Heiko Braak

Summary

Affiliation: Frankfurt am Main
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi Two types of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy
    Dietmar Rudolf Thal
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:282-93. 2002
  2. ncbi Alzheimer's disease: intraneuronal alterations precede insoluble amyloid-beta formation
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 25:713-8; discussion 743-6. 2004
  3. ncbi Argyrophilic grain disease in demented subjects presenting initially with amnestic mild cognitive impairment
    Gregory A Jicha
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:602-9. 2006
  4. ncbi Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase on chromosome 10q is a susceptibility gene for sporadic Alzheimer's disease
    Andreas Papassotiropoulos
    Division of Psychiatry Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Neurodegener Dis 2:233-41. 2005
  5. ncbi Staging of Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary pathology using paraffin sections and immunocytochemistry
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University Clinic, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 112:389-404. 2006
  6. doi [A new look at the corticostriatal-thalamocortical circuit in sporadic Parkinson's disease]
    H Braak
    Institut für Klinische Neuroanatomie, Goethe Universitat Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main
    Nervenarzt 79:1440-5. 2008
  7. ncbi Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 24:197-211. 2003
  8. ncbi Cognitive decline correlates with neuropathological stage in Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University Clinic, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 248:255-8. 2006
  9. doi Cortico-basal ganglia-cortical circuitry in Parkinson's disease reconsidered
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Exp Neurol 212:226-9. 2008
  10. ncbi Involvement of precerebellar nuclei in multiple system atrophy
    H Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 29:60-76. 2003

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. ncbi Two types of sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy
    Dietmar Rudolf Thal
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:282-93. 2002
    ..CAA-Type 2 is not associated with the epsilon4 allele as a risk factor but shows a higher epsilon2 allele frequency than CAA-Type 1 cases and controls in our sample...
  2. ncbi Alzheimer's disease: intraneuronal alterations precede insoluble amyloid-beta formation
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 25:713-8; discussion 743-6. 2004
  3. ncbi Argyrophilic grain disease in demented subjects presenting initially with amnestic mild cognitive impairment
    Gregory A Jicha
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:602-9. 2006
    ..AGD is a common pathologic finding in subjects who have been diagnosed with amnestic MCI...
  4. ncbi Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase on chromosome 10q is a susceptibility gene for sporadic Alzheimer's disease
    Andreas Papassotiropoulos
    Division of Psychiatry Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Neurodegener Dis 2:233-41. 2005
    ....
  5. ncbi Staging of Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary pathology using paraffin sections and immunocytochemistry
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University Clinic, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 112:389-404. 2006
    ..It is anticipated that this revised methodological protocol will enable a more uniform application of the staging procedure...
  6. doi [A new look at the corticostriatal-thalamocortical circuit in sporadic Parkinson's disease]
    H Braak
    Institut für Klinische Neuroanatomie, Goethe Universitat Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main
    Nervenarzt 79:1440-5. 2008
    ..The focus on damage to nondopaminergic and extranigral sites is becoming increasingly important for clinical practice...
  7. ncbi Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 24:197-211. 2003
    ..This study traces the course of the pathology in incidental and symptomatic Parkinson cases proposing a staging procedure based upon the readily recognizable topographical extent of the lesions...
  8. ncbi Cognitive decline correlates with neuropathological stage in Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University Clinic, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Neurol Sci 248:255-8. 2006
    ..Since the median MMSE scores decreased from stages 3-6, it is probable that the risk of developing dementia in PD becomes greater as the disease process in the brain progresses...
  9. doi Cortico-basal ganglia-cortical circuitry in Parkinson's disease reconsidered
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Exp Neurol 212:226-9. 2008
    ..The central roles of the corticostriatal projection, corticosubthalamic projection, and lower brainstem nuclei are emphasized...
  10. ncbi Involvement of precerebellar nuclei in multiple system atrophy
    H Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 29:60-76. 2003
    ..The uniformly bilateral damage and, in some cases, even obliteration of the nuclei studied, supply additional evidence for the pathoanatomical substrata of the cerebellar dysfunction that reportedly emerges in the clinical course of MSA...
  11. doi Invited Article: Nervous system pathology in sporadic Parkinson disease
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neurology 70:1916-25. 2008
  12. ncbi Poor and protracted myelination as a contributory factor to neurodegenerative disorders
    Heiko Braak
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Theodor Stern Kai 7, Frankfurt Main D 60590, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 25:19-23. 2004
  13. ncbi Development of alpha-synuclein immunoreactive astrocytes in the forebrain parallels stages of intraneuronal pathology in sporadic Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 114:231-41. 2007
    ..g., Abeta protein or neurofibrillary changes of the Alzheimer type, do not appear to influence the development of the alpha-synuclein immunoreactive astrocytes...
