385-93. 2009
    ..ZAP-70 provides an important prognostic information in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, the most appropriate antibody clone and way of analysis have not yet been defined...
  7. doi request reprint Clinical utility of multiparameter flow cytometry in the diagnosis of 1013 patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome: correlation to cytomorphology, cytogenetics, and clinical data
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 116:4549-63. 2010
    ..The diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is based on cytomorphology (CM) and cytogenetics (CG). Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) may add important diagnostic information...
  8. ncbi request reprint Detailed analysis of FLT3 expression levels in acute myeloid leukemia
    Florian Kuchenbauer
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 90:1617-25. 2005
    ..Although new FLT3 mutations are being increasing by investigated, the role of FLT3 expression levels in wild type as well as in mutated FLT3 has only been infrequently addressed...
  9. doi request reprint Toward a comprehensive prognostic scoring system in chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on a combination of genetic parameters
    Claudia Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 49:851-9. 2010
    ..The proposed scoring systems for OS and TTT based on a combination of genetic markers improve the separation of prognostic subgroups in CLL already early in the course of the disease...
  10. ncbi request reprint The influence of age on prognosis of de novo acute myeloid leukemia differs according to cytogenetic subgroups
    Claudia Schoch
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 89:1082-90. 2004
    ..The 1225 patients with de novo AML were separated according to age as follows: A1: 16 to 49 years (n=442), A2: 50 to 59 years (n=246), A3: 60-69 years (n=333), A4: 70 years and older (n=204)...
  11. pmc Frequency and prognostic impact of CEBPA proximal, distal and core promoter methylation in normal karyotype AML: a study on 623 cases
    Annette Fasan
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    PLoS ONE 8:e54365. 2013
    ..In conclusion, the presence of aberrant CEBPA PM is associated with distinct biological features but impact on outcome is weak...
  12. doi request reprint Amount of bone marrow blasts is strongly correlated to NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutation rate in AML with normal karyotype
    Torsten Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Leuk Res 36:51-8. 2012
    ..Mean WBC count was highest in NPM1-mut/FLT3-ITD-positive and lowest in NPM1-wildtype/FLT3-ITD-negative patients (p<0.0001); similar for BM blasts. Therefore, FLT3-ITD and NPM1mut might synergistically stimulate blast proliferation...
  13. doi request reprint Minimal residual disease levels assessed by NPM1 mutation-specific RQ-PCR provide important prognostic information in AML
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Blood 114:2220-31. 2009
    ..Similar results were obtained in patients undergoing second-line chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
  14. ncbi request reprint Correlation of protein expression and gene expression in acute leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich, Germany
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 55:29-36. 2003
    ..In the future, diagnostic procedures may include oligonucleotide microarray analysis (MA) to detect expression patterns of large numbers of specific genes...
  15. ncbi request reprint Determination of relapse risk based on assessment of minimal residual disease during complete remission by multiparameter flow cytometry in unselected patients with acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine III, 81366 Muenchen, Germany
    Blood 104:3078-85. 2004
    ..MFC-based quantification of MRD reveals important prognostic information in unselected patients with AML in addition to cytogenetics and should be further evaluated and used in clinical trials...
  16. ncbi request reprint Impact of FLT3 mutations and promyelocytic leukaemia-breakpoint on clinical characteristics and prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukaemia
    Florian Kuchenbauer
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 130:196-202. 2005
    ..6%) and associated with a significant lower overall survival (P = 0.0339). In addition, cases with bcr3 showed a tendency for a worse event-free survival (P = 0.0795) compared with the bcr1 group...
  17. ncbi request reprint A new prognostic score for patients with acute myeloid leukemia based on cytogenetics and early blast clearance in trials of the German AML Cooperative Group
    Torsten Haferlach
    Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Dept of Internal Medicine III, Munchen, Germany
    Haematologica 89:408-18. 2004
    ..To refine cytogenetically based risk-stratification in acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
  18. ncbi request reprint Associations between imatinib resistance conferring mutations and Philadelphia positive clonal cytogenetic evolution in CML
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory GmbH, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 49:910-8. 2010
    ..Therefore, some KD mutations (e.g., T315I) might be associated with higher genetic instability paving the way to additional cytogenetic and molecular genetic events...
