Georg Hacker

Summary

Affiliation: Klinikum rechts der Isar
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. pmc Cytopathicity of Chlamydia is largely reproduced by expression of a single chlamydial protease
    Stefan A Paschen
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Cell Biol 182:117-27. 2008
  2. pmc Chlamydia inhibit host cell apoptosis by degradation of proapoptotic BH3-only proteins
    Silke F Fischer
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Exp Med 200:905-16. 2004
  3. pmc Apoptosis is essential for neutrophil functional shutdown and determines tissue damage in experimental pneumococcal meningitis
    Uwe Koedel
    Department of Neurology, Clinic of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000461. 2009
  4. pmc BimS-induced apoptosis requires mitochondrial localization but not interaction with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins
    Arnim Weber
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    J Cell Biol 177:625-36. 2007
  5. pmc Functional evaluation of the apoptosome in renal cell carcinoma
    M C Gerhard
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Trogerstrasse 9, Munich D 81675, Germany
    Br J Cancer 89:2147-54. 2003
  6. pmc Analysis of the cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis apparatus in cells from human pancreatic carcinoma
    M C Gerhard
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, , Trogerstrasse 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Br J Cancer 86:893-8. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic targets in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 30, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 11:515-26. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint BH3-only proteins trigger cytochrome c release, but how?
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Arch Biochem Biophys 462:150-5. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Apoptosis in infectious disease: how bacteria interfere with the apoptotic apparatus
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Trogerstr 9, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Med Microbiol Immunol 195:11-9. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Apoptosis in activated T cells: what are the triggers, and what the signal transducers?
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Cell Cycle 5:2421-4. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. pmc Cytopathicity of Chlamydia is largely reproduced by expression of a single chlamydial protease
    Stefan A Paschen
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Cell Biol 182:117-27. 2008
    ..Active CPAF in uninfected human cells thus mimics many features of chlamydial infection, implicating CPAF as a major factor of chlamydial pathogenicity, Chlamydia-associated cell damage, and inflammation...
  2. pmc Chlamydia inhibit host cell apoptosis by degradation of proapoptotic BH3-only proteins
    Silke F Fischer
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Exp Med 200:905-16. 2004
    ..These results reveal a novel way by which microbes can interfere with the host cell's apoptotic machinery, and provide a molecular explanation of the cellular resistance to apoptosis during infection with Chlamydia...
  3. pmc Apoptosis is essential for neutrophil functional shutdown and determines tissue damage in experimental pneumococcal meningitis
    Uwe Koedel
    Department of Neurology, Clinic of the University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000461. 2009
    ..These results indicate that apoptosis is essential to turn off activated neutrophils and show that inflammatory activity and disease severity in a pyogenic infection can be modulated by targeting the apoptotic pathway in neutrophils...
  4. pmc BimS-induced apoptosis requires mitochondrial localization but not interaction with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins
    Arnim Weber
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    J Cell Biol 177:625-36. 2007
    ..Thus, cell death induction by a BH3-only protein can occur through a process that is independent of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins but requires mitochondrial targeting...
  5. pmc Functional evaluation of the apoptosome in renal cell carcinoma
    M C Gerhard
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Trogerstrasse 9, Munich D 81675, Germany
    Br J Cancer 89:2147-54. 2003
    ..Thus, the apoptosome signalling complex is intact in human (clear cell) RCC, and an apoptosis defect must be located at other, probably upstream, sites...
  6. pmc Analysis of the cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis apparatus in cells from human pancreatic carcinoma
    M C Gerhard
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, , Trogerstrasse 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Br J Cancer 86:893-8. 2002
    ..They further show that the response to cytochrome c can be quantitated in a cell-free system and that determinants other than mere expression of apoptotic molecules can regulate cytochrome c-induced apoptosis...
  7. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic targets in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 30, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 11:515-26. 2007
    ..The authors' opinion is presented on the merits and feasibility of approaches that aim at treating disease by interfering with the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway...
  8. ncbi request reprint BH3-only proteins trigger cytochrome c release, but how?
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Arch Biochem Biophys 462:150-5. 2007
    ..Here we discuss the context in which these models are placed and attempt to weigh the evidence...
  9. ncbi request reprint Apoptosis in infectious disease: how bacteria interfere with the apoptotic apparatus
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Trogerstr 9, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Med Microbiol Immunol 195:11-9. 2006
    ..Here, we will attempt to structure the field of bacterial inhibition of apoptosis and discuss recent advancements in our knowledge of how chlamydiae interfere with the host cell's capacity to undergo apoptosis...
  10. ncbi request reprint Apoptosis in activated T cells: what are the triggers, and what the signal transducers?
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Cell Cycle 5:2421-4. 2006
    ..Here we discuss these recent insights and provide a view on how the regulation of activated T cell death is achieved and how extrinsic signals may translate into the activation of the apoptotic pathway...
