W Stahl

Summary

Affiliation: Heinrich Heine University
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Carotenoids and UV protection
    Helmut Sies
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, P O Box 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 3:749-52. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, P O Box 101007, D 40001 Duesseldorf, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1740:101-7. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Vitamin E biotransformation in humans
    Francesco Galli
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Applied Biochemistry and Nutritional Sciences, University of Perugia, Italy
    Vitam Horm 76:263-80. 2007
  4. doi request reprint Photoprotection by dietary carotenoids: concept, mechanisms, evidence and future development
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Faculty of Medicine, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 56:287-95. 2012
  5. pmc Plasma micronutrient status is improved after a 3-month dietary intervention with 5 daily portions of fruits and vegetables: implications for optimal antioxidant levels
    Maria Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Nutr J 8:10. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Stimulation of gap junctional communication: comparison of acyclo-retinoic acid and lycopene
    W Stahl
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, D 40001, Germany
    Arch Biochem Biophys 373:271-4. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Antioxidant activity of carotenoids
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, PO Box 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Mol Aspects Med 24:345-51. 2003
  8. ncbi request reprint Macular carotenoids: lutein and zeaxanthin
    W Stahl
    Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Dev Ophthalmol 38:70-88. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Increased F2 isoprostane plasma levels in patients with congestive heart failure are correlated with antioxidant status and disease severity
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Card Fail 10:334-8. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Effects of vitamin C and aspirin in ischemic stroke-related lipid peroxidation: results of the AVASAS (Aspirin Versus Ascorbic acid plus Aspirin in Stroke) Study
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Biofactors 24:265-74. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. ncbi request reprint Carotenoids and UV protection
    Helmut Sies
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, P O Box 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 3:749-52. 2004
    ..For successful intervention, treatment with carotenoids is needed for a period of at least ten weeks. An increased consumption of carotenoids may contribute to life-long protection against UV-induced damage...
  2. ncbi request reprint Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, P O Box 101007, D 40001 Duesseldorf, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1740:101-7. 2005
    ..Protective effects are also achieved with a diet rich in lycopene...
  3. ncbi request reprint Vitamin E biotransformation in humans
    Francesco Galli
    Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Applied Biochemistry and Nutritional Sciences, University of Perugia, Italy
    Vitam Horm 76:263-80. 2007
    ..The hypothesis of a transformation-dependent bioactivation of vitamin E represents an intriguing and emerging aspect of research that deserves further investigation...
  4. doi request reprint Photoprotection by dietary carotenoids: concept, mechanisms, evidence and future development
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Faculty of Medicine, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 56:287-95. 2012
    ..In vitro data show that also other carotenoids are efficient photoprotectors. Among them are lutein and structurally unusual phenolic polyenes like 3,3'-dihydroxyisorenieratene...
  5. pmc Plasma micronutrient status is improved after a 3-month dietary intervention with 5 daily portions of fruits and vegetables: implications for optimal antioxidant levels
    Maria Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Nutr J 8:10. 2009
    ..Thus, a nutritional counseling program is capable of improving plasma levels of antioxidants even in a health-conscious population. A decrease in biomarkers of oxidative stress, however, does not occur...
  6. ncbi request reprint Stimulation of gap junctional communication: comparison of acyclo-retinoic acid and lycopene
    W Stahl
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, D 40001, Germany
    Arch Biochem Biophys 373:271-4. 2000
    ..Therefore, we conclude that lycopene affects GJC independent of the formation of acyclo-retinoic acid...
  7. ncbi request reprint Antioxidant activity of carotenoids
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, PO Box 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Mol Aspects Med 24:345-51. 2003
    ..Filtering of blue light has been proposed as a mechanism protecting the macula lutea against photooxidative damage. There is increasing evidence from human studies that carotenoids protect the skin against photooxidative damage...
  8. ncbi request reprint Macular carotenoids: lutein and zeaxanthin
    W Stahl
    Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Dev Ophthalmol 38:70-88. 2005
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Increased F2 isoprostane plasma levels in patients with congestive heart failure are correlated with antioxidant status and disease severity
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Card Fail 10:334-8. 2004
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Effects of vitamin C and aspirin in ischemic stroke-related lipid peroxidation: results of the AVASAS (Aspirin Versus Ascorbic acid plus Aspirin in Stroke) Study
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Biofactors 24:265-74. 2005
    ..Further studies are warranted to clarify whether the use of vitamin C may add clinical long-term beneficial effects in patients with stroke...
