Ralf A Linker

Summary

Country: Germany

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Functional role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroprotective autoimmunity: therapeutic implications in a model of multiple sclerosis
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Brain 133:2248-63. 2010
  2. doi request reprint Fumaric acid esters exert neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammation via activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Brain 134:678-92. 2011
  3. pmc Innovative monoclonal antibody therapies in multiple sclerosis
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum D 44791 Bochum Germany
    Ther Adv Neurol Disord 1:43-52. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Function of neurotrophic factors beyond the nervous system: inflammation and autoimmune demyelination
    Ralf Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Crit Rev Immunol 29:43-68. 2009
  5. doi request reprint IL-6 transsignalling modulates the early effector phase of EAE and targets the blood-brain barrier
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 205:64-72. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Leukemia inhibitory factor deficiency modulates the immune response and limits autoimmune demyelination: a new role for neurotrophic cytokines in neuroinflammation
    Ralf A Linker
    Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research, University of Goettingen and Gemeinnuetzige Hertie Stiftung, Goettingen, Germany
    J Immunol 180:2204-13. 2008
  7. doi request reprint Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior
    Isabella Peruga
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitatsstr 150, Bochum, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 229:325-32. 2012
  8. doi request reprint Modulation of autoimmune demyelination by laquinimod via induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
    Jan Thone
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, Group for Molecular Cell Biology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Am J Pathol 180:267-74. 2012
  9. pmc Constitutive activity of NF-kappa B in myeloid cells drives pathogenicity of monocytes and macrophages during autoimmune neuroinflammation
    Gisa Ellrichmann
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroinflammation 9:15. 2012
  10. doi request reprint Inflammation modulates anxiety in an animal model of multiple sclerosis
    Isabella Peruga
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 220:20-9. 2011

