Ralf Gold

Summary

Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Understanding pathogenesis and therapy of multiple sclerosis via animal models: 70 years of merits and culprits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis research
    Ralf Gold
    Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research, Department of Experimental and Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Goettingen and Gemeinnützige Hertie Stiftung, Gottingen, Germany
    Brain 129:1953-71. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Spiradenocylindroma of the kidney: clinical and genetic findings suggesting a role of somatic mutation of the CYLD1 gene in the oncogenesis of an unusual renal neoplasm
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:119-24. 2002
  3. pmc Evidence for distinct mechanisms in the shaping of the CD4 T cell repertoire in histologically distinct myasthenia gravis-associated thymomas
    P Strobel
    Department of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Dev Immunol 8:279-90. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Tumor recurrence and survival in patients treated for thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 22:1501-9. 2004
  5. pmc Pathomechanisms of paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany
    Clin Dev Immunol 10:7-12. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis correlates with generation of mature naive CD4(+) T cells in thymomas
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wuerzburg, Germany
    Blood 100:159-66. 2002
  7. ncbi request reprint Polyclonal expansion of regulatory T cells interferes with effector cell migration in a model of multiple sclerosis
    Denise Tischner
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Brain 129:2635-47. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Naive CD8 T-cells initiate spontaneous autoimmunity to a sequestered model antigen of the central nervous system
    Shin Young Na
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Brain 131:2353-65. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Antigen therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis selectively induces apoptosis of pathogenic T cells
    Denise Tischner
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Wurzburg, and Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, University of Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 183:146-50. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory cells by microglia and its therapeutic implications: termination of CNS autoimmune inflammation and modulation by interferon-beta
    Andrew Chan
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    Glia 43:231-42. 2003

Detail Information

Publications71

  1. ncbi request reprint Understanding pathogenesis and therapy of multiple sclerosis via animal models: 70 years of merits and culprits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis research
    Ralf Gold
    Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research, Department of Experimental and Clinical Neuroimmunology, University of Goettingen and Gemeinnützige Hertie Stiftung, Gottingen, Germany
    Brain 129:1953-71. 2006
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Spiradenocylindroma of the kidney: clinical and genetic findings suggesting a role of somatic mutation of the CYLD1 gene in the oncogenesis of an unusual renal neoplasm
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:119-24. 2002
    ..We conclude that somatic mutation of the CYLD1 gene outside the skin can have a role in the oncogenesis of tumors with cylindromatous features...
  3. pmc Evidence for distinct mechanisms in the shaping of the CD4 T cell repertoire in histologically distinct myasthenia gravis-associated thymomas
    P Strobel
    Department of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Dev Immunol 8:279-90. 2001
    ..Decreased expression levels of MHC class II, although of crucial importance for abnormal intratumorous maturation, are not sufficient to explain the emergence of paraneoplastic MG...
  4. ncbi request reprint Tumor recurrence and survival in patients treated for thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 22:1501-9. 2004
    ..This retrospective study focused on the correlation of WHO-defined TET histotypes with survival and tumor recurrence in a large cohort of patients receiving different modes of treatment...
  5. pmc Pathomechanisms of paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 2, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany
    Clin Dev Immunol 10:7-12. 2003
    ..Thus, in MG(+) thymoma patients, thymectomy apparently also results in removal of a regulatory T cell pool and may explain the frequent temporary postoperative deterioration of MG in these patients...
  6. ncbi request reprint Paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis correlates with generation of mature naive CD4(+) T cells in thymomas
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wuerzburg, Germany
    Blood 100:159-66. 2002
    ..The acquisition of the CD45RA(+) phenotype on CD4(+) T cells during terminal intratumorous thymopoiesis is associated with the presence of MG in most thymoma patients...
  7. ncbi request reprint Polyclonal expansion of regulatory T cells interferes with effector cell migration in a model of multiple sclerosis
    Denise Tischner
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Brain 129:2635-47. 2006
    ..We anticipate that these results may help to better understand the role of T(reg) cells in controlling autoimmunity in the CNS...
