G Sutter

Summary

Affiliation: GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Vaccinia vectors as candidate vaccines: the development of modified vaccinia virus Ankara for antigen delivery
    Gerd Sutter
    GSF Institut f Molekulare Virologie, Trogerstr 4b, 81675 Munchen, Germany
    Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 3:263-71. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Modified vaccinia virus Ankara for delivery of human tyrosinase as melanoma-associated antigen: induction of tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific human leukocyte antigen A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo
    I Drexler
    GSF Institute for Molecular Virology, Munich, Germany
    Cancer Res 59:4955-63. 1999
  3. ncbi request reprint Live viral vectors: vaccinia virus
    Caroline Staib
    GSF Institute of Molecular Virology and Institute of Virology, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Methods Mol Med 87:51-68. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) vaccines in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys undergoing antiretroviral therapy
    Klaus Uberla
    Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    J Med Primatol 36:2-9. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic vaccination with MVA-HIV-1 nef elicits Nef-specific T-helper cell responses in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals
    Antonio Cosma
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Centre for Environment and Health, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Vaccine 22:21-9. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Modified vaccinia virus Ankara as antigen delivery system: how can we best use its potential?
    Ingo Drexler
    Institute for Molecular Virology, Munchen, Germany
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 15:506-12. 2004
  7. pmc Neutralization assay using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing the green fluorescent protein is a high-throughput method to monitor the humoral immune response against vaccinia virus
    Antonio Cosma
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:406-10. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint A phase I vaccination study with tyrosinase in patients with stage II melanoma using recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-hTyr)
    Ralf G Meyer
    III Medizinische Klinik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55116 Mainz, Germany
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 54:453-67. 2005
  9. pmc Protection of rhesus monkeys against infection with minimally pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus: correlations with neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T cells
    Gerald V Quinnan
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Virol 79:3358-69. 2005
  10. ncbi request reprint Inactivation of the viral interleukin 1beta receptor improves CD8+ T-cell memory responses elicited upon immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara
    Caroline Staib
    GSF Institute of Molecular Virology and Institute of Virology, Technical University of Munich, Trogerstrasse 4b, 81675 Munchen, Germany
    J Gen Virol 86:1997-2006. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. ncbi request reprint Vaccinia vectors as candidate vaccines: the development of modified vaccinia virus Ankara for antigen delivery
    Gerd Sutter
    GSF Institut f Molekulare Virologie, Trogerstr 4b, 81675 Munchen, Germany
    Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 3:263-71. 2003
    ..In this article we briefly review history of MVA and state-of-the art technologies with regard to generation of recombinant MVA vaccines, and describe the progress to develop MVA vector vaccines against important infectious diseases...
  2. ncbi request reprint Modified vaccinia virus Ankara for delivery of human tyrosinase as melanoma-associated antigen: induction of tyrosinase- and melanoma-specific human leukocyte antigen A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T cells in vitro and in vivo
    I Drexler
    GSF Institute for Molecular Virology, Munich, Germany
    Cancer Res 59:4955-63. 1999
    ..The results are an essential basis for MVA-based vaccination trials in cancer patients...
  3. ncbi request reprint Live viral vectors: vaccinia virus
    Caroline Staib
    GSF Institute of Molecular Virology and Institute of Virology, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Methods Mol Med 87:51-68. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic immunization with Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) vaccines in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys undergoing antiretroviral therapy
    Klaus Uberla
    Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    J Med Primatol 36:2-9. 2007
    ..Therefore, we studied the concept of therapeutic immunization in 18 rhesus monkeys infected with a highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) swarm...
  5. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic vaccination with MVA-HIV-1 nef elicits Nef-specific T-helper cell responses in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals
    Antonio Cosma
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Centre for Environment and Health, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
    Vaccine 22:21-9. 2003
    ..Furthermore, the new putative CD4 epitopes described here hold promise as important tools for epitope-based vaccination...
  6. ncbi request reprint Modified vaccinia virus Ankara as antigen delivery system: how can we best use its potential?