Detail Information

Publications37

  1. doi request reprint Functional role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroprotective autoimmunity: therapeutic implications in a model of multiple sclerosis
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Brain 133:2248-63. 2010
    ..Our data imply a functional role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in autoimmune demyelination by mediating axon protection...
  2. doi request reprint Fumaric acid esters exert neuroprotective effects in neuroinflammation via activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Brain 134:678-92. 2011
    ....
  3. pmc Innovative monoclonal antibody therapies in multiple sclerosis
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum D 44791 Bochum Germany
    Ther Adv Neurol Disord 1:43-52. 2008
    ..The results of these studies may not only broaden our therapeutic options in the near future, but also provide new insights into disease pathogenesis...
  4. ncbi request reprint Function of neurotrophic factors beyond the nervous system: inflammation and autoimmune demyelination
    Ralf Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Crit Rev Immunol 29:43-68. 2009
    ..In summary, neurotrophic factors have distinct roles in the immune system during autoimmunity and may modulate immune responses as well as the susceptibility of the target tissue...
  5. doi request reprint IL-6 transsignalling modulates the early effector phase of EAE and targets the blood-brain barrier
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 205:64-72. 2008
    ..We conclude that IL-6 transsignalling may play a role in autoimmune inflammation of the CNS mainly by regulating early expression of adhesion molecules, possibly via cellular networks at the blood-brain barrier...
  6. ncbi request reprint Leukemia inhibitory factor deficiency modulates the immune response and limits autoimmune demyelination: a new role for neurotrophic cytokines in neuroinflammation
    Ralf A Linker
    Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research, University of Goettingen and Gemeinnuetzige Hertie Stiftung, Goettingen, Germany
    J Immunol 180:2204-13. 2008
    ..These data reveal that endogenous LIF is an immunologically active molecule in neuroinflammation. This establishes a link between LIF and the immune system which was not observed in the ciliary neurotrophic factor knockout mouse...
  7. doi request reprint Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior
    Isabella Peruga
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitatsstr 150, Bochum, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 229:325-32. 2012
    ..These data imply that endogenous CNTF plays a pivotal role for the structural maintenance of hippocampal functions and thus has an important impact on the modulation of affective behavior in rodent models of anxiety and depression...
  8. doi request reprint Modulation of autoimmune demyelination by laquinimod via induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
    Jan Thone
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, Group for Molecular Cell Biology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Am J Pathol 180:267-74. 2012
    ..Consistent with immunomodulatory properties, laquinimod skewed monocytes toward a regulatory phenotype and also acted via modulation of BDNF, which may contribute to neuroprotection in MS patients...
  9. pmc Constitutive activity of NF-kappa B in myeloid cells drives pathogenicity of monocytes and macrophages during autoimmune neuroinflammation
    Gisa Ellrichmann
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroinflammation 9:15. 2012
    ..In summary, myeloid cell derived NF-κB plays a crucial role in autoimmune inflammation of the CNS and drives a pathogenic role of monocytes and macrophages independently from T-cells...
  10. doi request reprint Inflammation modulates anxiety in an animal model of multiple sclerosis
    Isabella Peruga
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Behav Brain Res 220:20-9. 2011
    ..These data imply that chronic inflammation in the CNS may impact on emotional responses in rodent models of anxiety...
  11. pmc Proteome profiling in murine models of multiple sclerosis: identification of stage specific markers and culprits for tissue damage
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e7624. 2009
    ..In summary, our findings underscore the value of proteome analyses as screening method for stage specific biomarkers and for the identification of new culprits for tissue damage in chronic autoimmune demyelination...
  12. pmc Central nervous system rather than immune cell-derived BDNF mediates axonal protective effects early in autoimmune demyelination
    De Hyung Lee
    Department of Neurology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 123:247-58. 2012
    ..In summary, our data argue for an early window of therapeutic opportunity where modulation of BDNF may exert neuroprotective effects in experimental autoimmune demyelination...
  13. ncbi request reprint CNTF is a major protective factor in demyelinating CNS disease: a neurotrophic cytokine as modulator in neuroinflammation
    Ralf A Linker
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Nat Med 8:620-4. 2002
    ..7). Here we identify a factor that modulates, in an inflammatory environment, glial cell survival and is an outcome determinant of EAE...
  14. ncbi request reprint Astrocytes are less efficient in the removal of apoptotic lymphocytes than microglia cells: implications for the role of glial cells in the inflamed central nervous system
    Tim Magnus
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:760-6. 2002
    ..We suggest that in vivo astrocytes might be activated as phagocytes once the limit of microglial phagocytic capacity has been reached...
  15. ncbi request reprint EAE in beta-2 microglobulin-deficient mice: axonal damage is not dependent on MHC-I restricted immune responses
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Neurobiol Dis 19:218-28. 2005
    ..Enhanced axonal damage speaks for pathways of tissue damage independent of CD8+ T-cells and neuronal MHC-I expression...
  16. doi request reprint Neuronal NF-κB ablation does not influence neuro-axonal degeneration in experimental autoimmune demyelination
    De Hyung Lee
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstr 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 246:38-42. 2012
    ..In conclusion, neuronal NF-κB ablation does not modulate neurodegeneration in autoimmune demyelination...
  17. doi request reprint Identification and development of new therapeutics for multiple sclerosis
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 29:558-65. 2008
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Liposomal glucocorticosteroids in treatment of chronic autoimmune demyelination: long-term protective effects and enhanced efficacy of methylprednisolone formulations
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Exp Neurol 211:397-406. 2008
    ..These findings lay the groundwork for applying liposomal GS in clinical MS trials in the near future...
  19. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of axonal degeneration in EAE--lessons from CNTF and MHC I knockout mice
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 233:167-72. 2005