  19. doi request reprint Gene expression of BAALC, CDKN1B, ERG, and MN1 adds independent prognostic information to cytogenetics and molecular mutations in adult acute myeloid leukemia
    Claudia Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 51:257-65. 2012
    ..4%, 56.4%, 34.0%, 12.6%; mEFS: n.r., 18.1 months, 8.7 months, 2.5 months). The impact on outcome of this score was independent of NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD- status, MLL-PTD, and age...
  20. ncbi request reprint Morphologic dysplasia in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is related to unfavorable cytogenetics but has no independent prognostic relevance under the conditions of intensive induction therapy: results of a multiparameter analysis from the German AML
    Torsten Haferlach
    Department of Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University, Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 21:256-65. 2003
    ..We also assessed the clinical significance of the recently introduced World Health Organization (WHO) classification for AML, which proposed dysplasia as a new parameter for classification...
  21. doi request reprint Multiparameter flow cytometry reveals myelodysplasia-related aberrant antigen expression in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich 81377, Germany
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 84:194-7. 2013
    ..Within the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) category of the WHO (2008), only chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was so far evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC)...
  22. doi request reprint Three novel cytogenetically cryptic EVI1 rearrangements associated with increased EVI1 expression and poor prognosis identified in 27 acute myeloid leukemia cases
    Claudia Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 51:1079-85. 2012
    ..Screening for cryptic EVI1 rearrangements by FISH may be particularly appropriate in CN-AML with elevated EVI1 expression or in AML/MDS patients with chromosome 7 abnormalities...
  23. ncbi request reprint Prognostic impact of early response to induction therapy as assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry in acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Dept of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, 81366 Muenchen, Germany
    Haematologica 89:528-40. 2004
    ..We improved the identification of this parameter by implementing multiparameter flow cytometry to quantify bone marrow cells carrying leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIP)...
  24. ncbi request reprint Detection of minimal residual disease in unselected patients with acute myeloid leukemia using multiparameter flow cytometry for definition of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes and determination of their frequencies in normal bone marrow
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Dept of Internal Medicine III, Muenchen, Germany
    Haematologica 88:646-53. 2003
    ..The present analysis aimed at improving the applicability of this approach to more patients with AML...
  25. ncbi request reprint New score predicting for prognosis in PML-RARA+, AML1-ETO+, or CBFBMYH11+ acute myeloid leukemia based on quantification of fusion transcripts
    Susanne Schnittger
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Blood 102:2746-55. 2003
    ..By combining the transcription ratios at these 2 checkpoints, a new powerful prognostic score has been established...
  26. pmc Strategy for robust detection of insertions, deletions, and point mutations in CEBPA, a GC-rich content gene, using 454 next-generation deep-sequencing technology
    Vera Grossmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    J Mol Diagn 13:129-36. 2011
    ..In conclusion, next-generation amplicon sequencing enables the highly sensitive detection of molecular mutations and is a feasible assay for routine assessment of GC-rich content amplicons...
  27. doi request reprint Multilineage dysplasia (MLD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) correlates with MDS-related cytogenetic abnormalities and a prior history of MDS or MDS/MPN but has no independent prognostic relevance: a comparison of 408 cases classified as "AML not otherwis
    Miriam Miesner
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Blood 116:2742-51. 2010
    ..Thus, MLD alone showed no independent clinical effect, whereas cytogenetics and MDS history were prognostically relevant...
  28. doi request reprint The molecular profile of adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: mutations in RUNX1 and DNMT3A are associated with poor prognosis in T-ALL
    Vera Grossmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 52:410-22. 2013
    ..027) and DNMT3A (P = 0.005) mutations with shorter overall survival was observed. In conclusion, RUNX1 and DNMT3A are frequently mutated in T-ALL and are associated with poor prognosis in early T-ALL...
  29. doi request reprint CEBPA double-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia harbours concomitant molecular mutations in 76·8% of cases with TET2 and GATA2 alterations impacting prognosis
    Vera Grossmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 161:649-58. 2013
    ..Further, a distinct gene expression profile (GEP) was confirmed for CEBPAdm versus CEBPAsm or CEBPA wild-type cases while no significant changes in GEP were observed related to additional mutations within the CEBPAdm AML...
