R Gold

Summary

Country: Germany

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Assessment of cardiac safety during fingolimod treatment initiation in a real-world relapsing multiple sclerosis population: a phase 3b, open-label study
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Gudrunstr 56, 44791, Bochum, Germany
    J Neurol 261:267-76. 2014
  2. doi request reprint Daclizumab high-yield process in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (SELECT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Ralf Gold
    St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Lancet 381:2167-75. 2013
  3. ncbi request reprint Placebo-controlled phase 3 study of oral BG-12 for relapsing multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    N Engl J Med 367:1098-107. 2012
  4. pmc Genomic NGFB variation and multiple sclerosis in a case control study
    Denis A Akkad
    Department of Human Genetics, Ruhr University, 44780 Bochum, Germany
    BMC Med Genet 9:107. 2008
  5. pmc Progress in the treatment of myasthenia gravis
    Ralf Gold
    Neurologische Klinik St Josef Spital Gudrunstrasse 56 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Ther Adv Neurol Disord 1:36-51. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Current and future standards in treatment of myasthenia gravis
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Neurotherapeutics 5:535-41. 2008
  7. doi request reprint Oral therapies for multiple sclerosis: a review of agents in phase III development or recently approved
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    CNS Drugs 25:37-52. 2011
  8. doi request reprint Use of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange in neurological disease
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 21:358-65. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint [Recent advances in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis]
    R Gold
    Neurologische Klinik, St Josef Hospital, Klinikum der Ruhr Universitat, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791, Bochum, Germany
    Nervenarzt 78:15-24; quiz 25. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Drug Insight: the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neurology--therapeutic considerations and practical issues
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, University of Bochum, Germany
    Nat Clin Pract Neurol 3:36-44. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Assessment of cardiac safety during fingolimod treatment initiation in a real-world relapsing multiple sclerosis population: a phase 3b, open-label study
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Gudrunstr 56, 44791, Bochum, Germany
    J Neurol 261:267-76. 2014
    ..This study adds to the evidence showing that cardiac effects during fingolimod initiation remain consistent with those known from previous, controlled studies, even if patients with PCCs are included. ..
  2. doi request reprint Daclizumab high-yield process in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (SELECT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Ralf Gold
    St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Lancet 381:2167-75. 2013
    ..We assessed whether daclizumab high-yield process (HYP) would be effective when given as monotherapy for a 1 year treatment period in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis...
  3. ncbi request reprint Placebo-controlled phase 3 study of oral BG-12 for relapsing multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    N Engl J Med 367:1098-107. 2012
    ....
  4. pmc Genomic NGFB variation and multiple sclerosis in a case control study
    Denis A Akkad
    Department of Human Genetics, Ruhr University, 44780 Bochum, Germany
    BMC Med Genet 9:107. 2008
    ..Hence NGFB is a good candidate to influence the course of multiple sclerosis (MS), much like in the murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
  5. pmc Progress in the treatment of myasthenia gravis
    Ralf Gold
    Neurologische Klinik St Josef Spital Gudrunstrasse 56 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Ther Adv Neurol Disord 1:36-51. 2008
    ..Intravenous immunoglobulins are a reasonable alternative, but a shortage in supplies and high prices limit its use...
  6. doi request reprint Current and future standards in treatment of myasthenia gravis
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Neurotherapeutics 5:535-41. 2008
    ..In the future we may face an increased use of novel, B-cell, or T-cell-directed monoclonal antibodies...
  7. doi request reprint Oral therapies for multiple sclerosis: a review of agents in phase III development or recently approved
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    CNS Drugs 25:37-52. 2011
    ..Although better patient compliance is expected with the oral agents compared with the injectables, the safety profiles of these new oral drugs will have to be watched carefully...
  8. doi request reprint Use of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange in neurological disease
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 21:358-65. 2008
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint [Recent advances in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis]
    R Gold
    Neurologische Klinik, St Josef Hospital, Klinikum der Ruhr Universitat, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791, Bochum, Germany
    Nervenarzt 78:15-24; quiz 25. 2007
    ..Neuroprotective treatment strategies aiming at the protection of glial and neuronal cells are still in early stages of development...
  10. ncbi request reprint Drug Insight: the use of intravenous immunoglobulin in neurology--therapeutic considerations and practical issues
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, University of Bochum, Germany
    Nat Clin Pract Neurol 3:36-44. 2007
    ..In this article, we review the current indications for IVIg treatment, address practical issues related to the use and costs of the drug, and summarize its mechanisms of action...