  8. ncbi request reprint Naive CD8 T-cells initiate spontaneous autoimmunity to a sequestered model antigen of the central nervous system
    Shin Young Na
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Brain 131:2353-65. 2008
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Antigen therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis selectively induces apoptosis of pathogenic T cells
    Denise Tischner
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Wurzburg, and Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, University of Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 183:146-50. 2007
    ..This could be attributed to their differential sensitivity to apoptosis. Thus, antigen therapy selectively targets pathogenic T cells and should therefore limit potential adverse effects...
  10. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory cells by microglia and its therapeutic implications: termination of CNS autoimmune inflammation and modulation by interferon-beta
    Andrew Chan
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    Glia 43:231-42. 2003
    ..The in vitro increase of phagocytosis by IFNbeta merits further investigations whether this mechanism could also be therapeutically exploited...
  11. ncbi request reprint Downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta2 facilitates inflammation in the central nervous system by reciprocal astrocyte/microglia interactions
    Ines Siglienti
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 66:47-56. 2007
    ..Downregulation of astrocytic TGFbeta2 by T cell- and microglia-secreted cytokines appears to be a critical step in providing the grounds for acute and chronic neuroinflammation...
  12. pmc Selective targeting of regulatory T cells with CD28 superagonists allows effective therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Niklas Beyersdorf
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, D 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Exp Med 202:445-55. 2005
    ..Our data indicate that this class of CD28-specific monoclonal antibodies targets CD4+CD25+ T reg cells and provides a novel means for the effective treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases...
  13. doi request reprint The ageing and myasthenic thymus: a morphometric study validating a standard procedure in the histological workup of thymic specimens
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 201:64-73. 2008
    ..We here describe the validated, standardized histological workup and reporting system used in this trial...
  14. ncbi request reprint Common cellular and diverse genetic basis of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis: role of MHC class II and AIRE genes and genetic polymorphisms
    Philipp Strobel
    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor Kutzer Ufer 1 3, 68135 Mannheim, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1132:143-56. 2008
    ..The findings imply that IFN-gamma and STAT-1 signaling play a role in MHCII expression in the human thymus and in the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic MG...
  15. doi request reprint The autoimmune regulator AIRE in thymoma biology: autoimmunity and beyond
    Alexander Marx
    Institute of Pathology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    J Thorac Oncol 5:S266-72. 2010
    ..The failure of approximately 95% of thymomas to express autoimmune regulator is another feature potentially contributing to autoimmunity...
  16. ncbi request reprint A CTLA4high genotype is associated with myasthenia gravis in thymoma patients
    Wen Yu Chuang
    Institute of Pathology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Ann Neurol 58:644-8. 2005
    ..The unusual disease association with a CTLA4high genotype implies a unique pathogenesis of paraneoplastic MG, with high CTLA4 levels possibly supporting the nontolerogenic selection of CD4+ T cells in MG-associated thymomas...
  17. pmc Rapid regulatory T-cell response prevents cytokine storm in CD28 superagonist treated mice
    Tea Gogishvili
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4643. 2009
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Glucocorticoid effects on endothelial barrier function in the murine brain endothelial cell line cEND incubated with sera from patients with multiple sclerosis
    Kinga G Blecharz
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Wurzburg, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Mult Scler 16:293-302. 2010
    ..Our findings reveal direct and differential effects of MS sera on blood-brain barrier integrity...
  19. ncbi request reprint Tolerance induction by intrathymic expression of P0
    Lucian Visan
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Immunol 172:1364-70. 2004
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Permanent effector phenotype of neuroantigen-specific T cells acquired in the central nervous system during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
    Harald H Hofstetter
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, University of Wuerzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wuerzburg, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 391:127-30. 2006
    ..These findings of our work suggest that a permanent effector phenotype of neuroantigen-specific T cells is finally acquired in the CNS in EAE...
  21. ncbi request reprint IL-17 production by thymocytes upon CD3 stimulation and costimulation with microbial factors
    Harald H Hofstetter
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Cytokine 34:184-97. 2006
    ..In addition, strong differences between thymocytes and splenocytes were detected. Altered IL-17 production by thymocytes upon contact with foreign pathogens might be a key regulator in the education of adaptive immunity...
