J Fluhr

Summary

Affiliation: Friedrich Schiller University
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi Functional consequences of a neutral pH in neonatal rat stratum corneum
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 123:140-51. 2004
  2. ncbi Topical liver x receptor activators accelerate postnatal acidification of stratum corneum and improve function in the neonate
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:1206-14. 2005
  3. ncbi Air flow at different temperatures increases sodium lauryl sulphate-induced barrier disruption and irritation in vivo
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Str 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 152:1228-34. 2005
  4. ncbi Additive impairment of the barrier function by mechanical irritation, occlusion and sodium lauryl sulphate in vivo
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Str 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 153:125-31. 2005
  5. ncbi Efficacy and safety testing. The clinical perspective
    J W Fluhr
    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Curr Probl Dermatol 34:33-46. 2007
  6. ncbi Additive impairment of the barrier function and irritation by biogenic amines and sodium lauryl sulphate: a controlled in vivo tandem irritation study
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Strasse 35, DE 07740 Jena, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 18:88-97. 2005
  7. ncbi Functional assessment of a skin care system in patients on chemotherapy
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 20:253-9. 2007
  8. ncbi [From research to practice: skin care--merely empiric?]
    J Fluhr
    Klinik für Dermatologie und Allergologie, Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena
    MMW Fortschr Med 149:38-9. 2007
  9. ncbi Sequential application of cold and sodium lauryl sulphate decreases irritation and barrier disruption in vivo in humans
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erfurter Str 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 152:702-8. 2005
  10. ncbi Functional assessment of a washing emulsion for sensitive skin: mild impairment of stratum corneum hydration, pH, barrier function, lipid content, integrity and cohesion in a controlled washing test
    A Bornkessel
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Skin Res Technol 11:53-60. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi Functional consequences of a neutral pH in neonatal rat stratum corneum
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 123:140-51. 2004
    ..The delay in acidification of neonatal SC results in abnormalities in permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity and are likely due to pH-induced modulations in enzyme activity...
  2. ncbi Topical liver x receptor activators accelerate postnatal acidification of stratum corneum and improve function in the neonate
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 125:1206-14. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that LXR activators stimulate the formation of an acidic SC and improve both permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion...
  3. ncbi Air flow at different temperatures increases sodium lauryl sulphate-induced barrier disruption and irritation in vivo
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Str 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 152:1228-34. 2005
    ..These conditions may support the induction of chronic barrier disruption leading subsequently to irritant contact dermatitis (ICD)...
  4. ncbi Additive impairment of the barrier function by mechanical irritation, occlusion and sodium lauryl sulphate in vivo
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Str 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 153:125-31. 2005
    ..Prolonged water exposure by occlusion is also common in the workplace. Several studies have revealed the negative effect of the common anionic detergent sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) on permeability barrier function...
  5. ncbi Efficacy and safety testing. The clinical perspective
    J W Fluhr
    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Curr Probl Dermatol 34:33-46. 2007
    ..The nature of the plausible biological or even toxic reactions that might occur and the types of tests designed to determine the safety of the topical formulations in men are described in this chapter...
  6. ncbi Additive impairment of the barrier function and irritation by biogenic amines and sodium lauryl sulphate: a controlled in vivo tandem irritation study
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Strasse 35, DE 07740 Jena, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 18:88-97. 2005
    ..The results are suggestive that in the food-processing industry the simultaneous contact with biogenic amines and harmful detergents like SLS should be minimized...
  7. ncbi Functional assessment of a skin care system in patients on chemotherapy
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 20:253-9. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to verify whether a concomitant treatment with an acidic washing and an acidic emollient (both pH 5.5) can significantly improve the quality of the skin in such patients...
  8. ncbi [From research to practice: skin care--merely empiric?]
    J Fluhr
    Klinik für Dermatologie und Allergologie, Friedrich Schiller Universitat Jena
    MMW Fortschr Med 149:38-9. 2007
    ..In addition, the water and lipoid content of the skin care formulation should be matched to disease stage and the season of the year...
  9. ncbi Sequential application of cold and sodium lauryl sulphate decreases irritation and barrier disruption in vivo in humans
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erfurter Str 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 152:702-8. 2005
    ..Few data have been published regarding the irritant potential of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in combination with cold...
  10. ncbi Functional assessment of a washing emulsion for sensitive skin: mild impairment of stratum corneum hydration, pH, barrier function, lipid content, integrity and cohesion in a controlled washing test
    A Bornkessel
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Skin Res Technol 11:53-60. 2005
    ..The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of an improved washing solution for sensitive skin in a half-site comparison on barrier-related parameters...