  11. pmc Antigen therapy eliminates T cell inflammation by apoptosis: effective treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis with recombinant myelin protein P2
    A Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Wurzburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:1338-43. 1997
    ..High antigen dose therapy using recombinant, pathogen-free protein may prove useful for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the nervous system...
  12. doi request reprint Anti-JC virus antibodies in a large German natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis cohort
    A K Trampe
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    Neurology 78:1736-42. 2012
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Role of TNF-alpha in high-dose antigen therapy in experimental autoimmune neuritis: inhibition of TNF-alpha by neutralizing antibodies reduces T-cell apoptosis and prevents liver necrosis
    A Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 59:368-76. 2000
    ..These results indicate that secretion of TNF-alpha during antigen therapy has the dual potential to mediate beneficial apoptosis of inflammatory T-cells in the inflammatory lesion and to induce liver damage as a severe side effect...
  14. ncbi request reprint T cell antigenic and neuritogenic activity of recombinant human peripheral myelin P2 protein
    A Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Bayerische Julius Maximilians Universität, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 63:149-56. 1995
    ..Studies of human T cell autoreactivity as well as efforts to use hP2 as a tolerogen will be facilitated by the large-scale expression of rhP2...
  15. ncbi request reprint Interferon-beta treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis leads to rapid nonapoptotic termination of T cell infiltration
    J Schmidt
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, , , Germany
    J Neurosci Res 65:59-67. 2001
    ..In view of treatment of MS relapses, the synergistic effects in this study corroborate the use of a combination therapy with high-dose MP and IFN-beta...
  16. ncbi request reprint Microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory T cells leads to down-regulation of microglial immune activation
    T Magnus
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Immunol 167:5004-10. 2001
    ..This might help to restrict an autoimmune inflammation and minimize damage in the inflamed brain...
  17. ncbi request reprint High-dose methylprednisolone therapy in multiple sclerosis induces apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes
    V I Leussink
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Arch Neurol 58:91-7. 2001
    ..In the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, T-cell apoptosis can be induced by high-dose glucocorticoid (GC) administration...
  18. pmc Vaccination, prevention, and treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) by an oligomerized T cell epitope
    M Stienekemeier
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:13872-7. 2001
    ..Thus, the oligomerized P2 peptide antigen was highly effective in all three treatment modalities examined in this specific autoreactive T cell-mediated immune response...
  19. doi request reprint Serum antibodies to conformational and linear epitopes of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein are not elevated in the preclinical phase of multiple sclerosis
    A Chan
    Department of Neurology, Ruhr University, St Josef Hospital, Bochum, Germany
    Mult Scler 16:1189-92. 2010
    ..The proposed predictive value of serum anti-myelin antibodies for the development of multiple sclerosis after a first clinically isolated syndrome was recently challenged...
  20. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticosteroids modulate antigen-induced T cell apoptosis in experimental autoimmune neuritis and cause T cell proliferation in situ
    A Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Wurzburg, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 102:75-82. 2001
    ..In this scenario even local T cell proliferation in the inflamed nervous system occurs. These results support the paradigm of antigen presentation in the nervous system...
  21. doi request reprint [Open use of natalizumab. Neutralising antibodies and clinical data]
    A Haghikia
    St Josef Hospital, Neurologische Klinik der Ruhr Universität, Gudrunstrasse 56, Bochum, Germany
    Nervenarzt 79:716-9. 2008
    ..We present data revealing the number of nAb-positive patients assessed in our independent laboratory. Additionally we provide retrospective clinical data on the efficacy of natalizumab as escalating immunotherapy...
  22. ncbi request reprint Schwann cell apoptosis in experimental autoimmune neuritis of the Lewis rat and the functional role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    A Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 306:77-80. 2001
    ..We found that the addition of a TNF-alpha neutralizing antiserum resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of SC apoptosis in vivo compared to animals treated with control antigen rhP0 or with rhP2 only...
  23. ncbi request reprint Animal models for autoimmune demyelinating disorders of the nervous system
    R Gold
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Neurologische Universitatsklinik, Josef Schneider Str 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Mol Med Today 6:88-91. 2000
    ..Here, we focus on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and neuritis (EAN) as models in rat and mouse strains, and discuss their distinct histopathology and the roles played by different autoantigens...