  22. ncbi request reprint The PLPp-specific T-cell population promoted by pertussis toxin is characterized by high frequencies of IL-17-producing cells
    Harald H Hofstetter
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Cytokine 40:35-43. 2007
    ..Our study indicates a new mechanism by which microbial agents can initiate or maintain autoimmune reactions and supports the growing role in particular for Th-17 cells in organ-specific autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis or EAE...
  23. pmc Enhanced glucocorticoid receptor signaling in T cells impacts thymocyte apoptosis and adaptive immune responses
    Jens van den Brandt
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Am J Pathol 170:1041-53. 2007
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that endogenous glucocorticoids impact T-cell development and favor the selection of Th2- over Th1-dominated adaptive immune responses...
  24. ncbi request reprint Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in transgenic mice expressing ovalbumin in oligodendrocytes
    Yi Cao
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Eur J Immunol 36:207-15. 2006
    ..The wealth of immunological reagents available to study and manipulate the OVA-specific response should make this new model useful for the investigation of components and mechanisms involved in CNS-specific autoimmunity...
  25. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic efficacy of IL-17 neutralization in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Harald H Hofstetter
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Cell Immunol 237:123-30. 2005
    ..Neutralization of IL-17 with a monoclonal antibody also ameliorated the disease course. We conclude that IL-17 is crucially involved in the cytokine network as an effector cytokine in EAE...
  26. ncbi request reprint Effects of polyclonal immunoglobulins and other immunomodulatory agents on microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory T-cells
    Andrew Chan
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians University, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 135:161-5. 2003
    ..These results indicate that IVIg has a high potential to inhibit microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory T-cells even under proinflammatory conditions and extend our view of the complex immunomodulatory effects of IVIg...
  27. ncbi request reprint Assessment of lesion evolution in experimental autoimmune neuritis by gadofluorine M-enhanced MR neurography
    Guido Stoll
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Exp Neurol 197:150-6. 2006
    ..In conclusion, Gf-enhanced MR neurography opens a new avenue for monitoring nerve damage in-vivo during an immune attack...
  28. ncbi request reprint EAE in beta-2 microglobulin-deficient mice: axonal damage is not dependent on MHC-I restricted immune responses
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Neurobiol Dis 19:218-28. 2005
    ..Enhanced axonal damage speaks for pathways of tissue damage independent of CD8+ T-cells and neuronal MHC-I expression...
  29. ncbi request reprint Treatment and prevention of experimental autoimmune neuritis with superagonistic CD28-specific monoclonal antibodies
    Jens Schmidt
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 140:143-52. 2003
    ..We demonstrate preventive and therapeutic effects of a "superagonistic" mAb-mediated, TCR-independent CD28 stimulation in EAN, possibly with implications for therapy of autoimmune-inflammatory disorders...
  30. ncbi request reprint Paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome: passive transfer to rats by means of IgG antibodies to amphiphysin
    Claudia Sommer
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Lancet 365:1406-11. 2005
    ..Proof of a causal role of the antibodies is still lacking for this and all other antibody-associated paraneoplastic syndromes of the central nervous system...
  31. ncbi request reprint In vivo monitoring of macrophage infiltration in experimental autoimmune neuritis by magnetic resonance imaging
    Guido Stoll
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 149:142-6. 2004
    ..In conclusion, SPIO-enhanced MRI provides a novel in vivo tool to assess the timing of macrophage entry into target tissues during an immunopathologic attack and holds promise to monitor immunotherapeutic interventions...
  32. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of axonal degeneration in EAE--lessons from CNTF and MHC I knockout mice
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 233:167-72. 2005
    ..Some mechanisms of primary or secondary axonal damage may be shared between inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the nervous system, thereby establishing a link which might be of importance for future therapeutic strategies...
