Reinhard Hohlfeld

Summary

Affiliation: Max-Planck-Institute of Neurobiology
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunologic factors in primary progressive multiple sclerosis
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr 15, D 81366, Munich, Germany
    Mult Scler 10:S16-21; discussion S21-2. 2004
  2. pmc Therapeutic strategies in multiple sclerosis. I. Immunotherapy
    R Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Germany
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:1697-710. 1999
  3. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: glatiramer acetate inhibits monocyte reactivity in vitro and in vivo
    Martin S Weber
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Marchioninistrasse 15, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Brain 127:1370-8. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint The neuroprotective effect of inflammation: implications for the therapy of multiple sclerosis
    R Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D 81366, Munich, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 107:161-6. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint [Multiple sclerosis. Current review of failed and discontinued clinical trials of drug treatment]
    H Wiendl
    Max Planck Institut fur Neurobiologie, Abteilung Neuroimmunologie, Martinsried
    Nervenarzt 71:597-610. 2000
  6. doi request reprint B- and T-cell responses in multiple sclerosis: novel approaches offer new insights
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 274:5-8. 2008
  7. ncbi request reprint Neurotrophic cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems: relevance for repair strategies in multiple sclerosis?
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr, 15, D 81366 Munich, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 265:93-6. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint Immunological update on multiple sclerosis
    R Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 14:299-304. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment
    Markus Krumbholz
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 129:200-11. 2006
  10. doi request reprint Extracellular matrix in multiple sclerosis lesions: Fibrillar collagens, biglycan and decorin are upregulated and associated with infiltrating immune cells
    Hema Mohan
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Brain Pathol 20:966-75. 2010

Detail Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Immunologic factors in primary progressive multiple sclerosis
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr 15, D 81366, Munich, Germany
    Mult Scler 10:S16-21; discussion S21-2. 2004
    ..Whether and to what extent this mechanism is present in different MS forms remain to be clarified...
  2. pmc Therapeutic strategies in multiple sclerosis. I. Immunotherapy
    R Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Klinikum Grosshadern, University of Munich, Germany
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:1697-710. 1999
    ..Next, two approved immunomodulatory treatments, interferon-beta and copolymer-1 (glatiramer acetate), are reviewed in more detail. Finally, other immunosuppressive therapies and experimental strategies are briefly discussed...
  3. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: glatiramer acetate inhibits monocyte reactivity in vitro and in vivo
    Martin S Weber
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Marchioninistrasse 15, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Brain 127:1370-8. 2004
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that GA inhibits monocyte reactivity in vitro and in vivo, significantly extending the current concept of the mechanism of action of GA...
  4. ncbi request reprint The neuroprotective effect of inflammation: implications for the therapy of multiple sclerosis
    R Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology and Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D 81366, Munich, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 107:161-6. 2000
    ..The concept of neuroprotective autoimmunity has obvious implications for the therapy of multiple sclerosis and other neuroimmunological diseases...
  5. ncbi request reprint [Multiple sclerosis. Current review of failed and discontinued clinical trials of drug treatment]
    H Wiendl
    Max Planck Institut fur Neurobiologie, Abteilung Neuroimmunologie, Martinsried
    Nervenarzt 71:597-610. 2000
    ....
  6. doi request reprint B- and T-cell responses in multiple sclerosis: novel approaches offer new insights
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 274:5-8. 2008
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Neurotrophic cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems: relevance for repair strategies in multiple sclerosis?
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr, 15, D 81366 Munich, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 265:93-6. 2008
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Immunological update on multiple sclerosis
    R Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 14:299-304. 2001
    ..Humanized' animal models allow the functional characterization of human immune molecules in vivo. Finally, several therapeutic trials have recently assessed the clinical benefit of selective immunotherapies...
  9. ncbi request reprint Chemokines in multiple sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment
    Markus Krumbholz
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 129:200-11. 2006
    ..Therefore, both CXCL13 and CXCR5 may be promising therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis...