  11. ncbi Tolerance profile of retinol, retinaldehyde and retinoic acid under maximized and long-term clinical conditions
    J W Fluhr
    Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Karlsruhe, Germany
    Dermatology 199:57-60. 1999
    ..To prevent this side effect, natural precursors of RA have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to compare the local tolerance profiles of retinol (ROL), retinaldehyde (RAL) and RA...
  12. ncbi Percutaneous penetration of topically applied melatonin in a cream and an alcoholic solution
    T W Fischer
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Gemany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 17:190-4. 2004
    ..No increase of melatonin above the physiological range was observed...
  13. ncbi Fruit acids and sodium hydroxide in the food industry and their combined effect with sodium lauryl sulphate: controlled in vivo tandem irritation study
    J W Fluhr
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Str 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 151:1039-48. 2004
    ..Nevertheless, knowledge of the induction of irritant dermatitis, especially by mild irritants at low doses and for a short duration of exposure, is still incomplete...
  14. ncbi Application of protective creams: use of a fluorescence-based training system decreases unprotected areas on the hands
    D Kelterer
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University of Jena, Erfurter Strasse 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Contact Dermatitis 49:159-60. 2003
  15. ncbi Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritant contact dermatitis
    S M Fuchs
    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany
    Skin Res Technol 12:223-7. 2006
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos (PoCo) on experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in a repeated sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) irritation model...
  16. doi Effect of regular sauna on epidermal barrier function and stratum corneum water-holding capacity in vivo in humans: a controlled study
    D Kowatzki
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Dermatology 217:173-80. 2008
    ..The present data suggest a protective effect of regular sauna on skin physiology, especially surface pH and stratum corneum water-holding capacity...
  17. ncbi Direct comparison of skin physiology in children and adults with bioengineering methods
    J W Fluhr
    Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Pediatr Dermatol 17:436-9. 2000
    ....
  18. ncbi Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, prospective study of a glycerol-based emollient on eczematous skin in atopic dermatitis: biophysical and clinical evaluation
    M Breternitz
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 21:39-45. 2008
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a single emollient ingredient in AD within the full frame of a phase III drug study...
  19. doi Standardized tape stripping: a practical and reproducible protocol to uniformly reduce the stratum corneum
    H Dickel
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 23:259-65. 2010
    ..As a result, our SPT protocol yields a clinically adequate standardization of the SC reduction and the SPT may therefore be recommended for performance in daily clinical routine...
  20. ncbi The quality of human skin xenografts on SCID mice: a noninvasive bioengineering approach
    U Kappes
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Strasse 35, D 07743 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 151:971-6. 2004
    ..Therefore, transplantation of human skin on to SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice might offer a promising tool to perform studies in viable human skin without the direct need for human volunteers...
  21. ncbi Antibacterial efficacy of benzoyl peroxide in phospholipid liposomes. A vehicle-controlled, comparative study in patients with papulopustular acne
    J W Fluhr
    Department of Dermatology, Karlsruhe Municipal Hospital Complex, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Dermatology 198:273-7. 1999
    ..Literature reports indicate that phospholipid liposomes facilitate the accumulation of active agents in the infundibulum...
  22. ncbi Effects of prolonged occlusion on stratum corneum barrier function and water holding capacity
    J W Fluhr
    Department of Dermatology, Stadtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 12:193-8. 1999
    ..We aimed to evaluate whether prolonged occlusion can induce stratum corneum barrier damage, alterations in stratum corneum hydration or water-holding capacity (WHC) lasting longer than the occlusion time...
  23. ncbi Do shake lotions, zinc oil and polyethylene glycol gels produce dehydration or moisturization?
    M Gloor
    Department of Dermatology, Klinikum der Stadt Karlsruhe GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 14:34-43. 2001
    ..g. in intertriginous regions. Zinc oil and Lotio Cordes can be used in overhydrated skin but not in dry skin, for the missing water-binding capacity in the horny layer. On the other hand an effective dehydrating effect cannot be expected...
  24. ncbi Acute barrier disruption by adhesive tapes is influenced by pressure, time and anatomical location: integrity and cohesion assessed by sequential tape stripping. A randomized, controlled study
    M Breternitz
    Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Erfurter Strasse 35, 07743 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 156:231-40. 2007
    ..Although this method is widely used, only scant information about standardization is known. Various protocols are used but are difficult to compare...
  25. ncbi The objective severity assessment of atopic dermatitis (OSAAD) score: validity, reliability and sensitivity in adult patients with atopic dermatitis
    I Angelova-Fischer
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erfurter Strasse 35, 07740 Jena, Germany
    Br J Dermatol 153:767-73. 2005
    ..The method has been validated for use in infants and children with atopic dermatitis and compared with a referent scoring system...