  33. ncbi request reprint Non-invasive functional and biochemical assessment of mitoxantrone cardiotoxicity in patients with multiple sclerosis
    Matthias Spindler
    Department of Medicine, Wurzburg University, Germany
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 42:680-7. 2003
    ..In conclusion, using advanced diagnostic methodology, including functional, morphometric, and biochemical measurements no cardiotoxic effect of mitoxantrone up to a cumulative dose range of 100 mg/m2 could be detected...
  34. ncbi request reprint Myocardial function in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with low-dose mitoxantrone
    Jörg M Strotmann
    Medical University Clinic, Wurzburg, Germany
    Am J Cardiol 89:1222-5. 2002
  35. ncbi request reprint Effects of intravenous immunoglobulins on T cell and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in high-dose antigen therapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Andreas Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Neuroimmunology Branch and Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 104:385-90. 2002
    ..This indicates that IVIg may have different tissue-specific effects. Besides neutralization of TNF-alpha-mediated cell death, IVIg may also interfere with the network of local immune cells, thus modulating survival of glial cells...
  36. ncbi request reprint Symptomatic hyperekplexia in a patient with multiple sclerosis
    Klemens Ruprecht
    Clinical Research Unit for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Neurology 58:503-4. 2002
  37. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoids in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Holger M Reichardt
    University of Wurzburg, Molecular Immunology, Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    Expert Rev Neurother 6:1657-70. 2006
    ..With this knowledge in mind, we should be able to further improve the management of multiple sclerosis using this class of drugs...
  38. ncbi request reprint Intravenous liposomal prednisolone downregulates in situ TNF-alpha production by T-cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Jens Schmidt
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Histochem Cytochem 51:1241-4. 2003
    ..Our results help to further understand mechanisms of action of drug targeting by liposomal steroids, with possible implications for treatment of autoimmune disorders such as MS...
  39. ncbi request reprint CNTF is a major protective factor in demyelinating CNS disease: a neurotrophic cytokine as modulator in neuroinflammation
    Ralf A Linker
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Nat Med 8:620-4. 2002
    ..7). Here we identify a factor that modulates, in an inflammatory environment, glial cell survival and is an outcome determinant of EAE...
  40. ncbi request reprint The pathogenesis of CIDP: rationale for treatment with immunomodulatory agents
    Klaus V Toyka
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Unit for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    Neurology 60:S2-7. 2003
    ..Preliminary studies have evaluated the effects of interferon beta formulations in the treatment of CIDP, one of which has shown promising results and warrants further investigation...
  41. ncbi request reprint Astrocytes are less efficient in the removal of apoptotic lymphocytes than microglia cells: implications for the role of glial cells in the inflamed central nervous system
    Tim Magnus
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:760-6. 2002
    ..We suggest that in vivo astrocytes might be activated as phagocytes once the limit of microglial phagocytic capacity has been reached...
  42. ncbi request reprint Immunotherapy in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Lancet Neurol 2:22-32. 2003
    ..Here we review the principles and targets of immunotherapy for autoimmune neuromuscular disorders, address applications and practical guidelines, and give an outlook on future developments...
  43. ncbi request reprint Therapy of neurological disorders in systemic vasculitis
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Semin Neurol 23:207-14. 2003
    ..The treatment of giant cell arteritis, neurosarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behcet disease will be reviewed...
  44. ncbi request reprint Lessons from 10 years of interferon beta-1b (Betaferon/Betaseron) treatment
    Antonios Bayas
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurol 250:IV3-8. 2003
    ..Based on the experience of 10 years, IFN beta-1b belongs to the firstline therapeutics in RR and SPMS...
  45. ncbi request reprint The blood-brain barrier as target of multiple sclerosis research and therapy. Report of an international scientific meeting, Würzburg, January 23/24, 2004
    Ralf Gold
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 152:1-4. 2004
  46. ncbi request reprint Association of a null mutation in the CNTF gene with early onset of multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Giess
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Arch Neurol 59:407-9. 2002
    ..Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a potent survival factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes and may be relevant in reducing tissue destruction during inflammatory attacks...