  10. doi request reprint Extracellular matrix in multiple sclerosis lesions: Fibrillar collagens, biglycan and decorin are upregulated and associated with infiltrating immune cells
    Hema Mohan
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Brain Pathol 20:966-75. 2010
    ..Induced fibrillar collagens may contribute to limiting enlargement of MS lesions by inhibiting the production of CCL2 by monocytes...
  11. doi request reprint Fingolimod reduces recurrence of disease activity after natalizumab withdrawal in multiple sclerosis
    Joachim Havla
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Medical Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    J Neurol 260:1382-7. 2013
    ..In the FTY group the ARR tended to depend on the time interval between discontinuation of NAT and initiation of FTY...
  12. doi request reprint Matching of oligoclonal immunoglobulin transcriptomes and proteomes of cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis
    Birgit Obermeier
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Nat Med 14:688-93. 2008
    ..This approach can be applied to other organ-specific diagnostic fluid or tissue samples to compare the Ig transcripts of local B cells with the corresponding antibody proteomes of individual subjects...
  13. ncbi request reprint Distinct responses of monocytes to Toll-like receptor ligands and inflammatory cytokines
    Cinthia Farina
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Int Immunol 16:799-809. 2004
    ..SLAM+ monocytes and macrophages were identified for the first time in vivo. Their presence might be a sign of innate immune activation...
  14. doi request reprint MicroRNA profiling of multiple sclerosis lesions identifies modulators of the regulatory protein CD47
    Andreas Junker
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Brain 132:3342-52. 2009
    ..This mechanism may have broad implications for microRNA-regulated macrophage activation in inflammatory diseases...
  15. doi request reprint Prospects of transcript profiling for mRNAs and MicroRNAs using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded dissected autoptic multiple sclerosis lesions
    Sylvia Eisele
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University Hospital Großhadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Brain Pathol 22:607-18. 2012
    ..In summary, we present a detailed protocol how to use autoptic FFPE tissue for transcript profiling in dissected tissue areas...
  16. pmc Target specificity of an autoreactive pathogenic human γδ-T cell receptor in myositis
    Jessica Bruder
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    J Biol Chem 287:20986-95. 2012
    ..The observation that AA-RS are targeted by a γδ-T cell and by autoantibodies reveals an unexpected link between T cell and antibody responses in autoimmune myositis...
  17. ncbi request reprint Expression and function of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands and their receptors on human immune cells
    Vivian Vargas-Leal
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    J Immunol 175:2301-8. 2005
    ..Together, this suggests that immune cells communicate with each other via NTN. Production of NTN by immune cells might also contribute to the neuroprotective immunity in the CNS observed in different model systems...
  18. ncbi request reprint Delayed allergic reaction to natalizumab associated with early formation of neutralizing antibodies
    Markus Krumbholz
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Arch Neurol 64:1331-3. 2007
    ..In the Natalizumab Safety and Efficacy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (AFFIRM) trial, infusion-related hypersensitivity reactions developed in 4% of patients, usually within 2 hours after starting the infusion...
  19. pmc Novel approaches for identifying target antigens of autoreactive human B and T cells
    Klaus Dornmair
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152, Martinsried, Germany
    Semin Immunopathol 31:467-77. 2009
    ..The first method detects Ig antigens directly, whereas the latter two methods allow reconstruction of Ig molecules, which can be used for antigen searches...
  20. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: T-cell receptor expression in distinct brain regions
    Andreas Junker
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Brain 130:2789-99. 2007
    ..These experiments revealed that at least some of the pervasive T-cell clones belonged to the CD8+ compartment, supporting the pathogenic relevance of this T-cell subset...
  21. doi request reprint Neuro-immune crosstalk in CNS diseases
    Martin Kerschensteiner
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr, 17, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Results Probl Cell Differ 51:197-216. 2010
    ..It is thus the balance between destructive and protective factors that ultimately determines the net result of the neuro-immune interaction...