  14. ncbi Parkinson's disease: lesions in dorsal horn layer I, involvement of parasympathetic and sympathetic pre- and postganglionic neurons
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University Clinic, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 113:421-9. 2007
    ..This constellation indicates that physical contacts between vulnerable regions play a key role in the pathogenesis of PD...
  15. ncbi Stanley Fahn Lecture 2005: The staging procedure for the inclusion body pathology associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease reconsidered
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Mov Disord 21:2042-51. 2006
    ..Here, the staging hypothesis is critically reconsidered and discussed...
  16. ncbi Vulnerability of cortical neurons to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Alzheimers Dis 9:35-44. 2006
    ..The severity of the neocortical lesions decreases in inverse proportion to the trajectories of increasing cortical differentiation and hierarchical refinement...
  17. ncbi Stages in the development of Parkinson's disease-related pathology
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Cell Tissue Res 318:121-34. 2004
    ..At this point, most individuals probably cross the threshold to the symptomatic phase of the illness. In the end-stages 5-6, the process enters the mature neocortex, and the disease manifests itself in all of its clinical dimensions...
  18. ncbi Cognitive status correlates with neuropathologic stage in Parkinson disease
    H Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurology 64:1404-10. 2005
    ..None had received the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
  19. ncbi Gastric alpha-synuclein immunoreactive inclusions in Meissner's and Auerbach's plexuses in cases staged for Parkinson's disease-related brain pathology
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University Clinic, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 396:67-72. 2006
    ....
  20. ncbi Neuroanatomy and pathology of sporadic Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
    Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 201:1-119. 2009
    ..Against the background of the normal morphology and anatomy, the authors analyze the pathoanatomy of sPD in the nervous system at various neuropathological stages and summarize the potential functional consequences of the lesions...
  21. ncbi Vulnerability of select neuronal types to Alzheimer's disease
    H Braak
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 924:53-61. 2000
    ....
  22. ncbi Pathological changes in the parahippocampal region in select non-Alzheimer's dementias
    H Braak
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 911:221-39. 2000
    ....
  23. ncbi Alpha-synuclein is not a requisite component of synaptic boutons in the adult human central nervous system
    H Braak
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
    J Chem Neuroanat 20:245-52. 2000
    ....
  24. ncbi Parkinson's disease: affection of brain stem nuclei controlling premotor and motor neurons of the somatomotor system
    H Braak
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 99:489-95. 2000
    ..This functional deficit most probably contributes to the overall dysfunction of the motor system typically evolving in the course of Parkinson's disease...
  25. ncbi Neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease: what is new since A. Alzheimer?
    E Braak
    Anatomisches Institut I, J W Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt, Germany
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 249:14-22. 1999
    ..Pigment-laden neuronal types giving rise to a single long, thin, unmyelinated or sparsely myelinated axon are particularly prone to developing Alzheimer's disease-related cytoskeletal changes...
  26. ncbi alpha-synuclein immunopositive Parkinson's disease-related inclusion bodies in lower brain stem nuclei
    E Braak
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 101:195-201. 2001
    ..Fine, dust-like particles and small globular Lewy bodies were encountered solely within the limits of intraneuronal lipofuscin or neuromelanin deposits...
  27. ncbi Nerve cells expressing heat-shock proteins in Parkinson's disease
    H Braak
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 102:449-54. 2001
    ..Nevertheless, most of the telencephalic alphaB-crystallin-immunopositive neurons refrain from developing Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites and, vice versa, most of the nerve cells containing Lewy bodies do not accumulate alphaB-crystallin...
  28. ncbi Extensive axonal Lewy neurites in Parkinson's disease: a novel pathological feature revealed by alpha-synuclein immunocytochemistry
    H Braak
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 265:67-9. 1999
    ..This study demonstrates for the first time that extensive and thin alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive inclusions are present in the axonal processes of neurons...
  29. ncbi Silver staining method for demonstrating Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and argyrophilic oligodendrocytes in multiple system atrophy
    E Braak
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Neurosci Methods 87:111-5. 1999
    ..It takes advantage of the physical development of nucleation sites and thereby permits tight control of the entire staining procedure...
  30. ncbi Pick's disease: cytoskeletal changes in the hypothalamic lateral tuberal nucleus
    H Braak
    Department of Anatomy, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Main, Germany
    Brain Res 802:119-24. 1998
    ..The characteristic alterations seen in PID reliably can be differentiated from lesions of the LTN which slowly emerge in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  31. ncbi Alzheimer's disease: transiently developing dendritic changes in pyramidal cells of sector CA1 of the Ammon's horn
    E Braak
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 93:323-5. 1997
    ..It is usually not observed in stages V and VI (fully developed Alzheimer's disease)...