    Ingo Drexler
    Institute for Molecular Virology, Munchen, Germany
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 15:506-12. 2004
    ..Thus, vector development to challenge dilemmas in vaccinology or immunization against poxvirus bio-threat seems possible, yet the right choice should be made for a most beneficial use...
  7. pmc Neutralization assay using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing the green fluorescent protein is a high-throughput method to monitor the humoral immune response against vaccinia virus
    Antonio Cosma
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:406-10. 2004
    ..Most importantly, application of the highly attenuated MVA eliminates the safety concern in using the replication-competent vaccinia virus in the standard clinical laboratory...
  8. ncbi request reprint A phase I vaccination study with tyrosinase in patients with stage II melanoma using recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-hTyr)
    Ralf G Meyer
    III Medizinische Klinik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55116 Mainz, Germany
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 54:453-67. 2005
    ..We presume that modification of the antigen and/or prime-boost vaccination applying different approaches to antigen delivery may be required to induce an effective tyrosinase-specific immune response...
  9. pmc Protection of rhesus monkeys against infection with minimally pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus: correlations with neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T cells
    Gerald V Quinnan
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
    J Virol 79:3358-69. 2005
    ..Induction of cross-reactive, primary HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies is feasible and, when potent, may result in complete protection against infection with a heterologous challenge virus strain...
  10. ncbi request reprint Inactivation of the viral interleukin 1beta receptor improves CD8+ T-cell memory responses elicited upon immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara
    Caroline Staib
    GSF Institute of Molecular Virology and Institute of Virology, Technical University of Munich, Trogerstrasse 4b, 81675 Munchen, Germany
    J Gen Virol 86:1997-2006. 2005
    ..These data suggest that deletion of the viral IL1betaR gene may be considered a relevant approach to amplify the virus-specific CD8+ memory T-cell response and duration of protective immunity obtained after MVA vaccination...
  11. ncbi request reprint Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein displaying retrovirus-like particles induce a type I IFN receptor-dependent switch to neutralizing IgG antibodies
    Patricia Bach
    Division of Immunology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    J Immunol 178:5839-47. 2007
    ..Interestingly, in the context of VLP-VSV as well as VSV immunization, IFNAR triggering of B lymphocytes did not play a critical role...
  12. pmc Immunization of rhesus macaques with a DNA prime/modified vaccinia virus Ankara boost regimen induces broad simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific T-cell responses and reduces initial viral replication but does not prevent disease progression follow
    Helen Horton
    Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA
    J Virol 76:7187-202. 2002
    ..01). However, despite the induction of virus-specific cellular immune responses and reduced peak viral loads, most animals still suffered from gradual CD4 depletion and progressed to disease...
  13. ncbi request reprint Immunization with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara can modify mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus infection and delay disease progression in macaques
    Charlotta Nilsson
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, SE 171 82 Solna, Sweden
    J Gen Virol 83:807-18. 2002
    ..Furthermore, immunization with MVA-SIVsm, as well as wild-type MVA alone, seemed to delay disease progression after mucosal SIV infection in a proportion of the monkeys...
  14. doi request reprint Protective efficacy of several vaccines against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus under experimental conditions
    Jutta Veits
    Institute of Molecular Biology, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    Vaccine 26:1688-96. 2008
    ....
  15. pmc Tat-vaccinated macaques do not control simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication
    Todd M Allen
    Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA
    J Virol 76:4108-12. 2002
    ..Despite the induction of Tat-specific CTL, there was no significant reduction in either peak or viral set point compared to that of controls...
  16. ncbi request reprint Evaluation in rhesus macaques of Tat and rev-targeted immunization as a preventive vaccine against mucosal challenge with SHIV-BX08
    Bernard Verrier
    UMR 2142 CNRS bioMérieux, ENSL, 69365 Lyon, France
    DNA Cell Biol 21:653-8. 2002
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara as an alternative vaccine against smallpox in chronically HIV type 1-infected individuals undergoing HAART
    Antonio Cosma
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF National Research Centre of Environment and Health, Munich, Germany
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:782-93. 2007
    ..The observed immune responses suggest that the highly attenuated MVA could be used as a substitute vaccine against smallpox in chronically HIV-1-infected individuals undergoing HAART...
