Helge Karch

Summary

Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and pathogenesis of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coil
    Helge Karch
    Institut fur Hygiene, und Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hämolytisch Urämisches Syndrom, Universitat Munster, Munster, Germany
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 122:417-24. 2009
  2. pmc Cytolethal distending toxin in Escherichia coli O157:H7: spectrum of conservation, structure, and endothelial toxicity
    Alexander W Friedrich
    Institute for Hygiene, the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, and the IZKF Münster, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1844-6. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Structural and functional differences between disease-associated genes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111
    Wenlan Zhang
    Institute for Hygiene, and the National Consulting Laboratory on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 297:17-26. 2007
  4. pmc Comparative analysis of the locus of enterocyte effacement and its flanking regions
    Daniel Muller
    Institut für Infektiologie, Zentrum fur Molekularbiologie der Entzundung, Munster, Germany
    Infect Immun 77:3501-13. 2009
  5. doi request reprint [Evolution and infection biology of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) associated E. coli (HUSEC)]
    H Karch
    Institut für Hygiene und Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hämolytisch Urämisches Syndrom, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149, Munster, Deutschland
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 56:8-14. 2013
  6. ncbi request reprint The role of virulence factors in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)--associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome
    H Karch
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitat Munster, Germany
    Semin Thromb Hemost 27:207-13. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint New aspects in the pathogenesis of enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome
    Helge Karch
    Institut für Hygiene und Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hämolytisch Urämisches Syndrom, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Munster, Germany
    Semin Thromb Hemost 32:105-12. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine
    Helge Karch
    Institute for Hygiene, and National Consulting Laboratory on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 295:405-18. 2005
  9. pmc Chromosomal dynamism in progeny of outbreak-related sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:NM
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:1900-9. 2006
  10. pmc Phylogeny and disease association of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute of Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Munster, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1474-7. 2009

Detail Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology and pathogenesis of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coil
    Helge Karch
    Institut fur Hygiene, und Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hämolytisch Urämisches Syndrom, Universitat Munster, Munster, Germany
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 122:417-24. 2009
    ....
  2. pmc Cytolethal distending toxin in Escherichia coli O157:H7: spectrum of conservation, structure, and endothelial toxicity
    Alexander W Friedrich
    Institute for Hygiene, the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, and the IZKF Münster, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 44:1844-6. 2006
    ..CDT-V was expressed in all but two cdt-V+ strains and was lethal to cultured endothelial cells. Subtyping schemes should include cdt-V as a marker to differentiate E. coli O157:H7 even within the same phage type...
  3. ncbi request reprint Structural and functional differences between disease-associated genes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111
    Wenlan Zhang
    Institute for Hygiene, and the National Consulting Laboratory on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 297:17-26. 2007
    ..The divergence within EHEC O111 makes it possible to subtype these emerging pathogens in the laboratory thereby providing a basis for further investigations into their ecological niches and survival capabilities...
  4. pmc Comparative analysis of the locus of enterocyte effacement and its flanking regions
    Daniel Muller
    Institut für Infektiologie, Zentrum fur Molekularbiologie der Entzundung, Munster, Germany
    Infect Immun 77:3501-13. 2009
    ..In contrast, striking differences were found between the 5'- and 3'-associated flanking regions reflecting the different histories of the various strains and also possibly indicating different lines in evolution...
  5. doi request reprint [Evolution and infection biology of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) associated E. coli (HUSEC)]
    H Karch
    Institut für Hygiene und Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hämolytisch Urämisches Syndrom, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149, Munster, Deutschland
    Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 56:8-14. 2013
    ..However, additional data suggest that HUSEC have small effective population sizes. The HUSEC collection is also a valuable resource with which to study important non-Shiga toxin virulence factors...
  6. ncbi request reprint The role of virulence factors in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)--associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome
    H Karch
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitat Munster, Germany
    Semin Thromb Hemost 27:207-13. 2001
    ..The recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis and epidemiology of EHEC infections forms a basis for the development of future strategies to prevent EHEC infections in humans...
  7. ncbi request reprint New aspects in the pathogenesis of enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome
    Helge Karch
    Institut für Hygiene und Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hämolytisch Urämisches Syndrom, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Munster, Germany
    Semin Thromb Hemost 32:105-12. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human medicine
    Helge Karch
    Institute for Hygiene, and National Consulting Laboratory on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 295:405-18. 2005
    ..This review will focus on the microbiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of EHEC-associated diseases, and illustrate future challenges and opportunities for their control...