  32. ncbi Staging of the intracerebral inclusion body pathology associated with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (preclinical and clinical stages)
    Heiko Braak
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Neurol 249:III/1-5. 2002
    ..IPD manifests itself in all of its dimensions, which under the influence of the supervening cortical pathology are subject to increasing complexity...
  33. ncbi Pathoanatomy of Parkinson's disease
    H Braak
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    J Neurol 247:II3-10. 2000
    ....
  34. ncbi Homozygosity for the K variant of BCHE gene increases the risk for development of neurofibrillary pathology but not amyloid deposits at young ages
    Estifanos Ghebremedhin
    Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 114:359-63. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that homozygosity, but not heterozygosity, for BCHE-K is a potential risk factor for the development of NFT pathology in young individuals implicating BCHE-K in the pathogenesis of early AD...
  35. ncbi Intranuclear aggregation of nonexpanded ataxin-3 in marinesco bodies of the nonhuman primate substantia nigra
    Mattias Kettner
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Exp Neurol 176:117-21. 2002
    ..In conclusion MB in nonhuman primates permit experimental examination of mechanisms involved in transnuclear localization, intranuclear aggregation, and ubiquitination of nonexpanded polyglutamine proteins...
  36. ncbi Where does parkinson disease pathology begin in the brain?
    Kelly Del Tredici
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61:413-26. 2002
    ..e. hippocampal formation, temporal mesocortex, proneocortical cingulate areas, amygdala, basal nucleus of Meynert, interstitial nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca, hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus)...
  37. ncbi High prevalence of thorn-shaped astrocytes in the aged human medial temporal lobe
    Christian Schultz
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 25:397-405. 2004
    ..In summary, this study suggests that TSA is a distinct form of glial tau pathology that occurs with a high frequency in elderly individuals...
  38. ncbi Relationship of apolipoprotein E and age at onset to Parkinson disease neuropathology
    Estifanos Ghebremedhin
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, D 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:116-23. 2006
    ..001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that APOE may express its effect on the risk of PD by modifying the occurrence of PD pathology, but age of PD onset seems to be the principal determinant of the progression rate of PD pathology...
  39. ncbi Pallido-nigral spheroids in nonhuman primates: accumulation of heat shock proteins in astroglial processes
    Dirk Willwohl
    Department of Anatomy, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 103:276-80. 2002
    ..Further investigations of these structures may provide information pertinent to our understanding of astroglial heat shock protein inclusions developing in degenerative human brain diseases...
  40. ncbi Transgenic mice expressing mutant A53T human alpha-synuclein show neuronal dysfunction in the absence of aggregate formation
    Suzana Gispert
    Department of Anatomy II Experimental Neurobiology, University Frankfurt M, Frankfurt, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 24:419-29. 2003
    ..Transgenic animals expressing mutant alpha-synuclein may be a valuable model to assess specific aspects of the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies...
  41. ncbi Staging of sporadic Parkinson disease-related alpha-synuclein pathology: inter- and intra-rater reliability
    Christian M Müller
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University Clinic, Frankfurt M, Germany
    J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 64:623-8. 2005
    ..Clearly defined stages of alpha-synpathology might aid the comparability between studies and also help to distinguish sPD from other synucleinopathies...
  42. ncbi Age-dependent association between butyrylcholinesterase K-variant and Alzheimer disease-related neuropathology in human brains
    Estifanos Ghebremedhin
    Department of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J W Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 320:25-8. 2002
    ..036 for NFTs, and P=0.045 for A beta-deposits) at ages > or = 70 years but not 50-69 years. Furthermore, no interaction was apparent between BCHE-K and ApoE...
  43. ncbi Phases of A beta-deposition in the human brain and its relevance for the development of AD
    Dietmar R Thal
    Department of Anatomy, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Neurology 58:1791-800. 2002
    ..The deposition of the amyloid beta protein (Abeta) is a histopathologic hallmark of AD. The regions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are hierarchically involved in Abeta-deposition...
  44. doi Diminished tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the cardiac conduction system and myocardium in Parkinson's disease: an anatomical study
    Estifanos Ghebremedhin
    Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Goethe University Frankfurt, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 118:777-84. 2009
    ....
  45. pmc Biochemical analysis of tau proteins in argyrophilic grain disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Pick's disease : a comparative study
    Victoria Zhukareva
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, J W Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
    Am J Pathol 161:1135-41. 2002
    ....
  46. doi Functional neuroanatomy of the human premotor oculomotor brainstem nuclei: insights from postmortem and advanced in vivo imaging studies
    Udo Rüb
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Exp Brain Res 187:167-80. 2008
    ..This will help radiologists to identify these nuclei in living patients and will enable clinicians to monitor the progression of neurological disorders affecting the oculomotor system...