  22. doi request reprint Cross-reactive T-cell receptors in tumor and paraneoplastic target tissue
    Hannah L Pellkofer
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Arch Neurol 66:655-8. 2009
    ..According to established criteria, paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis with adrenal neuroblastoma comprises a definite paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome...
  23. pmc Multiple sclerosis: brain-infiltrating CD8+ T cells persist as clonal expansions in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood
    Christian Skulina
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:2428-33. 2004
    ..Strikingly, some of the brain-infiltrating CD8+ T cell clones persisted for >5 years in the cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood and may thus contribute to the progression of the disease...
  24. doi request reprint Rebound of disease activity after withdrawal of fingolimod (FTY720) treatment
    Joachim B Havla
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Arch Neurol 69:262-4. 2012
    ..To date, data about a possible recurrence of disease activity after discontinuation of fingolimod treatment are scarce...
  25. ncbi request reprint B lineage cells in the inflammatory central nervous system environment: migration, maintenance, local antibody production, and therapeutic modulation
    Edgar Meinl
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Munich, Germany
    Ann Neurol 59:880-92. 2006
    ..Finally, we outline the possibly double-edged effects of B cells and immunoglobulin in the CNS and discuss various therapeutic strategies for targeting the B-cell response...
  26. ncbi request reprint Glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis: update on potential mechanisms of action
    Cinthia Farina
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Lancet Neurol 4:567-75. 2005
    ..Finally, we will think about how a better understanding of glatiramer acetate might help the development of new immunomodulatory agents for MS...
  27. pmc Reconstitution of paired T cell receptor alpha- and beta-chains from microdissected single cells of human inflammatory tissues
    Sabine Seitz
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:12057-62. 2006
    ..After functional reconstitution of the alphabeta-pairs, their antigen-recognition properties could be studied. Our results open avenues for combined analysis of the full TCR alpha- and beta-chain repertoire in human inflammatory tissues...
  28. pmc Autoimmune concepts of multiple sclerosis as a basis for selective immunotherapy: from pipe dreams to (therapeutic) pipelines
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14599-606. 2004
    ..Further advances in MS therapy will depend on our growing understanding of the pathogenesis of this still incurable disease...
  29. doi request reprint Compartmentalization of inflammation in the CNS: a major mechanism driving progressive multiple sclerosis
    Edgar Meinl
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 274:42-4. 2008
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Immunological assay for assessing the efficacy of glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) in multiple sclerosis. A pilot study
    Cinthia Farina
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurol 249:1587-92. 2002
    ..0006). We conclude that the ELISPOT assay may provide a promising additional tool for monitoring the treatment response in multiple sclerosis patients treated with GA...
  31. doi request reprint Multiple sclerosis. TNFRSF1A, TRAPS and multiple sclerosis
    Tania Kümpfel
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, Munich, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurol 5:528-9. 2009
    ..This locus is of special interest because the R92Q substitution was previously detected in a group of multiple sclerosis patients who had additional symptoms compatible with the autoinflammatory syndrome TRAPS...
  32. pmc Contactin-2/TAG-1-directed autoimmunity is identified in multiple sclerosis patients and mediates gray matter pathology in animals
    Tobias Derfuss
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8302-7. 2009
    ..This study identifies contactin-2 as an autoantigen targeted by T cells and autoantibodies in MS. Our findings suggest that a contactin-2-specific T-cell response contributes to the development of gray matter pathology...
  33. doi request reprint Distinction and temporal stability of conformational epitopes on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein recognized by patients with different inflammatory central nervous system diseases
    Marie C Mayer
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, 81377 Munich, Germany
    J Immunol 191:3594-604. 2013
    ..The majority of human anti-MOG Abs did not recognize rodent MOG, which has implications for animal studies. Our findings might assist in future detection of potential mimotopes and pave the way to Ag-specific depletion. ..