  9. pmc Chromosomal dynamism in progeny of outbreak-related sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:NM
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:1900-9. 2006
    ..The variability of PFGE patterns for the progeny of a single colony must be considered when interpreting PFGE patterns in SF EHEC O157-associated outbreaks...
  10. pmc Phylogeny and disease association of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute of Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Munster, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1474-7. 2009
    ..We identified 10 specific sequence types (ST) and 4 distinct clonal groups. ST442 was significantly associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome...
  11. ncbi request reprint Prevalence, virulence profiles, and clinical significance of Shiga toxin-negative variants of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infection in humans
    Alexander W Friedrich
    National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 45:39-45. 2007
    ..coli O157-infected patients. It is unknown if loss of the stx gene during the early stage of an enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection prevents HUS, or if absence of the stx gene from E. coli O157 reduces or ablates virulence...
  12. doi request reprint Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory for Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:671-6. 2011
    ..We analysed virulence profiles and relevant phenotypes of outbreak isolates recovered in our laboratory...
  13. pmc Shiga toxin-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome: time to change the diagnostic paradigm?
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute of Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 2:e1024. 2007
    ..However, the frequency of stx-negative/eae-positive E. coli in stools of HUS patients and the clinical significance of such strains are unknown...
  14. pmc Detection and characterization of the fimbrial sfp cluster in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O165:H25/NM isolates from humans and cattle
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:64-71. 2009
    ..The reasons for the convergence of pathogenic EHEC strains on a suite of virulence loci remain unknown...
  15. pmc Identification of unconventional intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates expressing intermediate virulence factor profiles by using a novel single-step multiplex PCR
    Daniel Muller
    Institut für Infektiologie, Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Entzündung ZMBE, Von Esmarch Str 56, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:3380-90. 2007
    ..coli genome. Moreover, this implies that the important identification of specific pathotypes has to be based on a broad matrix of indicator genes. In addition, the presence of intermediate strains needs to be accounted for...
  16. pmc Recycling of Shiga toxin 2 genes in sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:NM
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:67-72. 2008
    ..The ability to recycle stx(2), a critical virulence trait, makes SF E. coli O157:NM strains ephemeral EHEC that can exist as stx-negative variants during certain phases of their life cycle...
  17. pmc Association of Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors with membrane microdomains of toxin-sensitive lymphoid and myeloid cells
    Ivan U Kouzel
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Lipid Res 54:692-710. 2013
    ..Our comprehensive study on the expression of Stx-receptors and their subcellular distribution provides the basis for exploring the functional role of lipid raft-associated Stx-receptors in cells of leukocyte origin...
  18. pmc Shiga toxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and hemolysin repertoires in clinical Escherichia coli O91 isolates
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitat Munster, Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2061-6. 2009
    ....
  19. pmc Distribution and phylogeny of immunoglobulin-binding protein G in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and its association with adherence phenotypes
    Viktor Merkel
    Institute for Hygiene and Interdisciplinary Center of Clinical Research IZKF, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Infect Immun 78:3625-36. 2010
    ..We propose two possible evolutionary scenarios for eibG in STEC: a clonal development of eibG in strains with the same phylogenetic background or horizontal transfer of eibG between phylogenetically unrelated STEC strains...
  20. pmc Chromosomal instability in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: impact on adherence, tellurite resistance and colony phenotype
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute of Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 79:1024-44. 2011
    ..Spontaneous deletions affecting Tel(R) OIs contribute to EHEC O157 genome plasticity and might impair virulence and/or fitness...
  21. doi request reprint Application of thin-layer chromatography/infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry to structural analysis of bacteria-binding glycosphingolipids selected by affinity detection
    Anne Müsken
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:1032-8. 2010
    ..Thus, direct TLC/IR-MALDI-o-TOF-MS adds a novel facet to this fast and sensitive method offering a wide range of applications for the investigation of carbohydrate-specific pathogens involved in human infectious diseases...
  22. doi request reprint Uncommon membrane distribution of Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors in toxin-sensitive human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells
    Josefine Betz
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Biol Chem 393:133-47. 2012
    ..Our finding opens new questions on the microdomain association of Stx receptors and the functional role of GSLs in the membrane assembly of GMVECs...
  23. pmc Presence and characterization of a mosaic genomic island which distinguishes sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H- from E. coli O157:H7
    Andreas Janka
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4875-8. 2005
    ..This mosaic island is absent from strain EDL933. PCR targeting the SRL-related sequence is a useful tool to distinguish SF EHEC O157:H(-) from EHEC O157:H7...