  24. pmc Mitoxantrone induces cell death in peripheral blood leucocytes of multiple sclerosis patients
    A Chan
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    Clin Exp Immunol 139:152-8. 2005
    ..This suppression appears to be mediated at least partly by the induction of late apoptotic/necrotic cell death with a preferential susceptibility of B cells...
  25. doi request reprint ["Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency" and multiple sclerosis: critical analysis and first observation in an unselected cohort of MS patients]
    C Krogias
    Neurologische Klinik, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, Bochum, Germany
    Nervenarzt 81:740-6. 2010
    ..So far, the pathogenetic relevance of these findings remains speculative. Thus, based on the current scientific position we cannot justify invasive "therapeutic" approaches, especially if they are performed outside of clinical trials...
  26. ncbi request reprint Increased lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) expression in the sciatic nerve of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune neuritis
    R Gold
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 98:583-9. 1999
    ..By analogy with other immune-mediated disorders, increased lipocortin-1 expression in the inflamed sciatic nerve in EAN may exert immunoregulatory functions in-situ and contribute to the termination of the autoimmune response...
  27. ncbi request reprint Mycophenolate mofetil in the therapy of severe myasthenia gravis
    C Schneider
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Eur Neurol 46:79-82. 2001
    ..Mycophenolate mofetil may be considered as a useful alternative in the treatment of severe myasthenia gravis when standard therapeutic regimens fail. It is usually well tolerated and its application is simple...
  28. doi request reprint Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and the place of teriflunomide
    R Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Acta Neurol Scand 124:75-84. 2011
    ..Teriflunomide has an acceptable and manageable safety and tolerability profile. A large clinical programme is underway to further elucidate the role of teriflunomide in the treatment of MS...
  29. doi request reprint Fumaric acid and its esters: an emerging treatment for multiple sclerosis with antioxidative mechanism of action
    R Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Clin Immunol 142:44-8. 2012
    ..A phase II clinical trial in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients with dimethylfumarate showed a significant reduction in the number of gadolinium enhancing lesions after 24weeks...
  30. doi request reprint [Rituximab in treatment for neuroimmunological diseases]
    A Schroder
    Neurologische Klinik, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr Universitat Bochum, 44791, Bochum, Deutschland
    Nervenarzt 80:155-6, 158-60, 162-5. 2009
    ..In this review we summarize available data from these reports and also discuss possible underlying molecular mechanisms...
  31. ncbi request reprint Mechanism of action of glucocorticosteroid hormones: possible implications for therapy of neuroimmunological disorders
    R Gold
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 117:1-8. 2001
    ..In this review, we discuss in vitro and in vivo data on nongenomic effects of glucocorticosteroids and their possible implications for the therapy of human neuroimmunological diseases...
  32. doi request reprint Liposomal glucocorticosteroids in treatment of chronic autoimmune demyelination: long-term protective effects and enhanced efficacy of methylprednisolone formulations
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Exp Neurol 211:397-406. 2008
    ..These findings lay the groundwork for applying liposomal GS in clinical MS trials in the near future...
  33. pmc Absence of reuptake of serotonin influences susceptibility to clinical autoimmune disease and neuroantigen-specific interferon-gamma production in mouse EAE
    H H Hofstetter
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Germany
    Clin Exp Immunol 142:39-44. 2005
    ..These findings suggest a potential role of extracellular 5-HT homeostasis in the fine-tuning of neuroantigen-specific immune responses...
  34. doi request reprint Interferon β-1b-neutralizing antibodies 5 years after clinically isolated syndrome
    H P Hartung
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine Universitat, Dusseldorf 40225, Germany
    Neurology 77:835-43. 2011
    ..To determine the frequency and consequences of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon β-1b (IFNβ-1b)...
  35. ncbi request reprint Termination of inflammation in the nervous system
    R Gold
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Rev Neurol (Paris) 163:672-6. 2007
    ..We also discuss regulatory, proapoptotic mechanisms such as the Fas/FasL system and counterregulatory mechanisms that have been utilized to limit tissue damage...
  36. ncbi request reprint ATP-binding cassette transporters in inflammatory brain disease
    A Chan
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany
    Curr Pharm Des 17:2803-7. 2011
    ..g. neurodegenerative, and neurovascular) where neuroinflammatory mechanisms have gained considerable attention as important contributors to pathogenesis...