  34. ncbi request reprint Intravenous immunoglobulins contain naturally occurring antibodies that mimic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and activate neutrophils in a TNFalpha-dependent and Fc-receptor-independent way
    Sven Jarius
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Blood 109:4376-82. 2007
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Symptoms related to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-associated periodic syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and severe rheumatoid arthritis in patients carrying the TNF receptor superfamily 1A D12E/p.Asp41Glu mutation
    Joachim Havla
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology and the Department of Clinical Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    J Rheumatol 40:261-4. 2013
    ..The D12E substitution has been described only once to date, in a 4-year-old boy with fever...
  36. pmc Neurofascin as a target for autoantibodies in peripheral neuropathies
    Judy King Man Ng
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 79:2241-8. 2012
    ....
  37. pmc Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion enhances monocyte reactivity in neuroimmunological disorders
    Klaus Lehmann-Horn
    Department of Neurology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    J Neuroinflammation 8:146. 2011
    ..We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders...
  38. doi request reprint 'Gimme five': future challenges in multiple sclerosis. ECTRIMS Lecture 2009
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munchen, Germany
    Mult Scler 16:3-14. 2010
    ..Each of these challenges will be discussed and placed in the context of current research into the pathogenesis and treatment of multiple sclerosis...
  39. doi request reprint Humoral autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis
    Edgar Meinl
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 306:180-2. 2011
    ..Testing the functional relevance of such an autoimmune response in animal models revealed that antibodies to neurofascin may induce axonal injury and that T cells specific for contactin-2/TAG-1 mediate preferentially gray matter injury...
  40. pmc T-cell-mediated autoimmunity: novel techniques to characterize autoreactive T-cell receptors
    Klaus Dornmair
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Am J Pathol 163:1215-26. 2003
    ..Such information should eventually provide new insights into disease pathogenesis which lead to better therapies...
  41. pmc Related B cell clones that populate the CSF and CNS of patients with multiple sclerosis produce CSF immunoglobulin
    Birgit Obermeier
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, 81377 Munich, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 233:245-8. 2011
    ..Characteristic peptides that were identified in the CSF-proteome could also be detected in the transcriptomes of both, brain lesions and CSF, providing evidence for a strong overlap of the IgG repertoires in brain lesions and in the CSF...
  42. ncbi request reprint Antigen recognition properties of a Vgamma1.3Vdelta2-T-cell receptor from a rare variant of polymyositis
    Klaus Dornmair
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 152:168-75. 2004
    ..These results (a) provide further insight into the molecular properties of this unusual TCR, and (b) should help in future attempts to identify the elusive target antigen(s)...
  43. doi request reprint B cells and antibodies in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis and therapy
    Markus Krumbholz
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany
    Nat Rev Neurol 8:613-23. 2012
    ....
  44. pmc Clonal tracking of autoaggressive T cells in polymyositis by combining laser microdissection, single-cell PCR, and CDR3-spectratype analysis
    Monika Hofbauer
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:4090-5. 2003
    ..This approach should be applicable to other inflammatory and autoimmune disorders...
  45. doi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: human model for EAE?
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Campus Grosshadern, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 39:2036-9. 2009
    ..Concepts of the pathogenesis of MS are based on evidence from the animal model, EAE. Yet, the relationship between human MS and EAE is far from being a one-way road: many paths lead from the bedside back to animals in the laboratory...
  46. doi request reprint De-escalation from natalizumab in multiple sclerosis: recurrence of disease activity despite switching to glatiramer acetate
    Joachim Havla
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Medical Campus Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Marchioninistr 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    J Neurol 258:1665-9. 2011
    ..Further treatment strategies are warranted for patients who discontinue NAT therapy...
  47. doi request reprint Unbiased identification of target antigens of CD8+ T cells with combinatorial libraries coding for short peptides
    Katherina Siewert
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Nat Med 18:824-8. 2012
    ..The identified peptide sequences showed a converging pattern of mimotopes that revealed the parent influenza antigen. This technique should be generally applicable to the identification of disease-relevant T cell antigens...