  30. pmc Molecular analyses of 15,542 patients with suspected BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative disorders allow to develop a stepwise diagnostic workflow
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 97:1582-5. 2012
    ..In cases in which a myeloproliferative neoplasm cannot be established, analysis for TET2, CBL and EZH2 mutations may be indicated...
  31. doi request reprint A novel hierarchical prognostic model of AML solely based on molecular mutations
    Vera Grossmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Blood 120:2963-72. 2012
    ..9%); and (5) very unfavorable: TP53 mutation (n = 80; OS at 3 years: 0%; P < .001). This comprehensive molecular characterization provides a more powerful model for prognostication than cytogenetics...
  32. doi request reprint ETV6 rearrangements are recurrent in myeloid malignancies and are frequently associated with other genetic events
    Claudia Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 51:328-37. 2012
    ..Our study confirms the variety of ETV6 rearrangements in AML, MDS, and MPNs often in association with other genetic events. Prognosis of ETV6 rearranged de novo AML seems to be intermediate, which should be independently confirmed...
  33. ncbi request reprint Implications of NRAS mutations in AML: a study of 2502 patients
    Ulrike Bacher
    Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig Maximilians University, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Blood 107:3847-53. 2006
    ..However, there was a trend to better survival in most subgroups, especially when other molecular markers (FLT3-LM, MLL-PTD, and NPM) were taken into account...
  34. ncbi request reprint Four-fold staining including CD45 gating improves the sensitivity of multiparameter flow cytometric assessment of minimal residual disease in patients with acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, 81366 Muenchen, Germany
    Hematol J 5:410-8. 2004
    ..08 log (range, 1.22-4.01) and 2.28 log (range, 1.12-3.34) with and without CD45 gating. CD45 gating improves the sensitivity of MFC-based MRD monitoring in AML by 1 log...
  35. ncbi request reprint Investigation of 305 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and 20q deletion for associated cytogenetic and molecular genetic lesions and their prognostic impact
    Ulrike Bacher
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 164:822-33. 2014
    ..U2AF1mut is overrepresented in MDS with del(20q), and ASXL1mut is prognostically adverse...
  36. ncbi request reprint D324N single-nucleotide polymorphism in the FLT3 gene is associated with higher risk of myeloid leukemias
    Susanne Schnittger
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 45:332-7. 2006
    ..001). In addition, 21 of 234 CML (9.0%) and 7 of 155 ALL (4.5%) cases carried the FLT3 D324N. Our data suggest that the FLT3 D324N variant might be associated with a predisposition to different subtypes of leukemia...
  37. ncbi request reprint Loss of genetic material is more common than gain in acute myeloid leukemia with complex aberrant karyotype: a detailed analysis of 125 cases using conventional chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization including 24-color FISH
    Claudia Schoch
    Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 35:20-9. 2002
    ....
  38. doi request reprint Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is closely related to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and may be better classified as early-stage CLL
    Wolfgang Kern
    MLL Munich Leukaemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 157:86-96. 2012
    ..These data emphasize a close relationship between MBL and CLL regarding clinically relevant parameters and provide no evidence to strictly separate these entities by a distinct threshold of clonal B-cells...
  39. doi request reprint Diversity of the juxtamembrane and TKD1 mutations (exons 13-15) in the FLT3 gene with regards to mutant load, sequence, length, localization, and correlation with biological data
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 51:910-24. 2012
    ..In conclusion, FLT3-mutations are extremely heterogenous with mutation load being the most relevant parameter...
  40. doi request reprint Whole-exome sequencing identifies somatic mutations of BCOR in acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype
    Vera Grossmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Blood 118:6153-63. 2011
    ..Finally, BCOR mutations tended to be associated with an inferior outcome in a cohort of 422 CN-AML patients (25.6% vs 56.7% overall survival at 2 years; P = .032). Our results for the first time implicate BCOR in CN-AML pathogenesis...
  41. ncbi request reprint Next-generation sequencing technology reveals a characteristic pattern of molecular mutations in 72.8% of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia by detecting frequent alterations in TET2, CBL, RAS, and RUNX1
    Alexander Kohlmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munchen, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 28:3858-65. 2010
    ..Thus far, data on a comprehensive cytogenetic or molecular genetic characterization are limited...