  37. ncbi request reprint Core hypothermia in multiple sclerosis: case report with magnetic resonance imaging localization of a thalamic lesion
    R A Linker
    Department of Neurology, Bereich Humanmedizin, Georg August Universitat Gottingen, Robert Koch Str 40, D 37099 Goettingen, Germany
    Mult Scler 12:112-5. 2006
    ..In MS, hypothermic episodes may be triggered by preceding infections, as shown in the present case...
  38. doi request reprint Reproductive counselling, treatment and course of pregnancy in 73 German MS patients
    K Hellwig
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Acta Neurol Scand 118:24-8. 2008
    ..Our results confirm the known reduced relapse rate during pregnancy, which is followed by an increased relapse rate after delivery. They shed light on the epidemiology of childbirth in patients with MS...
  39. ncbi request reprint Intravenous Immunoglobulins in MS
    M Stangel
    Department of Neurology, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, OE 7210, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Int MS J 12:5-10, 4. 2005
    ..Despite promising data from animal experiments that IVIg may induce remyelination, human treatment trials have not demonstrated a clinically relevant improvement...
  40. doi request reprint [Mitoxantrone-related acute leukemia by multiple sclerosis. Case report and practical approach by unclear cytopenia]
    C Meyer
    Neurologische Klinik, St Josef Hospital, Klinikum der Ruhr Universitat Bochum, Gudrunstraße 56, 44791, Bochum
    Nervenarzt 81:1483-9. 2010
    ..Mitoxantrone is highly efficacious in the treatment of severe multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone therapy-related acute leukemia (TRAL) has recently become the focus of interest...
  41. doi request reprint Variation in the IL7RA and IL2RA genes in German multiple sclerosis patients
    D A Akkad
    Department of Human Genetics, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    J Autoimmun 32:110-5. 2009
    ..Together these results confirm involvement of polymorphisms in the IL7RA and IL2RA genes in MS pathogenesis and suggest that IL7RA variation may primarily affect chronic disease courses...
  42. ncbi request reprint Expert opinion: guidelines for the use of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis patients previously treated with immunomodulating therapies
    R Gold
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, University of Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 47901 Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 187:156-8. 2007
    ..This short report summarizes interdisciplinary practical recommendations from specialists in neuroimmunology, rheumatology, transplantation medicine and clinical immunology...
  43. ncbi request reprint Oxides and apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies
    M Stangel
    Department of Neurology, , Free University Berlin, D-12200 Berlin, Germany
    Microsc Res Tech 55:249-58. 2001
    ..Caution is warranted to apply antioxidative and anti-apoptotic agents to patients with inflammatory myopathies as long as the pathogenic role of oxides and apoptosis in the individual case is not resolved...
  44. pmc Fumaric Acid and its esters: an emerging treatment for multiple sclerosis
    D Moharregh Khiabani
    Department of Neurology, Medical School Hannover, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, D 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Curr Neuropharmacol 7:60-4. 2009
    ..Further phase III studies have now started to explore the long-term efficacy of FAE...
  45. ncbi request reprint Effects of polyclonal immunoglobulins and other immunomodulatory agents on microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory T-cells
    Andrew Chan
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians University, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 135:161-5. 2003
    ..These results indicate that IVIg has a high potential to inhibit microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory T-cells even under proinflammatory conditions and extend our view of the complex immunomodulatory effects of IVIg...
  46. doi request reprint Allergic and nonallergic delayed infusion reactions during natalizumab therapy
    Kerstin Hellwig
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Arch Neurol 65:656-8. 2008
    ..Delayed infusion reactions resembling serum sickness-type reactions (type III reaction) are commonly reported in other monoclonal antibody therapies (eg, infliximab and rituximab), but are not described yet for natalizumab...
  47. ncbi request reprint Treatment and prevention of experimental autoimmune neuritis with superagonistic CD28-specific monoclonal antibodies
    Jens Schmidt
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 140:143-52. 2003
    ..We demonstrate preventive and therapeutic effects of a "superagonistic" mAb-mediated, TCR-independent CD28 stimulation in EAN, possibly with implications for therapy of autoimmune-inflammatory disorders...