  48. pmc Inclusion body myositis: laser microdissection reveals differential up-regulation of IFN-γ signaling cascade in attacked versus nonattacked myofibers
    Jana Ivanidze
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Am J Pathol 179:1347-59. 2011
    ..Thus, the differential up-regulation of the IFN-γ signaling cascade observed in the attacked fibers is related to local inflammation, whereas the ubiquitous HLA-I expression on IBM muscle fibers does not require IFNGR expression...
  49. ncbi request reprint Glatiramer acetate-specific T-helper 1- and 2-type cell lines produce BDNF: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
    Tjalf Ziemssen
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 125:2381-91. 2002
    ..The different assays and different TCLs yielded similar, consistent results. All four GA-specific T-cell lines, representing the major different TH phenotypes, could be stimulated to produce BDNF...
  50. ncbi request reprint The neuroprotective effect of inflammation: implications for the therapy of multiple sclerosis
    R Hohlfeld
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Neurol Sci 27:S1-7. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint T cell transformation with Herpesvirus saimiri: a tool for neuroimmunological research
    E Meinl
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 103:1-7. 2000
    ..In contrast, H. saimiri-transformed T cells are activated by a single crosslinked anti-CD2 mAb and also by interaction with CD58-bearing cells...
  52. ncbi request reprint Risk-benefit assessment of glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis
    T Ziemssen
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Drug Saf 24:979-90. 2001
    ..The safety profile and risk-benefit ratio are excellent. Overall, glatiramer acetate is very well tolerated and has an excellent risk-benefit profile in patients with relapsing-remitting MS...
  53. pmc BAFF is produced by astrocytes and up-regulated in multiple sclerosis lesions and primary central nervous system lymphoma
    Markus Krumbholz
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Exp Med 201:195-200. 2005
    ..This paper identifies astrocytes as a nonimmune source of BAFF. CNS-produced BAFF may support B cell survival in inflammatory diseases and primary B cell lymphoma...
  54. doi request reprint Viability of autoantibody-targets: how to tackle pathogenetic heterogeneity as an obstacle for treatment of multiple sclerosis
    Marie Cathrin Mayer
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Department of Neuroimmunology, Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 319:2-7. 2012
    ..In addition, we discuss several strategies for the identification of novel candidate autoantigens...
  55. ncbi request reprint Drug insight: using monoclonal antibodies to treat multiple sclerosis
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Munich, Germany
    Nat Clin Pract Neurol 1:34-44. 2005
    ..This article reviews the state of development of various therapeutic mAbs for MS treatment...
  56. ncbi request reprint Modelling paraneoplastic CNS disease: T-cells specific for the onconeuronal antigen PNMA1 mediate autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the rat
    Hannah Pellkofer
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 127:1822-30. 2004
    ..This animal model strongly supports the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic CNS neurological syndromes in man involves an autoimmune T-cell component...
  57. ncbi request reprint Assessment of potential cardiotoxic side effects of mitoxantrone in patients with multiple sclerosis
    Vera Carina Zingler
    Department of Neurology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Eur Neurol 54:28-33. 2005
    ..Mitoxantrone did not cause signs of congestive heart failure in any of the patients. Further cardiac monitoring is, however, needed to determine the safety of mitoxantrone after longer follow-up times and at higher cumulative doses...
  58. ncbi request reprint Late-onset tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome in multiple sclerosis patients carrying the TNFRSF1A R92Q mutation
    Tania Kümpfel
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Arthritis Rheum 56:2774-83. 2007
    ..We undertook this study to investigate the prevalence of TRAPS in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who reported, in addition to their neurologic symptoms, at least 2 other symptoms compatible with TRAPS...
  59. ncbi request reprint The role of neurotrophins in muscle under physiological and pathological conditions
    Guillaume Chevrel
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Muscle Nerve 33:462-76. 2006
    ..The goal of this review is to provide a basis for a better understanding and future studies on the role of these factors under such pathological conditions and for treatment of human muscle diseases...