  42. ncbi request reprint Trisomy 13 is strongly associated with AML1/RUNX1 mutations and increased FLT3 expression in acute myeloid leukemia
    Frank Dicker
    Munich Leukemia Laboratory GmbH, Munich, Germany
    Blood 110:1308-16. 2007
    ..The results of the present study indicate that in the absence of FLT3 mutations, FLT3 overexpression might be a mechanism for FLT3 activation, which cooperates with RUNX1 mutations in leukemogenesis...
  43. doi request reprint Biological and clinical characterization of recurrent 14q deletions in CLL and other mature B-cell neoplasms
    Lena Reindl
    Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich Interdisciplinary Clinic for Stem Cell Transplantation, Max Lebsche Platz 31, Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 151:25-36. 2010
    ..80·1 months, P = 0·015). In conclusion, the del(14q) is a rare recurrent alteration in diverse mature B-cell neoplasms, shows variable size but distinct clustering of breakpoints, and is associated with short time to treatment...
  44. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of complete disease remission in acute myeloid leukemia: a prospective study based on cytomorphology, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and immunophenotyping during follow-up in patients with acute myeloid leukemia
    Ulrike Bacher
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department for Internal Medicine III, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Cancer 106:839-47. 2006
    ..The detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) for predicting prognosis and for therapeutic planning still are under discussion...
  45. doi request reprint RUNX1 mutations are frequent in de novo AML with noncomplex karyotype and confer an unfavorable prognosis
    Susanne Schnittger
    Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, Munich, Germany
    Blood 117:2348-57. 2011
    ..Multivariate analysis showed independent prognostic relevance for overall survival for RUNX1mut (P = .029), FLT3-ITD (P = .003), age (P < .001), and white blood cell count (P < .002)...
  46. pmc CDKN1B, encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27), is located in the minimally deleted region of 12p abnormalities in myeloid malignancies and its low expression is a favorable prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemia
    Claudia Haferlach
    MLL, Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 96:829-36. 2011
    ..Alterations of the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p) occur in various hematologic malignancies and ETV6 and CDKN1B, which are located on 12p, have been implicated as leukemogenic genes of interest...
  47. ncbi request reprint Cytogenetic profile in de novo acute myeloid leukemia with FAB subtypes M0, M1, and M2: a study based on 652 cases analyzed with morphology, cytogenetics, and fluorescence in situ hybridization
    Mirjam Klaus
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Cancer Genet Cytogenet 155:47-56. 2004
    ..In conclusion, t(8;21), +11, +13, and +14 are strongly associated with AML M0, M1, and M2. The FISH screening analyses identified abnormalities in an additional 3% in normal karyotypes...
  48. ncbi request reprint Acute myeloid leukemia with a complex aberrant karyotype is a distinct biological entity characterized by genomic imbalances and a specific gene expression profile
    Claudia Schoch
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 43:227-38. 2005
    ..These data may be the basis for developing targeted therapeutic strategies to increase the cure rate in patients with AML and a complex aberrant karyotype...
  49. ncbi request reprint Molecular characterization of acute leukemias by use of microarray technology
    Alexander Kohlmann
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 37:396-405. 2003
    ..These data support a possible future application of microarray technology for classification of the acute leukemias...
  50. ncbi request reprint Pattern robustness of diagnostic gene expression signatures in leukemia
    Alexander Kohlmann
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 42:299-307. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Rapid diagnostic approach to PML-RARalpha-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia
    Claudia Schoch
    Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Hematol J 3:259-63. 2002
    ..The introduction of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) into treatment protocols has improved the outcome of APL dramatically. Therefore, it is essential to establish the diagnosis of APL as quickly and as reliably as possible...
  52. doi request reprint Robustness of amplicon deep sequencing underlines its utility in clinical applications
    Vera Grossmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    J Mol Diagn 15:473-84. 2013
    ..This assay detects residual disease or identifies mutations with predictive relevance to direct treatment strategies. ..
  53. pmc Use of CBL exon 8 and 9 mutations in diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disorders: an analysis of 636 cases
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 97:1890-4. 2012
    ..Therefore, CBL(mut) are frequent in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, absent in classical myeloproliferative neoplasms, and are only exceptionally found in coincidence with JAK-STAT pathway activating mutations...
  54. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of flow cytometric assessment of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen expression as a diagnostic marker for myelodysplastic syndromes in a series of 269 patients
    Frauke Bellos
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 82:295-304. 2012
    ..It is suggested to be expressed more weakly in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The analysis of MNDA therefore may improve diagnostic capabilities of multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) in MDS...