  11. ncbi request reprint Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans
    W Stahl
    Institut für Physiologische Chemie I and Biologisch Medizinisches Forschungszentrum, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Am J Clin Nutr 71:795-8. 2000
    ..beta-Carotene is widely used as an oral sun protectant but studies on its protective effects are scarce...
  12. ncbi request reprint Carotenoids and flavonoids contribute to nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf 40001, Germany
    Mol Biotechnol 37:26-30. 2007
    ..After about 10-12 weeks of dietary intervention, a decrease in the sensitivity toward UV-induced erythema was observed in volunteers. Dietary micronutrients may contribute to life-long protection against harmful UV radiation...
  13. ncbi request reprint Dietary habits are major determinants of the plasma antioxidant status in healthy elderly subjects
    Timur Anlasik
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Br J Nutr 94:639-42. 2005
    ..Modification of nutritional habits among other lifestyle changes should be encouraged to lower prevalence of disease risk factors in later life...
  14. doi request reprint Supplementation of flaxseed oil diminishes skin sensitivity and improves skin barrier function and condition
    K Neukam
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 24:67-74. 2011
    ..The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of daily supplementation with flaxseed oil and safflowerseed oil on healthy volunteers with sensitive skin...
  15. ncbi request reprint Carotenoids and protection against solar UV radiation
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Deutschland
    Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 15:291-6. 2002
    ..Such protective effects of carotenoids were also demonstrated in cell culture. The in-vitro data indicate that there is an optimal level of protection for each carotenoid...
  16. pmc Plasma levels of vitamin E and carotenoids are decreased in patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
    Andreas Erhardt
    Klinik fur Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Moorenstr 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Eur J Med Res 16:76-8. 2011
    ..Oxidative stress is suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The present study was aimed to compare plasma levels of antioxidants in patients suffering from NASH and healthy controls...
  17. ncbi request reprint Lycopene: antioxidant and biological effects and its bioavailability in the human
    H Sies
    Institut für Physiologische Chemie I and Biologisch Medizinisches Forschungszentrum, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 218:121-4. 1998
    ..Little is known about the metabolism of lycopene. Potentially biologically active oxidation products of lycopene have been identified in human plasma...
  18. ncbi request reprint [Functional food for the skin]
    J Krutmann
    Institut fur Umweltmedizinische Forschung, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf
    Hautarzt 57:280. 2006
  19. ncbi request reprint Plasma levels of lipophilic antioxidants in very old patients with type 2 diabetes
    M C Polidori
    Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Perugia University Hospital, Perugia, Italy
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 16:15-9. 2000
    ..This evidence is limited in elderly patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes, in which age- and disease-related production of reactive oxygen species might exert synergistic damaging effects on tissues and organs...
  20. ncbi request reprint The 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin biosynthesis in benign and malignant cells of the skin
    K Lang
    Department of Dermatology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
    J Photochem Photobiol B 65:29-34. 2001
    ..In conclusion, by optimizing the treatment modalities, especially the light source, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) could become a treatment alternative of melanoma metastases in progressive disease...
  21. doi request reprint High fruit and vegetable intake is positively correlated with antioxidant status and cognitive performance in healthy subjects
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Alzheimers Dis 17:921-7. 2009
    ..Modification of nutritional habits aimed at increasing intake of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged to lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in later life...
  22. ncbi request reprint Supplementation with tomato-based products increases lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene levels in human serum and protects against UV-light-induced erythema
    Olivier Aust
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75:54-60. 2005
    ..Both of these carotenoids exhibit absorption maxima at wavelengths of UV light. Absorption of UV light protects skin from photodamage and might explain the differences observed between groups...
  23. doi request reprint Spectroscopic properties of phenolic and quinoid carotenoids: a combined theoretical and experimental study
    Christel M Marian
    Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Universitatsstr 1, 40225, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 8:270-8. 2009
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Nutritional, dietary and postprandial oxidative stress
    Helmut Sies
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Universitat Dusseldorf, Postfach 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Nutr 135:969-72. 2005
    ..g., from wine, cocoa, or tea, improves endothelial dysfunction and lowers the susceptibility of LDL lipids to oxidation. Polyphenols affect endothelial function not solely as antioxidants but also as modulatory signaling molecules...