  60. doi request reprint Future clinical challenges in multiple sclerosis: Relevance to sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator therapy
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 76:S28-37. 2011
    ....
  61. doi request reprint Reflections on the "intrathymic pathogenesis" of myasthenia gravis
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 201:21-7. 2008
    ..It is unlikely that the cellular alterations in the thymus are secondary to an ongoing peripheral immune response, because they are absent in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis...
  62. ncbi request reprint Dual role of inflammation in CNS disease
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 68:S58-63; discussion S91-6. 2007
    ..This might explain why inflammatory reactions may contribute to both injury and protection of neurons. The dual role of CNS inflammation also has important therapeutic implications that are only beginning to be explored...
  63. ncbi request reprint Molecular mimicry in multiple sclerosis
    Hartmut Wekerle
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    N Engl J Med 349:185-6. 2003
  64. ncbi request reprint Basic principles of immunotherapy for neurologic diseases
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchionistrasse 25, D 81377 Munich, Germany
    Semin Neurol 23:121-32. 2003
    ..Improvement must be based on a beneficial change in activities of daily living and not solely on a change in the laboratory test values...
  65. ncbi request reprint Treatment of multiple sclerosis with Copaxone (COP): Elispot assay detects COP-induced interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma response in blood cells
    C Farina
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 124:705-19. 2001
    ..We propose that these criteria may be helpful to monitor the immunological response to COP in future clinical trials...
  66. doi request reprint Multiple sclerosis and the TNFRSF1A R92Q mutation: clinical characteristics of 21 cases
    T Kümpfel
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 71:1812-20. 2008
    ..The current study presents the characteristics of a larger cohort of MS patients carrying this mutation...
  67. doi request reprint Interferon-beta increases BAFF levels in multiple sclerosis: implications for B cell autoimmunity
    M Krumbholz
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 131:1455-63. 2008
    ..Individual MS/NMO patients who have major B cell involvement may benefit less than others from IFN-beta therapy, thus explaining interindividual differences of the therapeutic response...
  68. ncbi request reprint β-Amyloid: Enemy or Remedy?
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich D 81377, Germany
    Sci Transl Med 4:145fs24. 2012
    ..Amyloid can modulate the immune response in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (Grant et al., this issue)...
  69. ncbi request reprint An autoreactive gamma delta TCR derived from a polymyositis lesion
    Heinz Wiendl
    Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    J Immunol 169:515-21. 2002
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first example of a molecularly defined gammadelta TCR directly derived from an autoimmune tissue lesion. The strategy used in this study may be applicable to other autoimmune diseases...
  70. ncbi request reprint Treatment with glatiramer acetate induces specific IgG4 antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients
    C Farina
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 123:188-92. 2002
    ..In contrast, 18 of 20 GA-treated patients, had low but significant titers of GA-reactive IgG4 antibodies. This finding is consistent with the previously described GA-mediated induction of T-helper 2 (TH2)-like regulatory T cells...
  71. ncbi request reprint The fine specificity of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoantibody response in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal healthy controls
    C G Haase
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max-Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18a; 82152, Martinsried, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 114:220-5. 2001
    ..These results indicate that the epitope specificity of the human B cell response to MOG is not only heterogeneous, but may only mediate demyelination in a limited subset of MS patients...
  72. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal antibody production against Chlamydia pneumoniae in multiple sclerosis is part of a polyspecific immune response
    T Derfuss
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max-Planck-Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany
    Brain 124:1325-35. 2001
    ..pneumoniae is part of a polyspecific intrathecal Ig production, as is commonly observed with other pathogens. This argues against a specific role for C. pneumoniae in multiple sclerosis...
  73. ncbi request reprint CCL19 is constitutively expressed in the CNS, up-regulated in neuroinflammation, active and also inactive multiple sclerosis lesions
    M Krumbholz
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, Martinsried, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 190:72-9. 2007
    ..This study suggests that CCL19 plays a role in both the physiological immunosurveillance of the healthy CNS and the pathological maintenance of immune cells in the CNS of MS patients...