  55. pmc Prognostic relevance of RUNX1 mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Vera Grossmann
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 96:1874-7. 2011
    ..043). In conclusion, RUNX1 mutations are an important novel biomarker for a comprehensive characterization of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with poor prognostic impact and have implications for use also in monitoring disease...
  56. ncbi request reprint Early blast clearance by remission induction therapy is a major independent prognostic factor for both achievement of complete remission and long-term outcome in acute myeloid leukemia: data from the German AML Cooperative Group (AMLCG) 1992 Trial
    Wolfgang Kern
    Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine III, Muenchen, Germany
    Blood 101:64-70. 2003
    ..0001), LDH (P <.0001), and day 16 blasts (P =.0359). The prognostic significance of day 16 blasts is independent of pretherapeutic parameters and predicts outcome even in patients achieving a CR...
  57. ncbi request reprint Stability of leukemia-associated aberrant immunophenotypes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia between diagnosis and relapse: comparison with cytomorphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic findings
    Daniela Voskova
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Cytometry B Clin Cytom 62:25-38. 2004
    ..Changes in LAIPs during the course of the disease may be a limitation for this approach...
  58. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profiling as a tool for the diagnosis of acute leukemias
    Torsten Haferlach
    Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Semin Hematol 40:281-95. 2003
    ..Gene expression profiling should also lead to the detection of new biological and clinically relevant subtypes in leukemia and therefore guide therapeutic decisions...
  59. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic pathways in acute leukemias: a proposal for a multimodal approach
    Torsten Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Ann Hematol 86:311-27. 2007
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Translocations as a mechanism for homozygous deletion of 13q14 and loss of the ATM gene in a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Hannes Herholz
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Cancer Genet Cytogenet 174:57-60. 2007
    ..Deleted sites on 13q14 appeared to be located within the breakpoint regions of the translocations. We show that mechanisms other than interstitial deletions may lead to loss of critical chromosomal regions in CLL...
  61. ncbi request reprint Population-based age-specific incidences of cytogenetic subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia
    Ulrike Bacher
    Department for Internal Medicine III, Klinikum, Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 90:1502-10. 2005
    ..However, detailed data on the population-based age-dependent incidences of distinct cytogenetic subtypes as well as of molecular mutations are lacking...
  62. ncbi request reprint AML M3 and AML M3 variant each have a distinct gene expression signature but also share patterns different from other genetically defined AML subtypes
    Torsten Haferlach
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 43:113-27. 2005
    ..0001), may partly contribute to the different phenotypes. However, linear regression analysis demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between M3 and M3v did not correlate with FLT3-LM...
  63. ncbi request reprint Impact of trisomy 8 on expression of genes located on chromosome 8 in different AML subgroups
    Claudia Schoch
    Munich Leukemia Laboratory MLL, Munich 81377, Germany
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 45:1164-8. 2006
    ..Therefore, trisomy 8 in AML determines no specific disease characteristic but is a disease modulating secondary event...
  64. ncbi request reprint Global approach to the diagnosis of leukemia using gene expression profiling
    Torsten Haferlach
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr 15, 81377 Munich
    Blood 106:1189-98. 2005
    ..Accordingly, cluster analysis completely separated all 13 subgroups analyzed. Gene expression profiling can predict all clinically relevant subentities of leukemia with high accuracy...
  65. ncbi request reprint Role of gene expression profiling for diagnosing acute leukemias
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Rev Clin Exp Hematol 9:E1. 2005
    ..Furthermore, it is anticipated that new biologically defined and clinically relevant subtypes of leukemia will be identified based on gene expression profiling. This method may therefore guide therapeutic decisions...
  66. ncbi request reprint Nucleophosmin gene mutations are predictors of favorable prognosis in acute myelogenous leukemia with a normal karyotype
    Susanne Schnittger
    Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilian s University, Munich, Germany
    Blood 106:3733-9. 2005
    ..In conclusion, this study demonstrates that NPM1+/FLT3-LM- mutations are an independent predictor for a favorable outcome in AML with normal karyotype...