  47. ncbi Neurofibrillary changes of the Alzheimer type in very elderly individuals: neither inevitable nor benign: Commentary on "No disease in the brain of a 115-year-old woman"
    Kelly Del Tredici
    Institute for Clinical Neuroanatomy, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt Main, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 29:1133-6. 2008
  48. ncbi Neuropathologic outcome of mild cognitive impairment following progression to clinical dementia
    Gregory A Jicha
    Alzheimer s Disease Research Center and Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Arch Neurol 63:674-81. 2006
    ..The pathologic outcome of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) following progression to dementia is poorly understood...
  49. ncbi Increased brain beta-amyloid load, phosphorylated tau, and risk of Alzheimer disease associated with an intronic CYP46 polymorphism
    Andreas Papassotiropoulos
    Division of Pychiatry Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland
    Arch Neurol 60:29-35. 2003
    ..CYP46, the gene encoding cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, plays a key role in the hydroxylation of cholesterol and thereby mediates its removal from brain...
  50. doi Assessing fetal nerve cell grafts in Parkinson's disease
    Heiko Braak
    Nat Med 14:483-5. 2008
  51. ncbi Role of protein kinase B in Alzheimer's neurofibrillary pathology
    Jin Jing Pei
    Neurotec, Section for Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, Karolinska Institutet, KFC Plan 4, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
    Acta Neuropathol 105:381-92. 2003
    ..These studies suggest the involvement of PKB/GSK-3 signaling in Alzheimer neurofibrillary degeneration...
  52. ncbi Up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 is associated with the progression of neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease
    Jin Jing Pei
    Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Division of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, KFC Plan 4, Novum, S 141 86, Huddinge, Sweden
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 109:45-55. 2002
    ..These data provide direct in situ evidence consistent with the possible involvement of MAP kinase pathway in the hyperphosphorylation of tau and the presence of this lesion before deposition of beta-amyloid in AD...
  53. ncbi Up-regulation of cell division cycle (cdc) 2 kinase in neurons with early stage Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary degeneration
    Jin Jing Pei
    Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Section of Experimental Geriatrics, KFC Plan 4, Novum, 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
    Acta Neuropathol 104:369-76. 2002
    ....
  54. doi A not entirely benign procedure: progression of Parkinson's disease
    Kelly Del Tredici
    Acta Neuropathol 115:379-84. 2008
  55. pmc Up-regulation of phosphorylated/activated p70 S6 kinase and its relationship to neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease
    Wen Lin An
    Division of Experimental Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Novum, Huddinge, Sweden
    Am J Pathol 163:591-607. 2003
    ..A p70 S6 kinase modulated up-regulation of tau translation might contribute to PHF-tau accumulation in neurons with neurofibrillary changes...
  56. ncbi Molecular evolution and genetics of the Saitohin gene and tau haplotype in Alzheimer's disease and argyrophilic grain disease
    Chris Conrad
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    J Neurochem 89:179-88. 2004
    ..More detailed studies confirm the H2 haplotype to be the ancestral tau gene. This situation is reminiscent of the evolution of the apolipoprotein (ApoE) gene, another locus that is potentially important for the risk of development of AD...
  57. ncbi Neurodegeneration in normal brain aging and disease
    Dietmar Rudolf Thal
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn Medical Center, Sigmund Freud Strasse 25, D 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2004:pe26. 2004
    ..Aging is, therefore, a major risk factor for these diseases but does not necessarily lead to age-related diseases...
  58. ncbi The biphasic relationship between regional brain senile plaque and neurofibrillary tangle distributions: modification by age, sex, and APOE polymorphism
    Elizabeth H Corder
    Duke University, Center for Demographic Studies, Durham, NC 27708 0408, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1019:24-8. 2004
    ..The gender gap in SPs at early NFT stages was large and specific to women who carried the APOE4 allele (P <.001) and in addition to the acceleration in NFT stage also found for APOE4+ women...
  59. ncbi Apolipoprotein E co-localizes with newly formed amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) deposits lacking immunoreactivity against N-terminal epitopes of Abeta in a genotype-dependent manner
    Dietmar Rudolf Thal
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund Freud Str 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 110:459-71. 2005
    ..Moreover, apoE-positive newly formed plaques were seen more frequently in APOE epsilon4/4 cases than in non-APOE epsilon4/4 individuals, thereby underlining the potentially crucial role of apoE for the development of Abeta deposits...
  60. ncbi The development of amyloid beta protein deposits in the aged brain
    Dietmar R Thal
    Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, D 53105 Bonn, Germany
    Sci Aging Knowledge Environ 2006:re1. 2006
    ..The role of intracellular Abeta in Abeta deposition and the mechanism of Abeta toxicity are also discussed...
  61. ncbi Neuropathologic features of amnestic mild cognitive impairment
    Ronald C Petersen
    Alzheimer s Disease Research Center and Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Arch Neurol 63:665-72. 2006
    ..The neuropathologic substrate of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is not known...