  25. ncbi request reprint Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin
    Helmut Sies
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, P O Box 10 10 07, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res 73:95-100. 2003
    ..Epidemiological studies provide evidence that an increased consumption of lutein is associated with a lowered risk for age-related macular degeneration, a disease with increasing incidence in the elderly...
  26. ncbi request reprint Plasma lipophilic antioxidants and malondialdehyde in congestive heart failure patients: relationship to disease severity
    Maria Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Free Radic Biol Med 32:148-52. 2002
    ..The present study supports the concept that an increased consumption of vitamin-rich fruits and vegetables might help in achieving cardiovascular health...
  27. ncbi request reprint Plasma antioxidant status, immunoglobulin g oxidation and lipid peroxidation in demented patients: relevance to Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 18:265-70. 2004
    ..This might be relevant to the pathophysiology of dementing disorders, particularly in light of the recently suggested importance of the vascular component in AD development...
  28. ncbi request reprint Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight
    Helmut Sies
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Annu Rev Nutr 24:173-200. 2004
    ..Dietary protection is provided by carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbate, flavonoids, or n-3 fatty acids, contributing to maintenance resistance as part of lifelong protection...
  29. ncbi request reprint Bioavailability and metabolism
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Mol Aspects Med 23:39-100. 2002
  30. ncbi request reprint Cigarette smoking cessation increases plasma levels of several antioxidant micronutrients and improves resistance towards oxidative challenge
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University, PO Box 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Br J Nutr 90:147-50. 2003
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Incorporation of carotenoids from paprika oleoresin into human chylomicrons
    Antonio Pérez-Gálvez
    Institute for Physiological Chemistry I, Henrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Br J Nutr 89:787-93. 2003
    ..However, oleoresin is a suitable source for the provitamin A carotenoids beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin and the macular pigment zeaxanthin...
  32. ncbi request reprint Plasma carotenoid and malondialdehyde levels in ischemic stroke patients: relationship to early outcome
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry I, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Free Radic Res 36:265-8. 2002
    ..Among the carotenoids, only lutein plasma changes are associated with a poor early-outcome...
  33. ncbi request reprint In vitro antioxidant activity of 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (alpha-CEHC), a vitamin E metabolite
    Alejandro Betancor-Fernandez
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Free Radic Res 36:915-21. 2002
    ..We conclude that alpha-CEHC is a molecule with good antioxidant activity, having the advantage over Trolox of being a naturally occurring compound. These properties might be useful for research or industrial purposes...
  34. ncbi request reprint Lycopene-rich products and dietary photoprotection
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, P O Box 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 5:238-42. 2006
    ..After 10-12 weeks of intervention a decrease in the sensitivity towards UV-induced erythema was observed in volunteers. Dietary carotenoids may contribute to life-long protection against harmful UV radiation...
  35. doi request reprint 3,3'-Dihydroxyisorenieratene prevents UV-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and the release of protein-bound zinc ions in human skin fibroblasts
    Kaya Lutter
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Mol Nutr Food Res 54:285-91. 2010
    ..g. cysteine) and that protection by DHIR is due to intracellular scavenging of reactive oxygen species generated in photo-oxidation...
  36. ncbi request reprint Quantification of the alpha- and gamma-tocopherol metabolites 2,5,7, 8-tetramethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman and 2,7, 8-trimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman in human serum
    W Stahl
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Anal Biochem 275:254-9. 1999
    ..About one-third of the alpha-CEHC circulating in the blood is present as a glucuronide conjugate. Baseline levels of gamma-CEHC are about 50 to 85 pmol/ml...
  37. ncbi request reprint Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin
    Karin Neukam
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, P O Box 101007, 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Eur J Nutr 46:53-6. 2007
    ..Long term cocoa ingestion leads to an increased resistance against UV-induced erythema and a lowered transepidermal water loss...
  38. doi request reprint Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil supplements modulates skin condition in women
    Silke De Spirt
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, P O Box 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Br J Nutr 101:440-5. 2009
    ..05). Except for hydration, none of the parameters was affected in the placebo group. The present data provide evidence that skin properties can be modulated by an intervention with dietary lipids...