    ..Some mechanisms of primary or secondary axonal damage may be shared between inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the nervous system, thereby establishing a link which might be of importance for future therapeutic strategies...
  20. ncbi request reprint Spotlight on fumarates
    De Hyung Lee
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Int MS J 15:12-8. 2008
    ..Currently, two multicentre, Phase III studies for testing clinical efficacy in RRMS are initiated. In view of their profile, FAE compounds may have the potential to add to our therapeutic options in RRMS in the future...
  21. doi request reprint Stability of cognitive functions under mitoxantrone therapy in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis: a pilot analysis
    Alexandra Schröder
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstr 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 113:527-30. 2011
    ..Mitoxantrone (MX) is a potent immunosuppressant that is licensed as escalation therapy for the treatment of active multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  22. doi request reprint Fumarates for the treatment of multiple sclerosis: potential mechanisms of action and clinical studies
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Expert Rev Neurother 8:1683-90. 2008
    ..Presently, two Phase III studies are ongoing to investigate the clinical long-term efficacy of BG-12. In summary, FAE are potential candidates that may open a new therapeutic option for relapsing-remitting MS in the near future...
  23. pmc Efficacy of fumaric acid esters in the R6/2 and YAC128 models of Huntington's disease
    Gisa Ellrichmann
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e16172. 2011
    ..In conclusion, DMF may exert beneficial effects in mouse models of HD. Given its excellent side effect profile, further studies with DMF as new therapeutic approach in HD and other neurodegenerative diseases are warranted...
  24. pmc The Role of the Immune System in Huntington's Disease
    Gisa Ellrichmann
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Clin Dev Immunol 2013:541259. 2013
    ..Further understanding the influence of inflammation in HD using mouse models may open various avenues for promising therapeutic approaches aiming at slowing disease progression or forestalling onset of disease. ..
  25. doi request reprint Polymorphisms in genes encoding leptin, ghrelin and their receptors in German multiple sclerosis patients
    Linda K Rey
    Department of Human Genetics, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitatsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany
    Mol Cell Probes 25:255-9. 2011
    ..However, a modest effect of GHSR variation cannot be ruled out and needs to be further evaluated in future studies...
  26. ncbi request reprint Subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion: a new therapeutic option in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
    De Hyung Lee
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Muscle Nerve 37:406-9. 2008
    ..SCIg may represent an effective new therapeutic option in CIDP and is associated with a cost reduction of at least 50% compared to IVIg therapy...
  27. doi request reprint Use of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange in neurological disease
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 21:358-65. 2008
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Successful management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and immune reconstitution syndrome in a patient with multiple sclerosis
    Alexandra Schröder
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Arch Neurol 67:1391-4. 2010
    ..To describe a case of successful clinical management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with multiple sclerosis...
  29. doi request reprint Failure of natalizumab to prevent relapses in neuromyelitis optica
    Ingo Kleiter
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
    Arch Neurol 69:239-45. 2012
    ..To describe first experiences with the integrin inhibitor natalizumab, given to patients with suspected relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) who were later diagnosed with aquaporin 4-positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  30. pmc Glatiramer acetate treatment normalizes deregulated microRNA expression in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis
    Anne Waschbisch
    Department of Neurology, Friedrich Alexander University, Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e24604. 2011
    ....
  31. doi request reprint Plasmapheresis for neurological disorders
    Alexandra Schröder
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Expert Rev Neurother 9:1331-9. 2009
    ..Adding to its increasing application in clinical practice, the procedure is usually well tolerated. Possible adverse reactions mainly relate to vascular access, the use of replacement fluids and the need for anticoagulation...
  32. doi request reprint Successful treatment of cerebellar ataxia and tremor in multiple sclerosis with topiramate: a case report
    Alexandra Schroeder
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Clin Neuropharmacol 33:317-8. 2010
    ..Multiple sclerosis immunotherapy was not changed in this period. In conclusion, topiramate may be a new therapeutic option to treat cerebellar tremor and ataxia in patients with multiple sclerosis...
  33. doi request reprint Advancing therapeutic options in multiple sclerosis with neuroprotective properties
    Anke Stroet
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstr 56, Bochum, Germany
    J Neural Transm 120:49-53. 2013
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Dimethyl fumarate (BG-12) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
    Martin Stangel
    Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neubert Str 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 6:355-62. 2013
    ..The mode of action is not exactly clear and both immunomodulatory effects and an activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 are suggested. This new oral drug will be a welcome addition to existing MS treatments. ..
  35. pmc Report on the 3'rd scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Nov. 4'th - Nov. 6'th, 2011
    Christoph Kleinschnitz
    Department of Neurology, University Clinic of Würzburg, Josef Schneider Str, 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Exp Transl Stroke Med 4:2. 2012
    ..This first prize award ceremony was a great incentive for the next call for proposals now upcoming in 2012...
  36. pmc Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting?
    Anne Waschbisch
    Department of Neurology, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Exp Transl Stroke Med 3:7. 2011
    ..Yet, the investigation of new vascular concepts as one variable in the pathophysiology of the autoimmune attack seems very worthwhile and may add to a better understanding of this devastating disorder...
  37. ncbi request reprint In vivo molecular imaging of adhesion molecules in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)
    Ralf A Linker
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, Germany
    J Autoimmun 25:199-205. 2005
    ..Based on these data, quantitative molecular imaging of adhesion molecules by SPAQ-enhanced ultrasound proves to be a safe and reliable technology to monitor changes at the BBB in vivo...