  11. ncbi request reprint Bacterial anti-apoptotic activities
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675, Munich, Germany
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 211:1-6. 2002
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint The morphology of apoptosis
    G Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Germany
    Cell Tissue Res 301:5-17. 2000
    ..Here, an attempt is made to present the current knowledge about the molecular events in the development of these morphological alterations and to place these changes in the context of apoptotic cell death...
  13. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis-induced apoptosis in macrophages is mediated by up-regulation and activation of the Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only protein Bim
    Susanne Kirschnek
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    J Immunol 174:671-9. 2005
    ..Phagocytosis-induced apoptosis was strongly reduced in Bim(-/-) macrophages. These data provide the molecular context of a form of apoptosis that may serve to dispose of terminally differentiated phagocytes...
  14. pmc The NF-kappaB regulator Bcl-3 and the BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma control the death of activated T cells
    Anette Bauer
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technical University Munich, Trogerstrasse 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10979-84. 2006
    ..IL-1, IL-7, and IL-15 primed T cells for survival even in the absence of Bim or Puma. Our data define interrelations and a Bim-independent pathway to activated T cell death...
  15. pmc FADD and the NF-kappaB family member Bcl-3 regulate complementary pathways to control T-cell survival and proliferation
    Svetla Rangelova
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Immunology 125:549-57. 2008
    ..These data suggest that FADD and Bcl-3 regulate separate pathways that both contribute to survival and proliferation in mouse T cells...
  16. ncbi request reprint Enhanced basal AP-1 activity and de-regulation of numerous genes in T cells transgenic for a dominant interfering mutant of FADD/MORT1
    Svetla Chaneva
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 34:3006-15. 2004
    ..The constitutive activation of AP-1 may thus serve to precondition resting T cells for an enhanced expression of many immunologically relevant genes during activation...
  17. ncbi request reprint Enhancement of death-receptor induced caspase-8-activation in the death-inducing signalling complex by uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation
    Juliane Vier
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstrasse 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Mol Immunol 40:661-70. 2004
    ..Thus, a mechanism exists by which caspase-8-activation can be accelerated at death receptors and this mechanism can be triggered by targeting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation...
  18. pmc Broad degradation of proapoptotic proteins with the conserved Bcl-2 homology domain 3 during infection with Chlamydia trachomatis
    Songmin Ying
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Infect Immun 73:1399-403. 2005
    ..These results show that chlamydial infection leads to a broad degradation of BH3-only proteins. This loss of proapoptotic factors can explain the almost general protection of infected cells against apoptotic stimuli...
  19. pmc Apparently normal tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling in the absence of the silencer of death domains
    Robert Endres
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University of Munich, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Mol Cell Biol 23:6609-17. 2003
    ..In conclusion, our data do not support the concept of a unique, nonredundant role of SODD for the functions of TNFR1, Hsp70, and DR3...
  20. pmc Characterization of host cell death induced by Chlamydia trachomatis
    Songmin Ying
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Germany
    Infect Immun 74:6057-66. 2006
    ..In conclusion, chlamydial infection can induce cell death. Although Chlamydia-induced cell death has certain morphological features of apoptosis, it does not result from activation of the apoptotic pathway...
  21. doi request reprint Premature apoptosis of Chlamydia-infected cells disrupts chlamydial development
    Songmin Ying
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Germany
    J Infect Dis 198:1536-44. 2008
    ..These data show that chlamydial infection renders host cells apoptosis resistant at a premitochondrial step and demonstrate the consequences of premature apoptosis for development of the bacteria...
  22. doi request reprint Induction of tumor cell apoptosis or necrosis by conditional expression of cell death proteins: analysis of cell death pathways and in vitro immune stimulatory potential
    Christine Lohmann
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    J Immunol 182:4538-46. 2009
    ..These results argue that it is not the form of cell death but its circumstances that decide the question whether cell death leads to a productive T cell response...
  23. pmc Protection against CD95-induced apoptosis by chlamydial infection at a mitochondrial step
    Silke F Fischer
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Infect Immun 72:1107-15. 2004
    ..Taken together, these data show that chlamydial infection can protect cells against CD95-induced apoptosis but only where a mitochondrial signaling step is necessary for apoptotic signal transduction...
  24. pmc Chemotherapeutic drugs sensitize human renal cell carcinoma cells to ABT-737 by a mechanism involving the Noxa-dependent inactivation of Mcl-1 or A1
    Henry Zall
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr, Munich, Germany
    Mol Cancer 9:164. 2010
    ..Human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is very resistant to chemotherapy. ABT-737 is a novel inhibitor of anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family that has shown promise in various preclinical tumour models...