  24. doi request reprint Glycosphingolipids in vascular endothelial cells: relationship of heterogeneity in Gb3Cer/CD77 receptor expression with differential Shiga toxin 1 cytotoxicity
    Christian H Schweppe
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, 48149, Munster, Germany
    Glycoconj J 25:291-304. 2008
    ..This deficiency, resulting in the accumulation of Gb3Cer in EA.hy 926 cells, represents the most prominent molecular reason that underlies the different Stx1 sensitivities of HBMECs and EA.hy 926 endothelial cells...
  25. pmc Distribution of the urease gene cluster among and urease activities of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 isolates from humans
    Alexander W Friedrich
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 43:546-50. 2005
    ..coli O55:H7, the proposed progenitor of EHEC O157, we hypothesize that EHEC O157:H7 diverged from the evolutionary pathway at an early stage and then acquired the O islands carrying the ure gene cluster...
  26. ncbi request reprint Shiga toxins, glycosphingolipid diversity, and endothelial cell injury
    Johannes Muthing
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Thromb Haemost 101:252-64. 2009
    ..This approach may be helpful to gain insights into Stx-induced impairment of target cells that is suggested to originate at least partly from the structural heterogeneity of the cellular ligands of Stxs...
  27. pmc Anaerobic conditions promote expression of Sfp fimbriae and adherence of sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:NM to human intestinal epithelial cells
    Anne Müsken
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:1087-93. 2008
    ..coli O157:NM strains is induced under conditions resembling those of the natural site of infection and that Sfp fimbriae may contribute to the adherence of the organisms to human intestinal epithelium...
  28. pmc Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145 strains from patients in Germany
    Anne Katharina Sonntag
    Institute for Hygiene and National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 42:954-62. 2004
    ..The heterogeneity of EHEC O145 strains at the chromosomal and plasmid level, in particular the high diversity in PFGE patterns, provides a basis for molecular subtyping of these pathogens...
  29. doi request reprint Facing glycosphingolipid-Shiga toxin interaction: dire straits for endothelial cells of the human vasculature
    Andreas Bauwens
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149, Munster, Germany
    Cell Mol Life Sci 70:425-57. 2013
    ..The design and development of tailored Stx neutralizers targeting the oligosaccharide-toxin recognition event has become a very real prospect to ameliorate or prevent life-threatening renal and neurological complications...
  30. pmc Subtypes of the plasmid-encoded serine protease EspP in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: distribution, secretion, and proteolytic activity
    Jens Brockmeyer
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:6351-9. 2007
    ..The presence of proteolytically active EspP in EHEC serogroups O157, O26, O111, and O145, which are bona fide human pathogens, suggests that EspP might play a role as an EHEC virulence factor...
  31. doi request reprint Promiscuous Shiga toxin 2e and its intimate relationship to Forssman
    Johannes Muthing
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Glycobiology 22:849-62. 2012
    ....
  32. pmc Shiga toxin receptor Gb3Cer/CD77: tumor-association and promising therapeutic target in pancreas and colon cancer
    Ute Distler
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e6813. 2009
    ..We determined the expression of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer/CD77), the Shiga toxin receptor, in human pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas...
  33. ncbi request reprint Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in human infection: in vivo evolution of a bacterial pathogen
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute for Hygiene, National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and IZKF Munster, Munster, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 41:785-92. 2005
    ..To investigate genetic changes in EHEC during the course of human infection, we analyzed consecutive stool samples and shed isolates from patients with HUS, focusing on the genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)...
  34. pmc Shiga toxin 1c-producing Escherichia coli strains: phenotypic and genetic characterization and association with human disease
    Alexander W Friedrich
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2448-53. 2003
    ..The phenotypic and molecular characteristics determined in this study allow the subtyping of Stx1c-producing STEC in epidemiological and clinical studies...
  35. doi request reprint Vacuolisation of human microvascular endothelial cells by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Thromb Haemost 102:1080-92. 2009
    ..coli vacuolating toxins. Through its microvascular endothelium-injuring potential combined with the ability to induce interleukin 6 release from these cells EHEC-Vac might contribute to the pathogenesis of HUS...
  36. ncbi request reprint Pigeons as a possible reservoir of Shiga toxin 2f-producing Escherichia coli pathogenic to humans
    Anne Katharina Sonntag
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat Munster, Germany
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 118:464-70. 2005
    ..coli, hamper the laboratory diagnosis of these strains. Our data demonstrate that pigeons may be a reservoir of Stx2f-producing E. coli strains associated with human disease...