  48. pmc The cardioprotector dexrazoxane augments therapeutic efficacy of mitoxantrone in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    F X Weilbach
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Unit for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Wurzburg, Germany
    Clin Exp Immunol 135:49-55. 2004
    ..Clinical trials in MS patients are warranted to evaluate the unexpected immunosuppressive efficacy of DZR as add-on treatment...
  49. ncbi request reprint Truncation of the neuritogenic peptide bP2(60-70) results in the generation of altered peptide ligands with the potential to interfere with T cell activation
    Martin Offenhäusser
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 129:97-105. 2002
    ..Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that peptide bP2(62-69) can favorably modulate the antigen-induced response of neuritogenic T cells...
  50. ncbi request reprint Intravenous liposomal prednisolone downregulates in situ TNF-alpha production by T-cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Jens Schmidt
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Histochem Cytochem 51:1241-4. 2003
    ..Our results help to further understand mechanisms of action of drug targeting by liposomal steroids, with possible implications for treatment of autoimmune disorders such as MS...
  51. ncbi request reprint Mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus: new therapeutic options in neuroimmunological diseases
    Christiane Schneider-Gold
    Department of Neurology, University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Muscle Nerve 34:284-91. 2006
    ..The spectrum of neuroimmunological diseases in which these drugs may be used has not been finally delineated and will require further controlled studies...
  52. ncbi request reprint Effects of intravenous immunoglobulins on T cell and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in high-dose antigen therapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Andreas Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Neuroimmunology Branch and Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 104:385-90. 2002
    ..This indicates that IVIg may have different tissue-specific effects. Besides neutralization of TNF-alpha-mediated cell death, IVIg may also interfere with the network of local immune cells, thus modulating survival of glial cells...
  53. doi request reprint Intravenous immunoglobulins in the treatment of immune neuropathies
    Bernd C Kieseier
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 21:555-62. 2008
    ..The aim of this review is to describe the value of high-dose polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulins as a treatment option in autoimmune disorders affecting the peripheral nervous system...
  54. ncbi request reprint Astrocytes are less efficient in the removal of apoptotic lymphocytes than microglia cells: implications for the role of glial cells in the inflamed central nervous system
    Tim Magnus
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:760-6. 2002
    ..We suggest that in vivo astrocytes might be activated as phagocytes once the limit of microglial phagocytic capacity has been reached...
  55. ncbi request reprint Paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome: passive transfer to rats by means of IgG antibodies to amphiphysin
    Claudia Sommer
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Lancet 365:1406-11. 2005
    ..Proof of a causal role of the antibodies is still lacking for this and all other antibody-associated paraneoplastic syndromes of the central nervous system...
  56. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory cells by microglia and its therapeutic implications: termination of CNS autoimmune inflammation and modulation by interferon-beta
    Andrew Chan
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    Glia 43:231-42. 2003
    ..The in vitro increase of phagocytosis by IFNbeta merits further investigations whether this mechanism could also be therapeutically exploited...
  57. doi request reprint Plasmapheresis for neurological disorders
    Alexandra Schröder
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Expert Rev Neurother 9:1331-9. 2009
    ..Adding to its increasing application in clinical practice, the procedure is usually well tolerated. Possible adverse reactions mainly relate to vascular access, the use of replacement fluids and the need for anticoagulation...
  58. doi request reprint Successful management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and immune reconstitution syndrome in a patient with multiple sclerosis
    Alexandra Schröder
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Arch Neurol 67:1391-4. 2010
    ..To describe a case of successful clinical management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) in a patient with multiple sclerosis...
  59. ncbi request reprint Subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion: a new therapeutic option in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
    De Hyung Lee
    Department of Neurology at St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Muscle Nerve 37:406-9. 2008
    ..SCIg may represent an effective new therapeutic option in CIDP and is associated with a cost reduction of at least 50% compared to IVIg therapy...
  60. doi request reprint IL-6 transsignalling modulates the early effector phase of EAE and targets the blood-brain barrier
    Ralf A Linker
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 205:64-72. 2008
    ..We conclude that IL-6 transsignalling may play a role in autoimmune inflammation of the CNS mainly by regulating early expression of adhesion molecules, possibly via cellular networks at the blood-brain barrier...
  61. ncbi request reprint Assessment of lesion evolution in experimental autoimmune neuritis by gadofluorine M-enhanced MR neurography
    Guido Stoll
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Exp Neurol 197:150-6. 2006
    ..In conclusion, Gf-enhanced MR neurography opens a new avenue for monitoring nerve damage in-vivo during an immune attack...