  74. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis: relating MxA transcription to anti-interferon-beta-neutralizing antibodies
    L A Hoffmann
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 68:958-9. 2007
  75. doi request reprint TNFRSF1A R92Q mutation in association with a multiple sclerosis-like demyelinating syndrome
    L A Hoffmann
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 70:1155-6. 2008
  76. doi request reprint Natalizumab disproportionately increases circulating pre-B and B cells in multiple sclerosis
    M Krumbholz
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Neurology 71:1350-4. 2008
    ..Whereas its presumed mode of action is inhibition of T cell/monocyte entry into the brain, little is known about its specific effect on B cells, which are increasingly recognized to participate in MS pathogenesis...
  77. doi request reprint Neuro-immune crosstalk in CNS diseases
    M Kerschensteiner
    Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Marchioninistr 17, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Neuroscience 158:1122-32. 2009
    ..It is thus the balance between destructive and protective factors that ultimately determines the net result of the neuro-immune interaction...
  78. pmc Myogenesis in thymic transplants in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse model of myasthenia gravis. Differentiation of thymic myoid cells into striated muscle cells
    S Spuler
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grossbadern, University of Munich, Germany
    Am J Pathol 145:766-70. 1994
    ..Some TMCs had even differentiated into striated muscle cells. The abundance of AchRs in human thymic transplants in the SCID mouse model of myasthenia gravis may help to study the mechanisms of autosensitization against the AchR in vivo...
  79. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of action of glatiramer acetate in treatment of multiple sclerosis
    Martin S Weber
    Department of Neurology and Program in Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neurotherapeutics 4:647-53. 2007
    ..These new findings represent a plausible explanation for GA-mediated T-cell immune modulation and may provide useful insight for the development of new and more effective treatment options for multiple sclerosis...
  80. ncbi request reprint Immunobiology of muscle: advances in understanding an immunological microenvironment
    Heinz Wiendl
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Trends Immunol 26:373-80. 2005
    ....
  81. ncbi request reprint Neurotrophic cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems: implications for neurological diseases
    Martin Kerschensteiner
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich and Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
    Ann Neurol 53:292-304. 2003
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint Secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by glatiramer acetate-reactive T-helper cell lines: Implications for multiple sclerosis therapy
    Tjalf Ziemssen
    Neuroimmunological Lab, Neurological University Clinic, Dresden, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 233:109-12. 2005
    ..The different assays and different TCLs yielded similar, consistent results. All GA-specific TH1, TH2 and TH0 lines could be stimulated to produce BDNF...
  83. ncbi request reprint Muscle-derived positive and negative regulators of the immune response
    Heinz Wiendl
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Rheumatol 17:714-9. 2005
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic approaches in multiple sclerosis: lessons from failed and interrupted treatment trials
    Heinz Wiendl
    Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    BioDrugs 16:183-200. 2002
    ..Since failed trials add to our growing understanding of multiple sclerosis, 'misses' are nearly as important to the scientific process as the 'hits'...
  85. ncbi request reprint [Suspected multiple sclerosis]
    Hannah Pellkofer
    Institut für Klinische Neuroimmunologie, Klinikum der LMU, München Grosshadern
    MMW Fortschr Med 148:63-4. 2006
  86. ncbi request reprint Muscle fibres and cultured muscle cells express the B7.1/2-related inducible co-stimulatory molecule, ICOSL: implications for the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies
    Heinz Wiendl
    Department of Neurology, University of Tubingen, Medical School, Tubingen, Germany
    Brain 126:1026-35. 2003
    ..1 and B7.2. ICOSL-ICOS interactions may play an important role in inflammatory myopathies, providing further evidence for the antigen-presenting capacity of muscle cells...