  37. pmc Characterization of Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with diarrhea in Sao Paulo, Brazil: identification of intermediate virulence factor profiles by multiplex PCR
    Ariane Liebchen
    Institut für Infektiologie, Zentrum fur Molekularbiologie der Entzundung, Von Esmarch Str 56, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 49:2274-8. 2011
    ..Interestingly, most strains were enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) strains, followed by atypical EPEC (ATEC) strains. Classical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains were not detected...
  38. ncbi request reprint Presence of virulence and fitness gene modules of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O26
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute for Hygiene, and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Microbes Infect 9:891-7. 2007
    ..These data support a close relatedness between aEPEC O26 and EHEC O26 and have evolutionary implications. The presence of OI-122 in aEPEC O26 might contribute to their pathogenic potential...
  39. pmc Characterization of cytolethal distending toxin genes and expression in shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of non-O157 serogroups
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Entzündung ZMBE, Universitat Munster, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Infect Immun 72:1812-6. 2004
    ..cdt is either chromosomal and homologous to cdt-V (serotypes O73:H18, O91:H21, and O113:H21) or plasmidborne and identical to cdt-III (serotype O153:H18). Among eae-negative STEC, cdt was associated with disease (P = 0.003)...
  40. ncbi request reprint Hemolysin from Shiga toxin-negative Escherichia coli O26 strains injures microvascular endothelium
    Thomas Aldick
    Institute of Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Microbes Infect 9:282-90. 2007
    ..The toxicity of EHEC-Hly to microvascular endothelial cells plausibly contributes to the virulence of the stx-negative E. coli O26 strains and to the pathogenesis of HUS...
  41. doi request reprint Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptor expression and toxin susceptibility of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas of differing origin and differentiation
    Wiebke Storck
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Biol Chem 393:785-99. 2012
    ....
  42. pmc Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli haemolysin is cleaved and inactivated by serine protease EspPα
    Jens Brockmeyer
    Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Munster, Corrensstrasse 45, Munster, Germany
    Environ Microbiol 13:1327-41. 2011
    ..Interference between effector molecules might be an additional way to regulate virulence functions and increases the complexity of monomolecular phenotypes...
  43. doi request reprint Expression of Shiga toxin 2e glycosphingolipid receptors of primary porcine brain endothelial cells and toxin-mediated breakdown of the blood-brain barrier
    Iris Meisen
    Institute for Hygiene, Robert Koch Str 41, Germany
    Glycobiology 23:745-59. 2013
    ..These data strongly suggest the involvement of Stx2e in cerebral vascular damage with resultant neurological disturbance characteristic of edema disease...
  44. pmc Phylogeny, clinical associations, and diagnostic utility of the pilin subunit gene (sfpA) of sorbitol-fermenting, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H-
    Alexander W Friedrich
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4697-701. 2004
    ..None of the other stool samples was positive by the sfpA PCR; 59 of these stool samples contained EHEC O157:H7. The sfpA gene can be recommended as a target for screening for SF E. coli O157:H-...
  45. pmc Identification of intermediate in evolutionary model of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157
    Christian Jenke
    Institute for Hygiene and National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Munster, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:582-8. 2012
    ..The animal origin of this intermediate emphasizes the value of nonhuman reservoirs in the clarification of the evolution of human pathogens...
  46. pmc Rapid identification and differentiation of clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), atypical EPEC, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by a one-step multiplex PCR method
    Daniel Muller
    Institut für Infektiologie, Zentrum für Molekularbiologie der Entzündung ZMBE, Von Esmarch Str 56, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 44:2626-9. 2006
    ..We developed and evaluated a robust multiplex PCR to identify these pathogroups based on sequences complementary to escV, bfpB, stx1, and stx2...
  47. ncbi request reprint Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H11/H-: a human pathogen in emergence
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, und Nationales Konsiliarlaboratorium für Hämolytisch Urämisches Syndrom, Universitat Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 120:279-87. 2007
    ....
  48. pmc Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors in microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells: differential association with membrane lipid raft microdomains
    Josefine Betz
    Institutes for Hygiene, Food Chemistry, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    J Lipid Res 52:618-34. 2011
    ....
  49. doi request reprint On the structural diversity of Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors in lymphoid and myeloid cells determined by nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry
    Petra Hoffmann
    Institute of Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:2295-304. 2010
    ....