  62. ncbi request reprint Advances in understanding and treatment of immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system
    Bernd C Kieseier
    Department of Neurology, Heinrich Heine University, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Muscle Nerve 30:131-56. 2004
    ..This review summarizes recent progress with currently available therapies and--on the basis of present immunopathogenetic concepts--outlines future treatment strategies...
  63. ncbi request reprint In vivo monitoring of macrophage infiltration in experimental autoimmune neuritis by magnetic resonance imaging
    Guido Stoll
    Department of Neurology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Str 11, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 149:142-6. 2004
    ..In conclusion, SPIO-enhanced MRI provides a novel in vivo tool to assess the timing of macrophage entry into target tissues during an immunopathologic attack and holds promise to monitor immunotherapeutic interventions...
  64. ncbi request reprint Therapeutic efficacy of IL-17 neutralization in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Harald H Hofstetter
    Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis, Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Cell Immunol 237:123-30. 2005
    ..Neutralization of IL-17 with a monoclonal antibody also ameliorated the disease course. We conclude that IL-17 is crucially involved in the cytokine network as an effector cytokine in EAE...
  65. pmc The impact of fingolimod (FTY720) in neuroimmunologic diseases: mechanisms beyond immunomodulation
    Aiden Haghikia
    Department of Neurology, Ruhr University Bochum, St Josef Hospital, Gudrunstrasse 56, D 44791 Bochum, Germany
    Am J Pathol 176:2599-601. 2010
    ..This commentary discusses the non-immune effects of fingolimod on neuroimmunological diseases...
  66. ncbi request reprint The pathogenesis of CIDP: rationale for treatment with immunomodulatory agents
    Klaus V Toyka
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Unit for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians University, Wurzburg, Germany
    Neurology 60:S2-7. 2003
    ..Preliminary studies have evaluated the effects of interferon beta formulations in the treatment of CIDP, one of which has shown promising results and warrants further investigation...
  67. ncbi request reprint Therapy of neurological disorders in systemic vasculitis
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Semin Neurol 23:207-14. 2003
    ..The treatment of giant cell arteritis, neurosarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behcet disease will be reviewed...
  68. ncbi request reprint Immunotherapy in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders
    Ralf Gold
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Lancet Neurol 2:22-32. 2003
    ..Here we review the principles and targets of immunotherapy for autoimmune neuromuscular disorders, address applications and practical guidelines, and give an outlook on future developments...
  69. ncbi request reprint Antigen therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis selectively induces apoptosis of pathogenic T cells
    Denise Tischner
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Wurzburg, and Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital, University of Bochum, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 183:146-50. 2007
    ..This could be attributed to their differential sensitivity to apoptosis. Thus, antigen therapy selectively targets pathogenic T cells and should therefore limit potential adverse effects...
  70. ncbi request reprint Analysis of maturation states of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells using an improved culture technique
    Oliver Grauer
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis, Julius Maximilians Universitat Wurzburg, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 117:351-62. 2002
    ..In conclusion, this protocol allows easy access to large numbers of rat BMDC at defined maturation stages and selective studies for the manipulation of immune responses in rat models...
  71. ncbi request reprint Downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta2 facilitates inflammation in the central nervous system by reciprocal astrocyte/microglia interactions
    Ines Siglienti
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 66:47-56. 2007
    ..Downregulation of astrocytic TGFbeta2 by T cell- and microglia-secreted cytokines appears to be a critical step in providing the grounds for acute and chronic neuroinflammation...
  72. ncbi request reprint Phagocytotic removal of apoptotic, inflammatory lymphocytes in the central nervous system by microglia and its functional implications
    Tim Magnus
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians University, D 97080, Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 130:1-9. 2002
    ..In this review, we focus on the mechanisms for removal of apoptotic inflammatory cells by microglia in the central nervous system and their functional consequences...
  73. ncbi request reprint Delayed allergic reaction to natalizumab associated with early formation of neutralizing antibodies
    Markus Krumbholz
    Institute for Clinical Neuroimmunology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany
    Arch Neurol 64:1331-3. 2007
    ..In the Natalizumab Safety and Efficacy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (AFFIRM) trial, infusion-related hypersensitivity reactions developed in 4% of patients, usually within 2 hours after starting the infusion...