  18. ncbi request reprint Vaccination with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) proteins protects calves against RSV challenge
    Adriaan F G Antonis
    Animal Sciences Group, Division of Infectious Diseases, P O Box 65, NL 8200AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 25:4818-27. 2007
    ..Immunized animals showed reduced pulmonary virus loads, and no eosinophilic infiltration or enhanced respiratory distress. In conclusion, candidate rMVA/bRSV vaccines induced protective and safe immune responses in calves...
  19. ncbi request reprint Double-stranded RNA-binding protein E3 controls translation of viral intermediate RNA, marking an essential step in the life cycle of modified vaccinia virus Ankara
    Holger Ludwig
    Department of Virology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    J Gen Virol 87:1145-55. 2006
    ..These data imply that an essential function of vaccinia virus E3L is to secure translation of intermediate RNA and, thereby, expression of other viral genes...
  20. doi request reprint The highly conserved orthopoxvirus 68k ankyrin-like protein is part of a cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex
    Karin M Sperling
    Paul Ehrlich Institut, Department of Virology, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 51 59, 63225 Langen, Germany
    Virology 374:234-9. 2008
    ..This interaction was F-box domain dependent and could also be observed in infected cells, indicating that SCF complex formation might be important for the viral life cycle...
  21. ncbi request reprint Short-term, but not post-exposure, protection against lethal orthopoxvirus challenge after immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara
    Caroline Staib
    GSF Institute of Molecular Virology and Institute of Virology, Technical University of Munich, 81675 Munchen, Germany
    J Gen Virol 87:2917-21. 2006
    ..These data suggest that, in addition to conventional vaccination, MVA may serve for potent emergency prophylaxis against orthopoxvirus infection...
  22. pmc Vaccinia virus replication is not affected by APOBEC3 family members
    Melanie Kremer
    Paul Ehrlich Institut, Paul Ehrlich Str, 51 59, 63225 Langen, Germany
    Virol J 3:86. 2006
    ..In addition, poxviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm where APOBEC3G is located. It was therefore tempting to analyze whether vaccinia virus replication is affected by APOBEC3G...
  23. ncbi request reprint T cell responses to respiratory syncytial virus fusion and attachment proteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
    Leon de Waal
    Department of Virology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Viral Immunol 19:669-78. 2006
    ..The rMVA-based in vitro stimulation protocol will be useful to define protein-specific T cell responses in different viral systems...
  24. ncbi request reprint Vaccinia virus double-stranded RNA-binding protein E3 does not interfere with siRNA-mediated gene silencing in mammalian cells
    Markus Lantermann
    Paul Ehrlich Institut, Paul Ehrlich Str 51 59, 63225 Langen, Germany
    Virus Res 126:1-8. 2007
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based vaccine induces protective immunity in mice against infection with influenza virus H5N1
    Joost H C M Kreijtz
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 195:1598-606. 2007
    ..Our data suggest that recombinant MVA expressing the HA of influenza virus A/Vietnam/1194/04 is a promising alternative vaccine candidate that could be used for the induction of protective immunity against various H5N1 influenza strains...
  26. ncbi request reprint Vaccine-induced early control of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees fails to impact on hepatic PD-1 and chronicity
    Christine S Rollier
    Department of Virology, Biomedical Primate Research Center, GH Rijswijk, The Netherlands
    Hepatology 45:602-13. 2007
    ..CONCLUSION: Despite early control of virus load, a virus-associated tolerogenic-like state can develop in certain individuals independent of vaccination history...
  27. pmc Modified vaccinia virus Ankara induces Toll-like receptor-independent type I interferon responses
    Zoe Waibler
    Division of Immunology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, D 63225, Langen, Germany
    J Virol 81:12102-10. 2007
    ..These data provide the basis to further improve MVA as a vaccine vector...