  50. pmc Molecular profiling and phenotype analysis of Escherichia coli O26:H11 and O26:NM: secular and geographic consistency of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic isolates
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4225-8. 2005
    ..These findings indicate close relatedness between these pathotypes and provide a basis for their clinical laboratory diagnosis...
  51. pmc Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli isolates from humans and pigs differ in their virulence profiles and interactions with intestinal epithelial cells
    Anne Katharina Sonntag
    Institute of Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:8855-63. 2005
    ..Our data demonstrate that E. coli isolates producing Shiga toxin 2e have imported specific virulence and fitness determinants which allow them to adapt to the specific hosts in which they cause various forms of disease...
  52. pmc Phylogenetic analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, Germany, 1987-2008
    Christian Jenke
    Institute for Hygiene, Munster, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:610-6. 2010
    ..Specific MLVA profiles with an evolutionary persistence were identified, particularly within sorbitol-fermenting EHEC O157:H-.These pathogens belonged to the same MLVA cluster. Our findings indicate successful persistence of this clone...
  53. ncbi request reprint Shiga toxin activatable by intestinal mucus in Escherichia coli isolated from humans: predictor for a severe clinical outcome
    Martina Bielaszewska
    National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1160-7. 2006
    ..We investigated the prevalence of Stx2d(activatable) among Stx-producing E. coli (STEC) isolated from humans and the association between production of this Stx and the clinical outcome of infection...
  54. pmc New immuno-PCR assay for detection of low concentrations of shiga toxin 2 and its variants
    Wenlan Zhang
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 46:1292-7. 2008
    ..It is therefore suitable for use by clinical microbiological laboratories to improve the toxin detection in clinical samples...
  55. doi request reprint Differential cytotoxic actions of Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2 on microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells
    Andreas Bauwens
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Thromb Haemost 105:515-28. 2011
    ..These findings have implications in the pathogenesis of HUS, and suggest the existence of yet to be delineated Stx type-specific mechanisms of endothelial cell injury beyond inhibition of protein biosynthesis...
  56. pmc Neutral glycosphingolipids in human blood: a precise mass spectrometry analysis with special reference to lipoprotein-associated Shiga toxin receptors
    Christian H Schweppe
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Lipid Res 51:2282-94. 2010
    ..Our findings provide the basis for exploring the functional role of lipoprotein-associated Stx-receptors in human blood...
  57. pmc Analysis of collection of hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Munster, Germany
    Emerg Infect Dis 14:1287-90. 2008
    ..1% of these strains clustered in 5 STs. From all STs and serotypes identified, we established a reference panel of EHEC associated with HUS (HUSEC collection)...
  58. doi request reprint Differential solubility of prions is associated in manifold phenotypes
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, Westfälische Wilhelms University Münster and University Hospital Münster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 42:226-33. 2009
    ..The selection of defined PrP(C) types offers new possibilities for identifying highly efficient converting proteins and provides the potential for disease control...
  59. doi request reprint Direct coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography with UV spectroscopy and IR-MALDI orthogonal TOF MS for the analysis of cyanobacterial toxins
    Iris Meisen
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Anal Chem 81:3858-66. 2009
    ..It was successfully applied to the detection and quantification of MC LR and Nod in a spiked, processed environmental water sample...
  60. doi request reprint High sensitivity detection of the glial fibrillary acidic protein as indicator for TSE risk material in meat products using an immuno-PCR
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 53:1329-35. 2009
    ..It is applicable for use by food and veterinary facilities, and institutes involved in food monitoring...
  61. pmc Real-time multiplex PCR for detecting Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in human stools
    Wenlan Zhang
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory for Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 50:1752-4. 2012
    ..It is a rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for detecting EHEC O104:H4 in human stools...
  62. pmc Effects of antibiotics on Shiga toxin 2 production and bacteriophage induction by epidemic Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute of Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory for Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3277-82. 2012
    ..We await further analysis of the epidemic to determine if usage of these agents was associated with an altered risk of developing HUS...
  63. pmc Structure and function relationship of the autotransport and proteolytic activity of EspP from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
    Jens Brockmeyer
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e6100. 2009
    ..The mechanisms underlying these functional variations in EspP subtypes are, however, unknown...
  64. pmc Transcriptional analysis of genes encoding Shiga toxin 2 and its variants in Escherichia coli
    Wenlan Zhang
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 71:558-61. 2005
    ..These isolates produced significantly less stx mRNA than Stx2d, Stx2e, Stx2c, or Stx2 secretors did. Standard screening procedures miss a significant subset of E. coli harboring stx(2) variants...