  74. ncbi request reprint Drug targeting by long-circulating liposomal glucocorticosteroids increases therapeutic efficacy in a model of multiple sclerosis
    Jens Schmidt
    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuromuscular Diseases Section, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 4N 248, 10 Center Drive MSC 1382, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Brain 126:1895-904. 2003
    ..These findings may have implications for future therapy of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis...
  75. ncbi request reprint Can pathological patterns be used to guide individualized multiple sclerosis therapy?
    Andrew Chan
    Neurology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
    Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2:72-3. 2006
  76. ncbi request reprint Impaired maturation and altered regulatory function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in multiple sclerosis
    Mariusz Stasiolek
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
    Brain 129:1293-305. 2006
    ..These findings suggest functional abnormalities of pDCs in these patients, which might be of importance in the understanding of the development of immune dysregulation in this disease...
  77. doi request reprint Intravenous immunoglobulin in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a dose-finding trial
    F Fazekas
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 22, A 8036 Graz, Austria
    Neurology 71:265-71. 2008
    ..We therefore set out to test two different doses of a new formulation of immunoglobulin termed IGIV-C 10% for suppression of both clinical and MRI disease activity as well as safety...
  78. pmc Selective targeting of regulatory T cells with CD28 superagonists allows effective therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Niklas Beyersdorf
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, D 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Exp Med 202:445-55. 2005
    ..Our data indicate that this class of CD28-specific monoclonal antibodies targets CD4+CD25+ T reg cells and provides a novel means for the effective treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases...
  79. ncbi request reprint New glucocorticoids on the horizon: repress, don't activate!
    In Ho Song
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite University Hospital, Berlin, Germany
    J Rheumatol 32:1199-1207. 2005
    ..Finally, we describe the state of research on membrane-bound glucocorticoid receptors as possible further targets for specific glucocorticoid actions...
  80. ncbi request reprint Modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by administration of cells expressing antigenic peptide covalently linked to MHC class II
    Andreas Weishaupt
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Research Group for Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Julius Maximilians Universitat, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neuroimmunol 152:11-9. 2004
    ....
  81. ncbi request reprint Association of a null mutation in the CNTF gene with early onset of multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Giess
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Strasse 11, D 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Arch Neurol 59:407-9. 2002
    ..Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a potent survival factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes and may be relevant in reducing tissue destruction during inflammatory attacks...
  82. ncbi request reprint Phagocytosis of apoptotic inflammatory cells downregulates microglial chemoattractive function and migration of encephalitogenic T cells
    Andrew Chan
    Institute for MS research, Medical Faculty, University of Göttingen and Gemeinnützige Hertie Stiftung, Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci Res 84:1217-24. 2006
    ..These mechanisms may reduce further recruitment of pathogenic inflammatory cells into the CNS-lesion and thus contribute to the active resolution of the inflammatory infiltrate and termination of the autoimmune attack...
  83. ncbi request reprint Non-invasive functional and biochemical assessment of mitoxantrone cardiotoxicity in patients with multiple sclerosis
    Matthias Spindler
    Department of Medicine, Wurzburg University, Germany
    J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 42:680-7. 2003
    ..In conclusion, using advanced diagnostic methodology, including functional, morphometric, and biochemical measurements no cardiotoxic effect of mitoxantrone up to a cumulative dose range of 100 mg/m2 could be detected...
  84. ncbi request reprint Lessons from 10 years of interferon beta-1b (Betaferon/Betaseron) treatment
    Antonios Bayas
    Department of Neurology, University of Wurzburg, Josef Schneider Str 11, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Neurol 250:IV3-8. 2003
    ..Based on the experience of 10 years, IFN beta-1b belongs to the firstline therapeutics in RR and SPMS...
  85. ncbi request reprint Myocardial function in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with low-dose mitoxantrone
    Jörg M Strotmann
    Medical University Clinic, Wurzburg, Germany
    Am J Cardiol 89:1222-5. 2002
  86. ncbi request reprint Side effects of intravenous immunoglobulins in neurological autoimmune disorders--a prospective study
    Martin Stangel
    Dept of Neurology, Universitatsklinikum Benjamin Franklin, Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany
    J Neurol 250:818-21. 2003
    ..6 %). However, careful monitoring for severe side effects remains mandatory, and we propose that laboratory findings like full blood count, renal and liver function should be monitored routinely...