  28. pmc Cross-priming of cytotoxic T cells dictates antigen requisites for modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector vaccines
    Georg Gasteiger
    GSF Institute for Molecular Virology, Schneckenburgerstrasse 8, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Virol 81:11925-36. 2007
    ..Our data are essential for improved MVA vaccine design, as they demonstrate the need for optimal adjustment of the target antigen properties to the intrinsic requirements of the delivering vector system...
  29. ncbi request reprint Recombinant murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as challenge virus to test efficacy of vaccination against chronic virus infections in the mouse model
    Susanne El-Gogo
    Institute of Virology, Technical University Munchen, Germany
    Vaccine 25:3934-45. 2007
    ..These data strongly suggest the usefulness of the MHV-68 challenge model for further evaluation of recombinant vaccines against persisting virus infections...
  30. ncbi request reprint Infection of human dendritic cells with recombinant vaccinia virus MVA reveals general persistence of viral early transcription but distinct maturation-dependent cytopathogenicity
    Wolfgang Kastenmuller
    GSF Institut für Molekulare Virologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität 81675 München, Germany
    Virology 350:276-88. 2006
    ..These findings allow to better define the requirements for MVA-mediated antigen delivery to DC and help to derive optimized vectors for this advanced therapy option...
  31. ncbi request reprint A Toll-like receptor-independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA
    Ken J Ishii
    Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Nat Immunol 7:40-8. 2006
    ..These results suggest that both TBK1 and IKKi are required for innate immune activation by B-DNA, which might be important in antiviral innate immunity and other DNA-associated immune disorders...
  32. ncbi request reprint The poxviral scrapin MV-LAP requires a myxoma viral infection context to efficiently downregulate MHC-I molecules
    Nicolas Collin
    UMR 1225 Interactions Hôtes Agents Pathogènes, INRA ENVT, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, 23 Chemin des Capelles, BP87614, 31076 Toulouse cedex 03, France
    Virology 343:171-8. 2005
    ..Our data suggest that the functionality of viral LAP factors, inherited by herpes- and poxviruses from mammalian cells, is more complex than anticipated...
  33. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the efficacy of early versus late viral proteins in vaccination against SIV
    Koert J Stittelaar
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Vaccine 20:2921-7. 2002
    ..089) animals, with undetectable plasma viral loads in two of the four Tat/Rev-vaccinated animals. Therefore, the results warrant further investigation of the early regulatory proteins and their potential for vaccination against HIV...
  34. ncbi request reprint Generation of recombinant fowlpox virus using the non-essential F11L orthologue as insertion site and a rapid transient selection strategy
    Denise Boulanger
    GSF Institute for Molecular Virology, Trogerstr 4 b, 81675, Munich, Germany
    J Virol Methods 106:141-51. 2002
    ..Rapid isolation of those recombinants was achieved by using a double selective system and linearising the vector plasmid before transfection...
  35. ncbi request reprint Differences between T cell epitopes recognized after immunization and after infection
    Thorsten U Vogel
    Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, 1220 Capital Court, Madison, WI 53715, USA
    J Immunol 169:4511-21. 2002
    ..The repertoire of the immune response detected in the peripheral blood after immunization substantially differed from the immune response detected in the peripheral blood after infection...
  36. pmc Identification of vaccinia virus epitope-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted T cells and comparative analysis of smallpox vaccines
    Ingo Drexler
    GSF Institut für Molekulare Virologie, Institut fur Virologie, Technische Universität München TUM, Trogerstrasse 4 b, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:217-22. 2003
    ..Our data provide a basis to rationally estimate immunogenicity of safe, second-generation poxvirus vaccines and suggest that MVA may be a suitable candidate...