  26. ncbi Generation of free fatty acids from phospholipids regulates stratum corneum acidification and integrity
    J W Fluhr
    Dermatology Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 117:44-51. 2001
    ....
  27. doi The tape stripping procedure--evaluation of some critical parameters
    J Lademann
    Department of Dermatology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm 72:317-23. 2009
    ..This is used, e.g., for the determination of the homogeneity of the distribution and the ex vivo determination of a universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing the efficacy of sunscreens...
  28. ncbi Microtubules regulate expression of ICAM-1 in epidermoid cells (KB cells)
    M Kaatz
    Department of Dermatology, University of Jena, Jena, Germany
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 19:322-8. 2006
    ..In addition, they did not change the ICAM-1 mRNA half-life. These studies indicate a control function of the microtubule network on the expression of ICAM-1...
  29. ncbi Approaches for optimizing the calibration standard of Tewameter TM 300
    Maria Miteva
    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Exp Dermatol 15:904-12. 2006
    ..The studied calibration procedure ensures these requirements...
  30. ncbi A new silver-loaded cellulosic fiber with antifungal and antibacterial properties
    Uta Christina Hipler
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany
    Curr Probl Dermatol 33:165-78. 2006
    ..aureus and E. coli, must be examined by means of further investigations, especially human in vivo tests considering allergic and toxic effects of the fiber...
  31. ncbi Ceramide-dominant barrier repair lipids alleviate childhood atopic dermatitis: changes in barrier function provide a sensitive indicator of disease activity
    Sarah L Chamlin
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Am Acad Dermatol 47:198-208. 2002
    ..Yet commonly used emollients and moisturizers do not correct the SC ceramide deficiency, the putative cause of the barrier abnormality...
  32. ncbi Topical peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha activators reduce inflammation in irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models
    Mary Y Sheu
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 118:94-101. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi Stratum corneum acidification is impaired in moderately aged human and murine skin
    Eung Ho Choi
    Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco and Dermatology Service, Veteran s Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 127:2847-56. 2007
    ..These abnormalities were normalized by exogenously acidifying the SC, suggesting a basis for the well-known acidification therapies that are widely used to treat the pathologic xerosis/eczema seen in moderately aged humans...
  34. ncbi Scavenger receptor class B type I is expressed in cultured keratinocytes and epidermis. Regulation in response to changes in cholesterol homeostasis and barrier requirements
    Hiroki Tsuruoka
    Dermatology and Medical Metabolism Services, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:2916-22. 2002
    ..Second, the increase in SR-BI following barrier disruption suggests that SR-BI expression increases to facilitate cholesterol uptake leading to barrier restoration...
  35. ncbi Transepidermal water loss reflects permeability barrier status: validation in human and rodent in vivo and ex vivo models
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany
    Exp Dermatol 15:483-92. 2006
    ..Together, these results verify the utility of TEWL as a measure of permeability barrier status. Moreover, all tested instruments are reliable tools for the assessment of variations in permeability barrier function...
  36. ncbi [Acne therapy with topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics and azelaic acid]
    Wolf Ingo Worret
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Technical University of Munich, Germany
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 4:293-300. 2006
    ..Burning upon application is common. Since azelaic acid is naturally present, systemic side effects are not likely to occur, making it safe for acne treatment during pregnancy and lactation...
  37. ncbi Structural and functional consequences of loricrin mutations in human loricrin keratoderma (Vohwinkel syndrome with ichthyosis)
    Matthias Schmuth
    Dermatology and Metabolism Medicine Services, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:909-22. 2004
    ..But in contrast to lamellar ichthyosis, the CE scaffold partially normalizes in the outer SC in loricrin keratoderma...
  38. ncbi The "strip" patch test: results of a multicentre study towards a standardization
    Heinrich Dickel
    Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine, and Health Theory, University of Osnabruck, Sedanstr 115, 49090 Osnabrück, Germany
    Arch Dermatol Res 296:212-9. 2004
    ..Penetration of the substances is enhanced by repeated applications of adhesive tape prior to their application to the skin. However, no guidelines exist for standardized performance of the SPT...
  39. ncbi Stratum corneum acidification in neonatal skin: secretory phospholipase A2 and the sodium/hydrogen antiporter-1 acidify neonatal rat stratum corneum
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology and Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 122:320-9. 2004
    ..Conversely, the impaired acidification of neonatal SC, which has important functional and clinical consequences, can be explained by the relatively low activities of one or both of these mechanisms at birth...