  67. ncbi request reprint KIT-D816 mutations in AML1-ETO-positive AML are associated with impaired event-free and overall survival
    Susanne Schnittger
    Laboratory of Leukemia Diagnostics and Clinical Cooperative Group Leukemia, Department of Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Blood 107:1791-9. 2006
    ..Patients with KIT-D816-positive/AML1-ETO-positive AML might benefit from early intensification of treatment or combination of conventional chemotherapy with KIT PTK inhibitors...
  68. ncbi request reprint Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide-induced metaphase cytogenetics detect chromosomal aberrations in 80% of CLL patients: A study of 132 CLL cases with correlation to FISH, IgVH status, and CD38 expression
    Frank Dicker
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory GmbH, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Blood 108:3152-60. 2006
    ..We demonstrate that FISH analysis underestimates the complexity of chromosomal aberrations in CLL. Therefore, conventional cytogenetics may define subgroups of patients with high risk of progression...
  69. ncbi request reprint Analysis of FLT3 length mutations in 1003 patients with acute myeloid leukemia: correlation to cytogenetics, FAB subtype, and prognosis in the AMLCG study and usefulness as a marker for the detection of minimal residual disease
    Susanne Schnittger
    Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Munich, Germany
    Blood 100:59-66. 2002
    ..6 months; P =.0072) because of a higher relapse rate. Besides the importance of FLT3-LM for biologic and clinical characterization of AML, we show its value as a marker for disease monitoring based on 120 follow-up samples of 34 patients...
  70. doi request reprint Development and validation of a real-time quantification assay to detect and monitor BRAFV600E mutations in hairy cell leukemia
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Blood 119:3151-4. 2012
    ..001). In conclusion, we confirmed BRAFmut as a useful marker in HCL, its absence in HCL variant, and developed an RT-PCR-based assay to monitor minimal residual disease in HCL...
  71. doi request reprint IDH1 mutations are detected in 6.6% of 1414 AML patients and are associated with intermediate risk karyotype and unfavorable prognosis in adults younger than 60 years and unmutated NPM1 status
    Susanne Schnittger
    Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Blood 116:5486-96. 2010
    ..039) especially in the age group < 60 years (P = .028). In conclusion, these data show that IDH1R132 may significantly add information regarding characterization and prognostication in AML...
  72. ncbi request reprint Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21)(q22;q22) relapsing as AML with t(3;21)(q26;q22)
    Ulrike Bacher
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Cancer Genet Cytogenet 168:172-4. 2006
    ..These data suggest that this patient developed a secondary therapy-related AML rather than a relapse...
  73. ncbi request reprint Risk assessment by monitoring expression levels of partial tandem duplications in the MLL gene in acute myeloid leukemia during therapy
    Martin Weisser
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Medical Department III, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 90:881-9. 2005
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint A combination of cytomorphology, cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for establishing clonality in cases of persisting hypereosinophilia
    Ulrike Bacher
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich Marchioninistr 15, 81377 Munich
    Haematologica 91:817-20. 2006
    ..A FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene was identified in four male patients by interphase FISH and RT-PCR. These methods in combination demonstrated clonality in 8/40 patients (20%) with a male predominance (6/8; 75%)...
  75. ncbi request reprint Blast count and cytogenetics correlate and are useful parameters for the evaluation of different phases in chronic myeloid leukemia
    Ulrike Bacher
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department for Internal Medicine III, Klinikum Grossharden, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr, Munich, Germany
    Leuk Lymphoma 46:357-66. 2005
    ..We therefore propose to focus staging systems of CML on the correlation of the percentage of bone marrow blasts and the cytogenetic results...
  76. ncbi request reprint Further correlations of morphology according to FAB and WHO classification to cytogenetics in de novo acute myeloid leukemia: a study on 2,235 patients
    Ulrike Bacher
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department for Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr 15, 81377, Munich, Germany
    Ann Hematol 84:785-91. 2005
    ..In conclusion, the central role of morphology as defined by the FAB and WHO classification in AML at diagnosis is still justified in combination with other techniques...
  77. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profiling as a diagnostic tool in acute myeloid leukemia
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Am J Pharmacogenomics 4:225-37. 2004
    ..Furthermore, gene expression profiling may also lead to the detection of new biologically defined and clinically relevant subtypes in leukemia and guide therapeutic decision-making in the future...