  25. ncbi request reprint TLR-dependent Bim phosphorylation in macrophages is mediated by ERK and is connected to proteasomal degradation of the protein
    Georg Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Trogerstrasse 30, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Int Immunol 18:1749-57. 2006
    ..Thus, TLR stimulation of macrophages can regulate Bim levels in opposing ways, namely by transcriptional induction and by phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the protein...
  26. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis-induced apoptosis of macrophages is linked to uptake, killing and degradation of bacteria
    Tobias Frankenberg
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 38:204-15. 2008
    ..We propose that this form of apoptosis is the physiological conclusion of an innate immune response against pyogenic bacteria...
  27. doi request reprint Parenchymal cells critically curtail cytotoxic T-cell responses by inducing Bim-mediated apoptosis
    Anton Gruber
    Institute for Immunology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 40:966-75. 2010
    ..Thus, our data demonstrate that effector CTL differentiation and apoptosis are regulated independently. Moreover, Ag distribution on cells other than DC critically reduces CTL responses...
  28. ncbi request reprint Toll-like receptor 9 signaling can sensitize fibroblasts for apoptosis
    Silke F Fischer
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Immunol Lett 97:115-22. 2005
    ..These results identify a mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis that can be triggered by TLR9 and that may serve to sensitize cells from the innate immune system to apoptosis in the course of an immune response...
  29. pmc Replication of modified vaccinia virus Ankara in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts requires expression of the interferon resistance gene E3L
    Simone Hornemann
    GSF Institut für Molekulare Virologie, Munich, Germany
    J Virol 77:8394-407. 2003
    ..We conclude that efficient propagation of MVA in CEF, the tissue culture system used for production of MVA-based vaccines, essentially requires conserved E3L gene function as an inhibitor of apoptosis and/or IFN induction...
  30. doi request reprint Toxoplasma gondii infection confers resistance against BimS-induced apoptosis by preventing the activation and mitochondrial targeting of pro-apoptotic Bax
    Diana Hippe
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Georg August University, Kreuzbergring 57, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Cell Sci 122:3511-21. 2009
    ..These results indicate that T. gondii targets activation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak to inhibit the apoptogenic function of mitochondria and to increase host-cell viability...
  31. pmc Targeting of a chlamydial protease impedes intracellular bacterial growth
    Jan G Christian
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002283. 2011
    ..These results define CPAF as the first protein that is essential for replication of Chlamydia. We suggest that this role makes CPAF a potential anti-infective therapeutic target...
  32. doi request reprint CXCL16 contributes to neutrophil recruitment to cerebrospinal fluid in pneumococcal meningitis
    Bianca Woehrl
    Department of Neurology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    J Infect Dis 202:1389-96. 2010
    ..Thus, this study implicates CXCL16 as an additional neutrophil chemoattractant in cerebrospinal fluid in early pneumococcal meningitis...
  33. pmc Cleavage of the NF-κB family protein p65/RelA by the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) impairs proinflammatory signaling in cells infected with Chlamydiae
    Jan Christian
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Biol Chem 285:41320-7. 2010
    ..IL-1β-dependent secretion of IL-8 was further reduced by CPAF expression. Secretion of CPAF is, thus, a mechanism that reduces host cell sensitivity to a proinflammatory stimulus, which may facilitate bacterial growth in vivo...
  34. ncbi request reprint Apoptosis induced by direct triggering of mitochondrial apoptosis proceeds in the near-absence of some apoptotic markers
    Songmin Ying
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 30, Munich 81675, Germany
    Apoptosis 12:2003-11. 2007
    ..The results thus indicate that the link between the apoptotic pathway and commonly used indicators of apoptosis is less tight than it appears from experiments with cytotoxic stimuli...
  35. ncbi request reprint Chlamydia trachomatis can protect host cells against apoptosis in the absence of cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins and Mcl-1
    Songmin Ying
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Trogerstrasse 30, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Microbes Infect 10:97-101. 2008
    ..Therefore, these cellular anti-apoptotic proteins are not essential for apoptosis-protection by C. trachomatis...
  36. ncbi request reprint Subcellular localization, oligomerization, and ATP-binding of Caenorhabditis elegans CED-4
    Barbara M Seiffert
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstrasse 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:359-65. 2002
    ..ATP hydrolysis was required neither for complex stability nor for binding of CED-3. These features are likely to be relevant for CED-4's function as a caspase adapter...
  37. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of the proteasome induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma cells
    Christian Bogner
    Third Department of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
    Br J Haematol 122:260-8. 2003
    ..fmk. Lactacystin was also effective in inducing apoptosis in lymphoma cells from MCL patients. We conclude that inhibition of the proteasome might be a promising therapeutic approach for this incurable disease...
  38. ncbi request reprint Induction of apoptosis by Legionella pneumophila in mammalian cells requires the mitochondrial pathway for caspase activation
    Silke F Fischer
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Microbes Infect 8:662-9. 2006
    ..Mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient for Bax and/or Bak were protected from Legionella-induced caspase activation. These results show a clear contribution of the mitochondrial pathway to Legionella-induced apoptosis...