  47. pmc Myasthenia gravis thymus: complement vulnerability of epithelial and myoid cells, complement attack on them, and correlations with autoantibody status
    Maria I Leite
    Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Pathol 171:893-905. 2007
    ..Remarkably, the similar changes place many apparent AChR-seronegative patients in the same spectrum as the AChR-seropositive patients...
  48. ncbi request reprint Truncation of the neuritogenic peptide bP2(60-70) results in the generation of altered peptide ligands with the potential to interfere with T cell activation
    Martin Offenhäusser
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 129:97-105. 2002
    ..Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that peptide bP2(62-69) can favorably modulate the antigen-induced response of neuritogenic T cells...
  49. pmc Interleukin-17--extended features of a key player in multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Gold
    Dept of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Am J Pathol 172:8-10. 2008
  50. doi request reprint Intravenous immunoglobulins in the treatment of immune neuropathies
    Bernd C Kieseier
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 21:555-62. 2008
    ..The aim of this review is to describe the value of high-dose polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulins as a treatment option in autoimmune disorders affecting the peripheral nervous system...
  51. ncbi request reprint Leukemia inhibitory factor deficiency modulates the immune response and limits autoimmune demyelination: a new role for neurotrophic cytokines in neuroinflammation
    Ralf A Linker
    Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research, University of Goettingen and Gemeinnuetzige Hertie Stiftung, Goettingen, Germany
    J Immunol 180:2204-13. 2008
    ..These data reveal that endogenous LIF is an immunologically active molecule in neuroinflammation. This establishes a link between LIF and the immune system which was not observed in the ciliary neurotrophic factor knockout mouse...
  52. doi request reprint Combination therapies in multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Gold
    University of Bochum, St Josef Hospital, Dept of Neurology, Gudrunstr 56, 44791, Bochum, Germany
    J Neurol 255:51-60. 2008
    ..On the other hand, for glatiramer acetate, the combination with mitoxantrone used as induction therapy may be of interest and preliminary data on combination with minocycline are also promising...
  53. doi request reprint Distinct and nonredundant in vivo functions of IFNAR on myeloid cells limit autoimmunity in the central nervous system
    Marco Prinz
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Immunity 28:675-86. 2008
    ..In contrast, absence of IFNAR on myeloid cells led to severe disease with an enhanced effector phase and increased lethality, indicating a distinct protective function of type I IFNs during autoimmune inflammation of the CNS...
  54. ncbi request reprint Analysis of maturation states of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells using an improved culture technique
    Oliver Grauer
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 117:351-62. 2002
    ..In conclusion, this protocol allows easy access to large numbers of rat BMDC at defined maturation stages and selective studies for the manipulation of immune responses in rat models...
  55. doi request reprint Allergic and nonallergic delayed infusion reactions during natalizumab therapy
    Kerstin Hellwig
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Arch Neurol 65:656-8. 2008
    ..Delayed infusion reactions resembling serum sickness-type reactions (type III reaction) are commonly reported in other monoclonal antibody therapies (eg, infliximab and rituximab), but are not described yet for natalizumab...
  56. ncbi request reprint Peripheral T cells are the therapeutic targets of glucocorticoids in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Simone Wüst
    Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research, University of Göttingen and Gemeinnützige Hertie Stiftung, Gottingen, Germany
    J Immunol 180:8434-43. 2008
    ..Collectively, our findings reveal a highly selective mechanism of GC action in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and presumably multiple sclerosis...
  57. ncbi request reprint MBP-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice
    Ralf A Linker
    J Immunol 173:2896. 2004
  58. ncbi request reprint Modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by administration of cells expressing antigenic peptide covalently linked to MHC class II
    Andreas Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 152:11-9. 2004
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory cells downregulates microglial chemoattractive function and migration of encephalitogenic T cells
    Andrew Chan
    Institute for MS research, Medical Faculty, University of Göttingen and Gemeinnützige Hertie Stiftung, Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci Res 84:1217-24. 2006
    ..These mechanisms may reduce further recruitment of pathogenic inflammatory cells into the CNS-lesion and thus contribute to the active resolution of the inflammatory infiltrate and termination of the autoimmune attack...