  87. doi request reprint Type III systemic allergic reaction to natalizumab
    Verena I Leussink
    Arch Neurol 65:851-2; author reply 852. 2008
  88. ncbi request reprint Overcoming failure to repair demyelination in EAE: an important step towards neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Gold
    J Neuroimmunol 170:1-2. 2005
  89. pmc Re-expression of a developmentally restricted potassium channel in autoimmune demyelination: Kv1.4 is implicated in oligodendroglial proliferation
    Eva Herrero-Herranz
    Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gottingen, Germany
    Am J Pathol 171:589-98. 2007
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Functional compensation or pathology in cortico-subcortical interactions in preclinical Huntington's disease?
    Christian Beste
    Department of Neurology, Huntington Centre NRW, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany
    Neuropsychologia 45:2922-30. 2007
    ..It is proposed that compensation is a transient effect of the whole pathogenetic dynamics of HD, with these two processes not foreclosing each other...
  91. ncbi request reprint Plasma exchange therapy for steroid-refractory superimposed relapses in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
    Ralf A Linker
    J Neurol 254:1288-9. 2007
  92. ncbi request reprint Exploring recombinant human erythropoietin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis
    Hannelore Ehrenreich
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
    Brain 130:2577-88. 2007
    ..There were no adverse events, no safety concerns and a surprisingly low need of blood-lettings. This first pilot study demonstrates the necessity and feasibility of controlled trials using high-dose rhEPO in chronic progressive MS...
  93. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoids in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
    Holger M Reichardt
    University of Wurzburg, Molecular Immunology, Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, Versbacher Strasse 7, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany
    Expert Rev Neurother 6:1657-70. 2006
    ..With this knowledge in mind, we should be able to further improve the management of multiple sclerosis using this class of drugs...
  94. ncbi request reprint Therapy of immune neuropathies with intravenous immunoglobulins
    Ralf Gold
    Institute for MS research, Waldweg 33, 37073, Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurol 253:V59-63. 2006
    ..In most of these disease entities intravenous immunoglobulins play a major role as effective and safe treatment options...
  95. doi request reprint Huntington's disease as caused by 34 CAG repeats
    Jürgen Andrich
    Department of Neurology, St Josef Hospital Bochum, Ruhr University Bochum, Gudrunstr 56, Bochum, Germany
    Mov Disord 23:879-81. 2008
    ..There is an intermediate range of rare alleles between 27 and 35 CAG repeats with a higher risk for further expansion in subsequent generations. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with clinical features of HD and 34 CAG repeat units...
  96. doi request reprint Combination therapies in multiple sclerosis
    Ralf Gold
    University of Bochum, St Josef Hospital, Dept of Neurology, Gudrunstr 56, 44791, Bochum, Germany
    J Neurol 255:51-60. 2008
    ..On the other hand, for glatiramer acetate, the combination with mitoxantrone used as induction therapy may be of interest and preliminary data on combination with minocycline are also promising...
  97. ncbi request reprint Anti-GT1a IgG antibodies in a child with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome
    Joachim Schessl
    Division of Neuropediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Pediatr Neurol 35:277-9. 2006
    ..This report presents the first case in childhood suggesting an association between a severe Guillain-Barré syndrome after C. jejuni enteritis with monospecific anti-GT1a immunoglobulin G antibody...
  98. doi request reprint Increased MS relapse rate during assisted reproduction technique
    Kerstin Hellwig
    J Neurol 255:592-3. 2008
  99. doi request reprint Distinct and nonredundant in vivo functions of IFNAR on myeloid cells limit autoimmunity in the central nervous system
    Marco Prinz
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Freiburg, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Immunity 28:675-86. 2008
    ..In contrast, absence of IFNAR on myeloid cells led to severe disease with an enhanced effector phase and increased lethality, indicating a distinct protective function of type I IFNs during autoimmune inflammation of the CNS...
  100. doi request reprint Naive CD8 T-cells initiate spontaneous autoimmunity to a sequestered model antigen of the central nervous system
    Shin Young Na
    Institute for Virology and Immunobiology, University of Wurzburg, Wurzburg, Germany
    Brain 131:2353-65. 2008
    ....
  101. ncbi request reprint Current issues in immunomodulatory treatment of multiple sclerosis--a practical approach
    Martin Stangel
    Dept of Neurology, Medical University Hannover, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany
    J Neurol 253:I32-6. 2006