  65. doi request reprint Subtyping of human cellular prion proteins and their differential solubility
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, Westfalische Wilhelms University, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Exp Neurol 227:188-94. 2011
    ..Differentiation by solubility experiments can therefore provide valuable information on prion protein composition, facilitate the separation of subtypes, and offer new prospects for conversion specificity of distinct isoforms...
  66. pmc Phenotypic and molecular analysis of tellurite resistance among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting O157:NM clinical isolates
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 43:452-4. 2005
    ..5%) of 86 sorbitol-fermenting (SF) EHEC O157:NM strains had Te MICs of </=4 microg/ml, did not grow on Te-containing media, and lacked ter genes. Optimal detection of SF EHEC O157:NM strains requires Te-independent strategies...
  67. ncbi request reprint Aspects of genome plasticity in pathogenic Escherichia coli
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 297:625-39. 2007
    ..coli pathotypes have been addressed and the results have been directly applied for the improvement of diagnostic methods...
  68. pmc Identification, characterization, and distribution of a Shiga toxin 1 gene variant (stx(1c)) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans
    Wenlan Zhang
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1441-6. 2002
    ..The procedures developed in this study now allow the determination of the frequency of STEC strains harboring stx(1c) among clinical STEC isolates and their association with human disease in prospective studies...
  69. ncbi request reprint Regional and phenotype heterogeneity of cellular prion proteins in the human brain
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital Muenster, Munster, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 25:2649-55. 2007
    ..Furthermore, we found marked differences in the expression of PrP(C). Variations in the processing of PrP(C) may lead to interregional differences in the glycoform composition of PrP(Sc) in human brains...
  70. ncbi request reprint Binding of N- and C-terminal anti-prion protein antibodies generates distinct phenotypes of cellular prion proteins (PrPC) obtained from human, sheep, cattle and mouse
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    FEBS J 274:1492-502. 2007
    ..This pattern is the result of an overlap of the nonglycosylated full-length and the glycosylated N-terminal truncated PrP(C) isoforms. Our data demonstrate the importance of antibody selection in characterization of PrP(C)...
  71. pmc Automated DNA sequence-based early warning system for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Munster, Germany
    PLoS Med 3:e33. 2006
    ..Prompt identification of an MRSA epidemic is crucial for the control of an outbreak. In this study we evaluated various early warning algorithms for the detection of an MRSA cluster...
  72. ncbi request reprint Intrahost genome alterations in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute of Hygiene, Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Gastroenterology 136:1925-38. 2009
    ..The intensive study of human enteric factors that induce or modulate pathogen chromosome instability could provide important information about host-microbial interactions...
  73. doi request reprint Cellular prion proteins in human platelets show a phenotype different to those in brain tissues
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, Westfälische Wilhelms University and University Hospital Münster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 112:954-62. 2011
    ..Plt PrP(C) are post-translational modified differently from PrP(C) in brain. These findings suggest other or less physiological functions of plt PrP(C) than in brain...
  74. pmc Comparison of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and multilocus sequence typing for differentiation of hemolytic-uremic syndrome-associated Escherichia coli (HUSEC) collection strains
    Christian Jenke
    Institute of Hygiene and National Consulting Laboratory for Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Strasse 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 49:3644-6. 2011
    ..Although MLVA--like MLST--was highly discriminatory (index of diversity, 0.988 versus 0.984), a low level of concordance demonstrated the limited ability of MLVA to reflect long-term evolutionary events...
  75. doi request reprint Normal silica gel and reversed phase thin-layer chromatography coupled with UV spectroscopy and IR-MALDI-o-TOF-MS for the detection of tetracycline antibiotics
    Iris Meisen
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Anal Bioanal Chem 398:2821-31. 2010
    ..An approximate detection limit of 5 ng of individual TCs in mixtures by combining RP-18W HPTLC with IR-MALDI-o-TOF-MS offers a novel timely and cost-efficient method for tracing TCs...
  76. doi request reprint Immunological one-step determination of the central nervous system indicator proteins, neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein, in meat products
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute of Hygiene, Westfälische Wilhelms University and University Hospital Münster, Robert Koch Strasse, Munster, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 54:1690-5. 2010
    ..Immunoblotting has proved to be a suitable assay for multiplex analysis of marker proteins possessing similar molecular weights and is therefore a suitable tool for application in food, veterinary and medical facilities...