  78. ncbi request reprint FLT3 length mutations as marker for follow-up studies in acute myeloid leukaemia
    Susanne Schnittger
    Laboratory for Leukaemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Acta Haematol 112:68-78. 2004
    ..Using conventional PCR it clearly could be shown that for most of the patients positive at presentation FLT3-LM is a reliable PCR marker for monitoring treatment response. Even an early detection of relapse was possible in some cases...
  79. ncbi request reprint AML with 11q23/MLL abnormalities as defined by the WHO classification: incidence, partner chromosomes, FAB subtype, age distribution, and prognostic impact in an unselected series of 1897 cytogenetically analyzed AML cases
    Claudia Schoch
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Marchioninistr 15, 81377 Munchen, Germany
    Blood 102:2395-402. 2003
    ..0 vs 8.9 months, P =.36). In conclusion, the category AML with 11q23/MLL abnormalities accounts for 2.8% of unselected AML, is closely associated with monocytic differentiation, and has a dismal prognosis. (..
  80. doi request reprint RQ-PCR based WT1 expression in comparison to BCR-ABL quantification can predict Philadelphia negative clonal evolution in patients with imatinib-treated chronic myeloid leukaemia
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukaemia Laboratory GmbH, Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 146:665-8. 2009
    ..Thus, increasing WT1 levels in molecular responders may indicate Ph-negative clonal cytogenetic evolution during imatinib treatment...
  81. pmc Acute myeloid leukemias with reciprocal rearrangements can be distinguished by specific gene expression profiles
    Claudia Schoch
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, 81366 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10008-13. 2002
    ..By using two different strategies for microarray data analyses, this study revealed a unique correlation between AML-specific cytogenetic aberrations and gene expression profiles...
  82. ncbi request reprint Insight into the molecular pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies
    Torsten Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Germany
    Curr Opin Hematol 14:90-7. 2007
    ..Due to the rapid expansion of known molecular markers, this paper aims to outline some of the recent progress to improve understanding of the pathogenesis in these myeloid malignancies...
  83. ncbi request reprint Monitoring of acute myeloid leukemia by flow cytometry
    Wolfgang Kern
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Department of Internal Medicine III, 81366 Munich, Germany
    Curr Oncol Rep 5:405-12. 2003
    ..Large clinical trials will determine the role of immunologic monitoring in the prognostic stratification of patients with AML...
  84. pmc The AML1-ETO fusion gene and the FLT3 length mutation collaborate in inducing acute leukemia in mice
    Christina Schessl
    Clinical Cooperative Group Leukemia, National Research Center for Environment and Health GSF, Munich, Germany
    J Clin Invest 115:2159-68. 2005
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Modern diagnostics in acute leukemias
    Torsten Haferlach
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Medical Department III, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistreet 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 56:223-34. 2005
    ..The results serve as a mandatory prerequisite for individual treatment strategies and for the evaluation of treatment response using especially newly defined and highly specific MRD markers...
  86. pmc Detection of JAK2 exon 12 mutations in 15 patients with JAK2V617F negative polycythemia vera
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL, Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Haematologica 94:414-8. 2009
    ..262; p=0.012). Median age of onset was lower than in the V617Fmut controls (58.5 vs. 67.8 years, p<0.001). In conclusion, JAK2 exon 12 mutation analysis contributes to diagnostics in polycythemia vera or erythrocytosis...
  87. pmc The diagnosis of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD): a comprehensive approach based on morphology, cytogenetics, and molecular markers
    Torsten Haferlach
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Max Lebsche Platz 31, 81377, Munich, Germany
    Ann Hematol 87:1-10. 2008
    ..A stringent diagnostic algorithm for characterization, choice of treatment, and monitoring of MRD will be proposed in this review...
  88. ncbi request reprint [Microarrays and gene expression profiling for the diagnosis in leukemia. From research studies to routine application]
    Torsten Haferlach
    MLL Münchner Leukämie Labor, Munchen, Germany
    Med Klin (Munich) 101:908-14. 2006
    ..An ongoing international study (MILE study) is testing the accuracy, sensibility and specificity of gene expression profiling in leukemia diagnostics. First results and future directions will be given in the article...
  89. ncbi request reprint [Diagnostic algorithm in chronic myeloproliferative diseases (CMPD)]
    Torsten Haferlach
    MLL Münchner Leukämielabor GmbH, Munchen
    Med Klin (Munich) 102:770-7. 2007
    ..Thus, diagnostics in the CMPD transform toward a multimodal diagnostic concept based on a combination of methods - cyto-/histomorphology, cytogenetics, and individual molecular methods which can be included in a diagnostic algorithm...