  40. ncbi Cleansing, dehydrating, barrier-damaging and irritating hyperaemising effect of four detergent brands: comparative studies using standardised washing models
    Max Gloor
    Dermatology Clinic of the Hospital of the City of Karlsruhe GmbH, Germany
    Skin Res Technol 10:1-9. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi The objective severity assessment of atopic dermatitis score: an objective measure using permeability barrier function and stratum corneum hydration with computer-assisted estimates for extent of disease
    Jeffrey L Sugarman
    Departments of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco 94115, USA
    Arch Dermatol 139:1417-22. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to develop an objective measure of AD severity by measuring stratum corneum (SC) functions and by using computer-assisted estimates of involved body surface areas (BSAs)...
  42. ncbi Glycerol regulates stratum corneum hydration in sebaceous gland deficient (asebia) mice
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center, and Department of Dermatology University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 120:728-37. 2003
    ..These results show that sebaceous-gland-derived glycerol is a major contributor to stratum corneum hydration...
  43. ncbi Short-term glucocorticoid treatment compromises both permeability barrier homeostasis and stratum corneum integrity: inhibition of epidermal lipid synthesis accounts for functional abnormalities
    Jack S Kao
    Dermatology and Medical Services Metabolism, VA Medical Center San Francisco and Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U S A
    J Invest Dermatol 120:456-64. 2003
    ..Finally, topical replenishment with epidermal physiologic lipids could represent a potential method to reduce the adverse cutaneous effects of both topical glucocorticoid treatment and Cushing's syndrome...
  44. ncbi Liver X receptor activators display anti-inflammatory activity in irritant and allergic contact dermatitis models: liver-X-receptor-specific inhibition of inflammation and primary cytokine production
    Ashley J Fowler
    Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 120:246-55. 2003
    ..LXR activators could provide a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of cutaneous inflammatory disorders...
  45. ncbi Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in epidermal development in utero
    Matthias Schmuth
    Departments of Medicine Dermatology, University of California San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 119:1298-303. 2002
    ..The transient and incomplete nature of the developmental delay, however, is consistent with regulation of the late stages of epidermal development by multiple factors...
  46. ncbi Antifungal and antibacterial properties of a silver-loaded cellulosic fiber
    Uta Christina Hipler
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, D 07740 Jena, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 77:156-63. 2006
    ....
  47. ncbi On the course of the irritant reaction after irritation with sodium lauryl sulphate
    Max Gloor
    Department of Dermatology Municipal Hospital Karlsruhe GmbH, Germany
    Skin Res Technol 10:144-8. 2004
    ..The sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) irritation test is a well-established model for irritant contact dermatitis after the effects of surfactants...
  48. ncbi Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma -'crosti lymphoma': what can we learn?
    Mirjana Ziemer
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Am J Clin Dermatol 9:133-6. 2008
    ..It is also important to recognize that inability to verify monoclonality should not exclude the diagnosis of lymphoma...
  49. doi International Society of Skin Pharmacology. Meeting highlights. Editorial
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Skin Pharmacol Physiol 21:123. 2008
  50. doi Emollients, moisturizers, and keratolytic agents in psoriasis
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Bioskin, Seydelstr 18, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Clin Dermatol 26:380-6. 2008
    ..They should be combined with bath oils...
  51. ncbi Generalized pruritic reddish-brown patches in a 7-year-old boy
    Doreen Kowatzki
    Department of Dermatology, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany
    Am J Clin Dermatol 8:321-3. 2007
  52. ncbi The price for treatment of chronic skin diseases: different approaches
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Dermatology 214:6-7. 2007
  53. ncbi Standardized washing models: facts and requirements
    Joachim W Fluhr
    Skin Res Technol 10:141-3. 2004
  54. ncbi Lysophosphatidic acid induces chemotaxis, oxygen radical production, CD11b up-regulation, Ca2+ mobilization, and actin reorganization in human eosinophils via pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins
    Marco Idzko
    Department of Pneumonology and Experimental Dermatology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Immunol 172:4480-5. 2004
    ..These findings point to a novel role of LPA in the pathogenesis of diseases with eosinophilic inflammation such as atopic diseases as chemotaxin as well as activator of proinflammatory effector functions...
  55. doi Morphological skin ageing criteria by multiphoton laser scanning tomography: non-invasive in vivo scoring of the dermal fibre network
    Martin Johannes Koehler
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
    Exp Dermatol 17:519-23. 2008
    ..Morphological changes in the dermal collagen and elastin fibre network are characteristic for skin ageing and for pathological skin conditions of the dermis...