  77. pmc Prospective genomic characterization of the German enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak by rapid next generation sequencing technology
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institute of Hygiene, University Munster, Munster, Germany
    PLoS ONE 6:e22751. 2011
    ..In conclusion, rapid next-generation technologies facilitated prospective whole genome characterization in the early stages of an outbreak...
  78. doi request reprint A duplex approach for immunochemical staining and typing of proteins in Western blots
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, Westfalische Wilhelms University, University Hospital Munster, Germany
    Anal Biochem 409:260-6. 2011
    ..This application can be used in the fields of diagnostics and public health to detect full-length and fragmented proteins and can also be used for characterization of overlaying proteins...
  79. pmc Cytolethal distending toxin from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 causes irreversible G2/M arrest, inhibition of proliferation, and death of human endothelial cells
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Infect Immun 73:552-62. 2005
    ..Our data demonstrate that CDT-V causes irreversible damage to human endothelial cells and thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of STEC-mediated diseases...
  80. pmc Shiga toxin gene loss and transfer in vitro and in vivo during enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 infection in humans
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Germany
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:3144-50. 2007
    ..The suggested occurrence of this process in the human intestine has diagnostic, clinical, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications...
  81. ncbi request reprint Cellular prion protein acquires resistance to proteolytic degradation following copper ion binding
    Thorsten Kuczius
    Institute for Hygiene, University Hospital Munster, Robert Koch Str 41, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Biol Chem 385:739-47. 2004
    ..Therefore, as a result of this inhibition the proteolytic degradation of PrP(C) as well as PrP(Sc) molecules was suppressed...
  82. doi request reprint Matching IR-MALDI-o-TOF mass spectrometry with the TLC overlay binding assay and its clinical application for tracing tumor-associated glycosphingolipids in hepatocellular and pancreatic cancer
    Ute Distler
    Institute of Medical Physics and Biophysics and Institute for Hygiene, University of Munster, D 48149 Munster, Germany
    Anal Chem 80:1835-46. 2008
    ..Thus, the in situ TLC-IR-MALDI-MS of immunolabeled GSLs opens new doors by delivering specific structural information of trace quantities of GSLs with only a limited investment in sample preparation...
  83. ncbi request reprint A multistate outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 infections in Germany, detected by molecular subtyping surveillance
    Dirk Werber
    Center for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institut, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Infect Dis 186:419-22. 2002
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first multistate outbreak associated with a non-O157 STEC detected by laboratory-based surveillance. Molecular subtyping was pivotal, as disease occurrence was sporadic or family-related...
  84. pmc Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: an evolutionary perspective
    Thierry Wirth
    Department of Molecular Biology, Schumannstrasse 21 22, Max Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 60:1136-51. 2006
    ..This long-term pattern of evolution was observed in genes distributed throughout the genome, and thereby is the likely result of episodic selection for strains that can escape the host immune response...
  85. pmc Real-time fluorescence PCR assays for detection and characterization of Shiga toxin, intimin, and enterohemolysin genes from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli
    Udo Reischl
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Regensburg, D 93053 Regensburg, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2555-65. 2002
    ....
  86. pmc Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection and antibodies against Stx2 and Stx1 in household contacts of children with enteropathic hemolytic-uremic syndrome
    Kerstin Ludwig
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinder und Jugendmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Universitat Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1773-82. 2002
    ..9 years of age, suggests a protective role for anti-Stx and anti-O157 LPS antibodies...
  87. ncbi request reprint Escherichia coli harboring Shiga toxin 2 gene variants: frequency and association with clinical symptoms
    Alexander W Friedrich
    Institut fur Hygiene und Mikrobiologie der Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Infect Dis 185:74-84. 2002
    ..stx2c-positive STEC isolates can cause HUS, but the presence of stx2d or stx2e may predict a milder disease with a minimal risk of HUS...
  88. ncbi request reprint Saliva IgM and IgA are a sensitive indicator of the humoral immune response to Escherichia coli O157 lipopolysaccharide in children with enteropathic hemolytic uremic syndrome
    Kerstin Ludwig
    Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinder und Jugendmedizin, Universtität Hamburg, Universitatsklinikum Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    Pediatr Res 52:307-13. 2002
    ..Saliva-based immunoassays offer a reliable, noninvasive method for the diagnosis of E. coli O157 infection in patients with enteropathic HUS...
  89. ncbi request reprint Detection and characterization of class 1 integrons in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
    Stefano Morabito
    Laboratorio di Medicina Veterinaria, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Microb Drug Resist 8:85-91. 2002
    ..coli K-12 strain. In conclusion, integrons and antibiotic resistance genes can be frequently found in EHEC strains, particularly E. coli O111 and E. coli O26, and their presence could complicate therapeutic trials...