  37. pmc Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 capsomeres induce L1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and tumor regression in C57BL/6 mice
    Peter Öhlschläger
    Angewandte Tumorvirologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Virol 77:4635-45. 2003
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Improved host range selection for recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara
    Caroline Staib
    GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Munich, Germany
    Biotechniques 34:694-6, 698, 700. 2003
  39. ncbi request reprint Comparison of virus production in chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the WR, IHD-J and MVA strains of vaccinia virus: IHD-J is most efficient in trans-Golgi network wrapping and extracellular enveloped virus release
    Andrea Meiser
    GSF Institute for Molecular Virology, Trogerstrasse 4b, 81675 Munich, Germany
    J Gen Virol 84:1383-92. 2003
    ..5-fold more CEVs at the cell surface at 24 h p.i., compared with both WR and IHD-J. Accordingly, we found that despite the presence of two in-frame deletions in the A36R gene of MVA, this virus was able to make actin tails in CEFs...
  40. pmc Replication of modified vaccinia virus Ankara in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts requires expression of the interferon resistance gene E3L
    Simone Hornemann
    GSF Institut für Molekulare Virologie, Munich, Germany
    J Virol 77:8394-407. 2003
    ..We conclude that efficient propagation of MVA in CEF, the tissue culture system used for production of MVA-based vaccines, essentially requires conserved E3L gene function as an inhibitor of apoptosis and/or IFN induction...
  41. ncbi request reprint Clinical protocol. Immunization of patients with malignant melanoma with autologous CD34(+) cell-derived dendritic cells transduced ex vivo with a recombinant replication-deficient vaccinia vector encoding the human tyrosinase gene: a phase I trial
    Massimo Di Nicola
    Cristina Gandini Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan I 20133, Italy
    Hum Gene Ther 14:1347-60. 2003
  42. ncbi request reprint Partial tyrosinase-specific self tolerance by HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mice and man
    Carina Lotz
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    Int J Cancer 108:571-9. 2004
    ..Our studies have important implications for the design of anti-Tyr-based immunotherapeutics...
  43. ncbi request reprint Construction and isolation of recombinant MVA
    Caroline Staib
    Institute of Molecular Virology, GSF Research Center and Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany
    Methods Mol Biol 269:77-100. 2004
    ..This chapter provides state-of-the-art protocols for generation, plaque isolation, molecular characterization, as well as amplification and purification of MVA vector viruses to obtain recombinant viruses for further evaluation...
  44. ncbi request reprint Vaccine protection from CD4+ T-cell loss caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251 is afforded by sequential immunization with three unrelated vaccine vectors encoding multiple SIV antigens
    Gerrit Koopman
    Department of Virology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Lange Kleiweg 139, 2288 GJ Rijswijk, The Netherlands
    J Gen Virol 85:2915-24. 2004
    ..Although limited in the number of animals, this study provides important proof of the efficacy of the triple-vector vaccine strategy against chronic, progressive CD4+ T-cell loss in the rigorous SIVmac/rhesus macaque model of AIDS...
  45. ncbi request reprint Protective and disease-enhancing immune responses induced by recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins
    Wieslawa Olszewska
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College at St Mary s, Paddington, London W2 1PG, UK
    Vaccine 23:215-21. 2004
    ..Thus, MVA vaccines induce a favourable immune profile in RSV disease but retain the potential to enhance disease...
  46. pmc Multispecific vaccine-induced mucosal cytotoxic T lymphocytes reduce acute-phase viral replication but fail in long-term control of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239
    Thorsten U Vogel
    Wisconsin Primate Research Center Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA
    J Virol 77:13348-60. 2003
    ....
  47. pmc Role of viral factor E3L in modified vaccinia virus ankara infection of human HeLa Cells: regulation of the virus life cycle and identification of differentially expressed host genes
    Holger Ludwig
    Abteilung fur Virologie, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Paul Ehrlich Str 51 59, 63225 Langen, Germany
    J Virol 79:2584-96. 2005
    ....
  48. pmc Myxoma virus leukemia-associated protein is responsible for major histocompatibility complex class I and Fas-CD95 down-regulation and defines scrapins, a new group of surface cellular receptor abductor proteins
    Jean Luc Guerin
    UMR 960 Microbiologie Moléculaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique and Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, 31076 Toulouse, France
    J Virol 76:2912-23. 2002
    ..The down-regulation of cell surface molecules by scrapins probably helps protect infected cells during viral infections...