  90. doi request reprint A copy number repeat polymorphism in the transactivation domain of the CEPBA gene is possibly associated with a protective effect against acquired CEBPA mutations: an analysis in 1135 patients with AML and 187 healthy controls
    Susanne Schnittger
    MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich, Germany
    Exp Hematol 39:87-94. 2011
    ..As this is not a simple single nucleotide polymorphism, but a six-base pair insertion that leads to a two amino acid elongation of the protein, functional implications cannot be excluded...
  91. ncbi request reprint Conventional cytogenetics of myeloproliferative diseases other than CML contribute valid information
    Ulrike Bacher
    Laboratory for Leukemia Diagnostics, Department for Internal Medicine III, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Ann Hematol 84:250-7. 2005
    ..In ET and in HES the aberration rate was only 3 and 7%, respectively. Thus, cytogenetics can be omitted. However, in some of these cases molecular procedures should be integrated into the routine diagnostic process...
  92. ncbi request reprint Distinct genetic patterns can be identified in acute monoblastic and acute monocytic leukaemia (FAB AML M5a and M5b): a study of 124 patients
    Torsten Haferlach
    Department of Internal Medicine III, Laboratory for Leukaemia Diagnostics, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 118:426-31. 2002
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated genetic, i.e. biological, differences between AML M5a and AML M5b and all other AML. Therefore, AML M5 should further be categorized as two different groups, as proposed by the WHO classification...
  93. ncbi request reprint Acute myeloid leukemia with recurring chromosome abnormalities as defined by the WHO-classification: incidence of subgroups, additional genetic abnormalities, FAB subtypes and age distribution in an unselected series of 1,897 patients with acute myeloid l
    Claudia Schoch
    Haematologica 88:351-2. 2003
  94. ncbi request reprint Prognostic relevance of FLT3-TKD mutations in AML: the combination matters--an analysis of 3082 patients
    Ulrike Bacher
    Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, University Hospital of Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Blood 111:2527-37. 2008
    ..In contrast, we found an additional favorable impact of FLT3-TKD on EFS in prognostically favorable AML with NPM1- or CEBPA mutations...
  95. ncbi request reprint Impact of integrating clinical and genetic information
    Martin Dugas
    Department of Medical Informatics, Biometrics and Epidemiology IBE, University of Munich, Marchioninistr 15, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    In Silico Biol 2:383-91. 2002
    ....
  96. ncbi request reprint A comparative study of molecular mutations in 381 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and in 4130 patients with acute myeloid leukemia
    Ulrike Bacher
    Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, University Hospital of Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Haematologica 92:744-52. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between AML and MDS by comparing the frequency of molecular mutations in the two conditions...
  97. ncbi request reprint Prognosis in therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and impact of karyotype
    Wolfgang Kern
    J Clin Oncol 22:2510-1. 2004
  98. ncbi request reprint A case of chronic myeloproliferative syndrome followed by precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Ulrike Bacher
    Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, University Hospital of Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistr 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Cancer Genet Cytogenet 175:52-6. 2007
    ..Interlineage switch might result from an aberrant differentiation of the malignant clone or from selection within a mixed population...
  99. ncbi request reprint [Quantification of minimal residual disease by multiparameter flow cytometry in acute myeloid leukemia. From diagnosis to prognosis]
    Wolfgang Kern
    Labor für Leukämiediagnostik, Klinikum der Universitat Munchen Grosshadern, 81366 München
    Med Klin (Munich) 100:54-9. 2005
    ..Due to its close correlation with the course of the disease and with the risk of relapse the MRD represents an important prognostic parameter which is increasingly used for stratification of therapy in clinical trials...
  100. ncbi request reprint Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction based quantification of the combined MDS-EVI1/EVI1 gene in acute myeloid leukemia
    Martin Weisser
    Leuk Lymphoma 47:2645-7. 2006
  101. ncbi request reprint The incidence of submicroscopic deletions in reciprocal translocations is similar in acute myeloid leukemia, BCR-ABL positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia
    Ulrike Bacher
    Haematologica 90:558-9. 2005
    ..The incidence of submicroscopic deletions was 2-9% depending on the entity...