  39. ncbi request reprint Screening pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of turmeric rhizome, artichoke leaf, devil's claw root and garlic or salmon oil for antioxidant capacity
    Alejandro Betancor-Fernandez
    Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Postfach 101007, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Pharm Pharmacol 55:981-6. 2003
    ..That of salmon oil was mainly attributed to vitamin E, which is added to the product for stabilization. In all test preparations, the antioxidant activity was significantly correlated with the content of total phenolic compounds...
  40. ncbi request reprint Non-antioxidant properties of carotenoids
    Wilhelm Stahl
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Biol Chem 383:553-8. 2002
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Astaxanthin diminishes gap junctional intercellular communication in primary human fibroblasts
    Felicitas Daubrawa
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, D 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    J Nutr 135:2507-11. 2005
    ..We suggest that astaxanthin affects channel function by changing the phosphorylation pattern of connexin43...
  42. ncbi request reprint Tocopherol metabolites 2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (alpha-CEHC) and 2, 7, 8-trimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (gamma-CEHC) in human serum after a single dose of natural vitamin E
    Dragan Radosavac
    Institute of Physiological Chemistry I, Heinrich Heine University, P O Box 101007, 40001 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Eur J Nutr 41:119-24. 2002
    ..alpha-CEHC (2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman) and gamma-CEHC (2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman) have been identified as water-soluble metabolites which are excreted with the urine in humans...
  43. ncbi request reprint Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema
    Ulrike Heinrich
    Institut für Experimentelle Dermatologie, Universitat Witten Herdecke, Germany
    J Nutr 133:98-101. 2003
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Elevated lipid peroxidation biomarkers and low antioxidant status in atherosclerotic patients with increased carotid or iliofemoral intima media thickness
    M Cristina Polidori
    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 1, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldirf, Düsseldirf, Germany
    J Investig Med 55:163-7. 2007
    ..The aim of the study was to assess the association between the intima media thickness (IMT) of the major arteries as a clinical marker of atherosclerosis and markers of lipid peroxidation along with the antioxidant status in humans...
  45. ncbi request reprint Dietary carotenoids contribute to normal human skin color and UV photosensitivity
    Simon Alaluf
    Unilever Research, Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 3UP, UK
    J Nutr 132:399-403. 2002
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Low levels of carotenoids and retinol in involutional osteoporosis
    Dario Maggio
    Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia, Policlinico Monteluce, Via Brunamonti, 06124 Perugia, Italy
    Bone 38:244-8. 2006
    ..Our study suggests a bone sparing effect of retinol, to which the provitamin A activity of some carotenoids might have contributed...
  47. ncbi request reprint Divergent optimum levels of lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein protecting against UVB irradiation in human fibroblastst
    Olaf Eichler
    Institut für Physiologische Chemie I and Biologisch Medizinisches Forschunggzentrum, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Photochem Photobiol 75:503-6. 2002
    ..05, 0.40 and 0.30 nmol/mg protein for lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein, respectively. Beyond the optimum levels, further increases of carotenoid levels in cells led to prooxidant effects...
  48. ncbi request reprint Lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage and plasma antioxidants in Alzheimer disease
    Patrizia Mecocci
    Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Perugia, Via Eugubina 42, 06122 Perugia, Italy
    Arch Neurol 59:794-8. 2002
    ..A large body of experimental evidence suggests that in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis an important role is played by oxidative stress, but there is still a lack of data on in vivo markers of free radical-induced damage...
  49. ncbi request reprint PASSCLAIM - Diet-related cardiovascular disease
    Ronald P Mensink
    Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, P O Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Nutr 42:I6-27. 2003
    ..Therefore, studies to further validate generic predictors for the CVD risk should be initiated...
  50. ncbi request reprint Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women
    Ulrike Heinrich
    Institut für Experimentelle Dermatologie, Universitat Witten Herdecke, Germany
    J Nutr 136:1565-9. 2006
    ..Dietary flavanols from cocoa contribute to endogenous photoprotection, improve dermal blood circulation, and affect cosmetically relevant skin surface and hydration variables...
  51. ncbi request reprint Antioxidants, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, gene induction and mitochondrial function
    Malcolm J Jackson
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Mol Aspects Med 23:209-85. 2002