  87. pmc Neurofascin as a novel target for autoantibody-mediated axonal injury
    Emily K Mathey
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK
    J Exp Med 204:2363-72. 2007
    ..Collectively, these results identify a novel mechanism of immune-mediated axonal injury that can contribute to axonal pathology in MS...
  88. ncbi request reprint How promising is hematopoetic stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis?
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    J Neurol 249:1147-9. 2002
  89. pmc Antibody to aquaporin 4 in the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica
    Friedemann Paul
    Cecilie Vogt Clinic for Molecular Neurology, Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS Med 4:e133. 2007
    ..The binding sites of this autoantibody were reported to colocalize with aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channels. Thus we hypothesized that AQP4 antibodies in fact characterize NMO patients...
  90. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal antibody (IgG) production against human herpesvirus type 6 occurs in about 20% of multiple sclerosis patients and might be linked to a polyspecific B-cell response
    Tobias Derfuss
    Dept of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    J Neurol 252:968-71. 2005
    ..In the other 20% the intrathecal Ig production to HHV-6 might reflect reactivation of HHV-6 or could be part of a polyspecific B cell activation...
  91. pmc Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis
    Roland Martin
    Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies and Unidad de Neuroimmunologia Clinica, Hospital Universitari Vall d Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
    Dis Markers 22:183-5. 2006
  92. ncbi request reprint [Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. Opportunity or hazard?]
    Oliver Neuhaus
    Neurologische Klinik, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Dusseldorf
    Nervenarzt 75:1022-6. 2004
    ..In this review, the results of the CAMS study are discussed in the context of previous trials, the putative mechanism of action of cannabinoids and their adverse event profile...
  93. ncbi request reprint The non-classical MHC molecule HLA-G protects human muscle cells from immune-mediated lysis: implications for myoblast transplantation and gene therapy
    Heinz Wiendl
    Department of Neurology, University of Tubingen, Medical School, Tubingen, Germany
    Brain 126:176-85. 2003
    ..Further, HLA-G could represent a novel self-derived anti-inflammatory principle applicable in strategies against inflammatory aggression...
  94. ncbi request reprint Polymyositis and dermatomyositis
    Marinos C Dalakas
    Neuromuscular Diseases Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1382, USA
    Lancet 362:971-82. 2003
    ..Early initiation of therapy is essential, since both polymyositis and dermatomyositis respond to immunotherapeutic agents. New immunomodulatory agents currently being tested in controlled trials may prove promising for difficult cases...
  95. ncbi request reprint Myelin failure in multiple sclerosis: breaking the spell of Notch
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Nat Med 8:1075-6. 2002
  96. ncbi request reprint Revisiting the immunopathogenesis of the inflammatory myopathies
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Neurology 69:1966-7. 2007
  97. ncbi request reprint MS treatment optimization: report from the 21st ETRIMS/10th ACTRIMS Congress, 28 September-1 October 2005, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Michel Clanet
    Int MS J 13:13-5. 2006
    ..The meeting focused on the heterogeneity of MS and optimizing MS treatment--from the earliest stages to the long-term management of this chronic disease--with the goal of improving patient outcome...
  98. ncbi request reprint BDNF and gp145trkB in multiple sclerosis brain lesions: neuroprotective interactions between immune and neuronal cells?
    Christine Stadelmann
    Institute for Neuropathology, Charite, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
    Brain 125:75-85. 2002
    ....
  99. ncbi request reprint Hunting (auto)immune T cells in neuroimmunological diseases
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Brain 126:2-4. 2003
  100. doi request reprint BDNF and its receptors in human myasthenic thymus: implications for cell fate in thymic pathology
    Angela Berzi
    Foundation IRCCS Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy
    J Neuroimmunol 197:128-39. 2008
    ..In thymomas both BDNF production and receptor expression in TEC were strongly hindered. This may represent an attempt of tumour escape from cell death...
  101. ncbi request reprint Intravenous immunoglobulins in MS: a panacea lacking approval?
    Reinhard Hohlfeld
    Int MS J 12:1-2. 2005