  39. ncbi request reprint Necrosis-like cell death induced by bacteria in mouse macrophages
    Susanne Kirschnek
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 34:1461-71. 2004
    ..Since the loading with bacteria-carrying cells is likely to impact on DC function, this form of necrosis may have a previously unsuspected role in the development of an immune response...
  40. pmc Induction of Noxa-mediated apoptosis by modified vaccinia virus Ankara depends on viral recognition by cytosolic helicases, leading to IRF-3/IFN-β-dependent induction of pro-apoptotic Noxa
    Pedro Eitz Ferrer
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002083. 2011
    ..We thus here describe a pathway leading from the detection of viral RNA during MVA infection by the cytosolic helicase-pathway, to the up-regulation of Noxa and apoptosis via IRF3 and type I IFN signalling...
  41. ncbi request reprint Caspase-9/-3 activation and apoptosis are induced in mouse macrophages upon ingestion and digestion of Escherichia coli bacteria
    Hans Hacker
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology, and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    J Immunol 169:3172-9. 2002
    ..These results show that uptake and digestion of bacteria leads to MyD88-independent apoptosis in mouse macrophages. This form of cell death might have implications for the generation of the immune response...
  42. ncbi request reprint Functional evaluation of the role of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Stefan Schliep
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Exp Hematol 32:556-62. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IAP in the regulation of apoptosis in CLL cells...
  43. ncbi request reprint Mitochondrial protein import: a matter of death?
    Stefan A Paschen
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Cell Cycle 6:2434-9. 2007
    ..Here we discuss how this mechanism might fit into and expand existing models and speculate about the potential implications of this finding...
  44. pmc Leukocyte Attraction by CCL20 and Its Receptor CCR6 in Humans and Mice with Pneumococcal Meningitis
    Matthias Klein
    Department of Neurology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    PLoS ONE 9:e93057. 2014
    ..In summary, our results identify the CCL20-CCR6 axis as an essential component of the innate immune defense against pneumococcal meningitis, controlling granulocyte recruitment. ..
  45. ncbi request reprint Signaling of apoptosis through TLRs critically involves toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta, but not MyD88, in bacteria-infected murine macrophages
    Klaus Ruckdeschel
    Max von Pettenkofer Institute for Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Munich, Germany
    J Immunol 173:3320-8. 2004
    ..Together, these results argue for a specific proapoptotic activity of TRIF as part of the host innate immune response to bacterial or viral infection...
  46. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of caspase or FADD function blocks proliferation but not MAP kinase-activation and interleukin-2-production during primary stimulation of T cells
    Astrid Mack
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 32:1986-92. 2002
    ..These data show a distinct role of caspases during primaryT cell activation and provide evidence for a FADD-caspase-pathway not only in the induction of apoptosis but also of T cell proliferation...
  47. ncbi request reprint Baculovirus P35 interacts with a subunit of human RNA polymerase II and can enhance promoter activity in human cells
    David Takramah
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Trogerstr 9, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Gen Virol 84:3011-9. 2003
    ..P35 and hRPB11a together enhanced the E-cadherin activity about three- to fourfold. These data suggest an additional role for P35 in the regulation of cellular transcription...
  48. pmc Activation of the immune system by bacterial CpG-DNA
    Georg Hacker
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Immunology 105:245-51. 2002
    ..We will further review our present knowledge of DNA recognition and DNA-dependent signal transduction in cells of the immune system...
  49. pmc Proapoptotic signaling induced by RIG-I and MDA-5 results in type I interferon-independent apoptosis in human melanoma cells
    Robert Besch
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
    J Clin Invest 119:2399-411. 2009
    ..Due to their immunostimulatory and proapoptotic activity, RIG-I and MDA-5 ligands have therapeutic potential due to their ability to overcome the characteristic resistance of melanoma cells to apoptosis...
  50. ncbi request reprint Deletion of exon 8 increases cisplatin-induced E-cadherin cleavage
    Margit Fuchs
    Technische Universitat Munchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Institut für allgemeine Pathologie und pathologische Anatomie, D 81675 Munchen, Germany
    Exp Cell Res 314:153-63. 2008
    ..Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate the apoptotic program of tumor cells can contribute to a better understanding of tumor development and potentially be relevant for therapeutic drug design...
  51. pmc Endogenous Noxa Determines the Strong Proapoptotic Synergism of the BH3-Mimetic ABT-737 with Chemotherapeutic Agents in Human Melanoma Cells
    Arnim Weber
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    Transl Oncol 2:73-83. 2009
    ..Importantly, the efficacy of this therapy depends on endogenous Noxa, and the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to activate Noxa may be a valuable predictor of their synergism with Bcl-2-targeting drugs...