  60. ncbi request reprint Devic's disease: bridging the gap between laboratory and clinic
    Ralf Gold
    Brain 125:1425-7. 2002
  61. ncbi request reprint Fewer thymic changes in MuSK antibody-positive than in MuSK antibody-negative MG
    Maria Isabel Leite
    Neurosciences Group, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 57:444-8. 2005
    ..However, approximately 75% MuSK- samples showed lymph node-type infiltrates similar to those in AChR+ patients, but with fewer germinal centers. These variations may explain some apparent differences in responses to thymectomy in SNMG...
  62. ncbi request reprint Differential expression of BDNF mRNA splice variants in mouse brain and immune cells
    Niels Kruse
    Institute for Multiple Sclerosis Research, Medical Faculty of University of Göttingen and Gemeinnützige Hertie Stiftung, Waldweg 33, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 182:13-21. 2007
    ..Therefore, mBDNF mRNA is differentially regulated in the CNS and the immune system opening the possibility of specific manipulation of mBDNF expression in immune cells without globally affecting mBDNF in the CNS...
  63. ncbi request reprint Drug targeting by long-circulating liposomal glucocorticosteroids increases therapeutic efficacy in a model of multiple sclerosis
    Jens Schmidt
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuromuscular Diseases Section, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 4N 248, 10 Center Drive MSC 1382, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain 126:1895-904. 2003
    ..These findings may have implications for future therapy of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis...
  64. pmc Re-expression of a developmentally restricted potassium channel in autoimmune demyelination: Kv1.4 is implicated in oligodendroglial proliferation
    Eva Herrero-Herranz
    Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gottingen, Germany
    Am J Pathol 171:589-98. 2007
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Association of a common polymorphism in the promoter of UCP2 with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis
    Susanne Vogler
    Department of Immunology, University of Rostock, Germany
    J Mol Med (Berl) 83:806-11. 2005
    ..Thus, UCP2 promoter polymorphism may contribute to MS susceptibility by regulating the level of UCP2 protein in the central nervous and/or the immune systems...
  66. pmc Experimental pneumococcal meningitis: impaired clearance of bacteria from the blood due to increased apoptosis in the spleen in Bcl-2-deficient mice
    Andreas Wellmer
    Department of Neurology, University of Gottingen, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Infect Immun 72:3113-9. 2004
    ..005). Bcl-2 appears to counteract sepsis-induced apoptosis of splenic lymphocytes, thereby enhancing clearance of bacteria from the blood...
  67. ncbi request reprint Current issues in immunomodulatory treatment of multiple sclerosis--a practical approach
    Martin Stangel
    Dept of Neurology, Medical University Hannover, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany
    J Neurol 253:I32-6. 2006
  68. ncbi request reprint Delayed allergic reaction to natalizumab associated with early formation of neutralizing antibodies
    Markus Krumbholz
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Arch Neurol 64:1331-3. 2007
    ..In the Natalizumab Safety and Efficacy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (AFFIRM) trial, infusion-related hypersensitivity reactions developed in 4% of patients, usually within 2 hours after starting the infusion...
  69. ncbi request reprint Anti-GT1a IgG antibodies in a child with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome
    Joachim Schessl
    Division of Neuropediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Pediatr Neurol 35:277-9. 2006
    ..This report presents the first case in childhood suggesting an association between a severe Guillain-Barré syndrome after C. jejuni enteritis with monospecific anti-GT1a immunoglobulin G antibody...
  70. ncbi request reprint Therapy of immune neuropathies with intravenous immunoglobulins
    Ralf Gold
    Institute for MS research, Waldweg 33, 37073, Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurol 253:V59-63. 2006
    ..In most of these disease entities intravenous immunoglobulins play a major role as effective and safe treatment options...
  71. doi request reprint Liposomal glucocorticosteroids in treatment of chronic autoimmune demyelination: long-term protective effects and enhanced efficacy of methylprednisolone formulations
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Exp Neurol 211:397-406. 2008
    ..These findings lay the groundwork for applying liposomal GS in clinical MS trials in the near future...