  90. ncbi request reprint Clinical course and the role of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome in pediatric patients, 1997-2000, in Germany and Austria: a prospective study
    Angela Gerber
    Zentrum für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, Universitat Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Infect Dis 186:493-500. 2002
    ..05). This large study in children with HUS underlines the rising importance of non-O157:H7 serotypes, and, despite increased public awareness, the number of patients remained unchanged...
  91. ncbi request reprint Analysis of pathogenicity islands of STEC
    Tobias A Oelschlaeger
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie, Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Methods Mol Med 73:99-112. 2003
  92. pmc Genetic diversity among clonal lineages within Escherichia coli O157:H7 stepwise evolutionary model
    Peter C H Feng
    Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1701-6. 2007
    ..MLST of strains in other clonal complexes also discriminated strains thought to be identical and showed that genetic differences will further distinguish clonal populations into subclones...
  93. ncbi request reprint Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages--genomes in motion
    Sylvia Herold
    Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, D 01037 Dresden, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 294:115-21. 2004
    ..Stx-phages may be considered to represent highly mobile genetic elements that play an important role in the expression of Stx, in horizontal gene transfer, and hence in genome diversification...
  94. pmc Sequence-based typing of flaB is a more stable screening tool than typing of flaA for monitoring of Campylobacter populations
    Alexander Mellmann
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Munster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4840-2. 2004
    ..886 (by multilocus sequence typing). Cross-classification gave 94.77 or 95.82% (PFGE-flaA or PFGE-flaB) concordance. flaA was overdiscriminatory in three cases, most probably due to intragenomic recombination...
  95. ncbi request reprint Complete sequence of the large virulence plasmid pSFO157 of the sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H- strain 3072/96
    Werner Brunder
    Institut fur Hygiene und Mikrobiologie der Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, D 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 296:467-74. 2006
    ..coli O157 virulence plasmids have a complex evolutionary origin...
  96. pmc Analysis of genome plasticity in pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli isolates by use of DNA arrays
    Ulrich Dobrindt
    Institut für Molekulare Infektionsbiologie der Universität Würzburg, 97070 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Bacteriol 185:1831-40. 2003
    ..coli strains and underline the fact that both the acquisition and deletion of DNA elements are important processes involved in the evolution of prokaryotes...
  97. doi request reprint Shiga toxin-negative attaching and effacing Escherichia coli: distinct clinical associations with bacterial phylogeny and virulence traits and inferred in-host pathogen evolution
    Martina Bielaszewska
    Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory on Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, University of Munster, Wernigerode, Germany
    Clin Infect Dis 47:208-17. 2008
    ..coli and cause diarrhea worldwide. However, it is unknown whether there are bacterial lineage-specific human disease phenotypes. We compared stx-/EAF- AEEC recovered from patients (mostly children) with bloody and nonbloody diarrhea...
  98. ncbi request reprint Multilocus sequence analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis indicates frequent recombination
    Andreas Koehler
    Institut für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universität, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Microbiology 149:2407-15. 2003
    ..gingivalis. A standardized index of association of 0.0898 indicates that the P. gingivalis genes analysed are close to linkage equilibrium...
  99. pmc Cytolethal distending toxin gene cluster in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H- and O157:H7: characterization and evolutionary considerations
    Andreas Janka
    Institut fur Hygiene, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Germany
    Infect Immun 71:3634-8. 2003
    ..Our data demonstrate that cdt, encoding a potential virulence factor, is present in the EHEC O157 complex and suggest that cdt may have been acquired by phage transduction...
  100. ncbi request reprint Hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26:H infection and consumption of unpasteurized cow's milk
    Franz Allerberger
    Institute for Hygiene and Social Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
    Int J Infect Dis 7:42-5. 2003
    ..We report two Austrian cases of HUS due to E. coli O26:H- affecting an 11-month-old boy and a 28-month-old girl in which transmission through unpasteurized cow's milk was positively identified...
  101. ncbi request reprint Cluster of hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11
    Joachim Misselwitz
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Hospital of Friedrich Schiller University, Kochstrasse 2, D 07745 Jena, Germany
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:349-54. 2003
    ..coli (STEC) are less thoroughly described. Here we report a cluster of HUS cases caused by STEC O26:H11 the most common non-O157:H7 STEC isolated from sporadic cases of HUS in Europe...