Stephen M Cohen

Summary

Affiliation: European Molecular Biology Laboratory
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. pmc Drosophila lacking microRNA miR-278 are defective in energy homeostasis
    Aurelio A Teleman
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:417-22. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Developmental biology. Mixed messages in early development
    Stephen M Cohen
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 312:65-6. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Wingless and Notch signaling provide cell survival cues and control cell proliferation during wing development
    Antonio J Giraldez
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 130:6533-43. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Ligand-binding and signaling properties of the Ax[M1] form of Notch
    Lidia Perez
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mech Dev 122:479-86. 2005
  5. ncbi request reprint Osa modulates the expression of Apterous target genes in the Drosophila wing
    Marco Milan
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mech Dev 121:491-7. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Opposing activities of Dally-like glypican at high and low levels of Wingless morphogen activity
    Johan Kreuger
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 7:503-12. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint The Hippo pathway regulates the bantam microRNA to control cell proliferation and apoptosis in Drosophila
    Barry J Thompson
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany
    Cell 126:767-74. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint Denoising feedback loops by thresholding--a new role for microRNAs
    Stephen M Cohen
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:2769-72. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Spatial and temporal regulation of the homeotic selector gene Antennapedia is required for the establishment of leg identity in Drosophila
    B Starling Emerald
    Developmental Biology Program, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg 69117, Germany
    Dev Biol 267:462-72. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Proximodistal subdivision of Drosophila legs and wings: the elbow-no ocelli gene complex
    Ulrich Weihe
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 131:767-74. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. pmc Drosophila lacking microRNA miR-278 are defective in energy homeostasis
    Aurelio A Teleman
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:417-22. 2006
    ..We provide evidence that miR-278 mutants are insulin resistant and that miR-278 acts through regulation of the expanded transcript...
  2. ncbi request reprint Developmental biology. Mixed messages in early development
    Stephen M Cohen
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 312:65-6. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Wingless and Notch signaling provide cell survival cues and control cell proliferation during wing development
    Antonio J Giraldez
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 130:6533-43. 2003
    ..However, only part of this effect was attributable to Notch-dependent induction of Wg, suggesting that other Notch-inducible signaling molecules contribute to the control of cell proliferation in the wing...
  4. ncbi request reprint Ligand-binding and signaling properties of the Ax[M1] form of Notch
    Lidia Perez
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mech Dev 122:479-86. 2005
    ..To explain the ectopic activity of Abruptex[M1] in vivo we suggest that it may be necessary to invoke an altered response to an as yet unidentified ligand or cofactor...
  5. ncbi request reprint Osa modulates the expression of Apterous target genes in the Drosophila wing
    Marco Milan
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mech Dev 121:491-7. 2004
    ..Osa has been shown to bind Chip. We propose that Chip recruits Osa to the Apterous target genes, thus mediating activation or repression of their expression...
  6. ncbi request reprint Opposing activities of Dally-like glypican at high and low levels of Wingless morphogen activity
    Johan Kreuger
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 7:503-12. 2004
    ..Notum-induced shedding of Dlp could convert Dlp from a membrane-tethered coreceptor to a secreted antagonist...
  7. ncbi request reprint The Hippo pathway regulates the bantam microRNA to control cell proliferation and apoptosis in Drosophila
    Barry J Thompson
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg 69117, Germany
    Cell 126:767-74. 2006
    ..In summary, the results show that the Hippo pathway regulates expression of bantam to control tissue growth in Drosophila...
  8. ncbi request reprint Denoising feedback loops by thresholding--a new role for microRNAs
    Stephen M Cohen
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:2769-72. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Spatial and temporal regulation of the homeotic selector gene Antennapedia is required for the establishment of leg identity in Drosophila
    B Starling Emerald
    Developmental Biology Program, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg 69117, Germany
    Dev Biol 267:462-72. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that the temporal and spatial regulation of the homeotic selector gene Antennapedia in the leg disc is necessary for normal leg development in Drosophila...
  10. ncbi request reprint Proximodistal subdivision of Drosophila legs and wings: the elbow-no ocelli gene complex
    Ulrich Weihe
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 131:767-74. 2004
    ..We present evidence that the zinc-finger proteins encoded by the elbow and no ocelli genes act in leg and wing primordia to repress body wall-specifying genes and thereby direct appendage formation...
  11. ncbi request reprint MAP4K3 regulates body size and metabolism in Drosophila
    Boris Bryk
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr 1, Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Biol 344:150-7. 2010
    ..Lastly, we show physical interaction between MAP4K3 and the Rag GTPases raising the possibility they might be acting in one signaling pathway...
  12. ncbi request reprint Short-range cell interactions and cell survival in the Drosophila wing
    Marco Milan
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 2:797-805. 2002
    ..We also present evidence showing that activation of the Notch signal transduction pathway is involved in triggering apoptosis of cells misspecified for their dorsal-ventral position...
  13. doi request reprint Nutritional control of protein biosynthetic capacity by insulin via Myc in Drosophila
    Aurelio A Teleman
    EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Metab 7:21-32. 2008
    ..This study uncovers a network of convergent regulation of protein biosynthesis by the FOXO and TOR branches of the nutrient-sensing pathway...
  14. ncbi request reprint Animal MicroRNAs confer robustness to gene expression and have a significant impact on 3'UTR evolution
    Alexander Stark
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 123:1133-46. 2005
    ..This mutually exclusive expression argues that microRNAs confer accuracy to developmental gene-expression programs, thus ensuring tissue identity and supporting cell-lineage decisions...
  15. pmc Slik Sterile-20 kinase regulates Moesin activity to promote epithelial integrity during tissue growth
    David R Hipfner
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 18:2243-8. 2004
    ..This is distinct from Slik's effects on cell proliferation, which are mediated by Raf. Thus Slik acts via distinct pathways to coordinate cell proliferation with epithelial cell behavior during tissue growth...
  16. ncbi request reprint Tumor suppressor properties of the ESCRT-II complex component Vps25 in Drosophila
    Barry J Thompson
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 9:711-20. 2005
    ..These results highlight the importance of endocytic trafficking in regulating signaling and epithelial organization and suggest a possible role for ESCRT components in human cancer...
  17. pmc Identification of Drosophila MicroRNA targets
    Alexander Stark
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Biol 1:E60. 2003
    ..While the screen is likely to miss some targets, our study shows that valid targets can be identified from sequence alone...
  18. ncbi request reprint HSPG modification by the secreted enzyme Notum shapes the Wingless morphogen gradient
    Antonio J Giraldez
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 2:667-76. 2002
    ..High levels of Wingless signaling induce Notum expression. Thus, Wingless contributes to shaping its own gradient by regulating expression of a protein that modifies its interaction with cell surface proteoglycans...
  19. ncbi request reprint molting defective is required for ecdysone biosynthesis
    Dagmar Neubueser
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Biol 280:362-72. 2005
    ..Here, we report identification of one such gene, which we call molting defective, on the basis of its lethal phenotype. molting defective encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein required for ecdysone biosynthesis...
  20. ncbi request reprint A naturally occurring alternative product of the mastermind locus that represses notch signalling
    Antonio J Giraldez
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mech Dev 115:101-5. 2002
    ....
  21. pmc microRNA miR-14 acts to modulate a positive autoregulatory loop controlling steroid hormone signaling in Drosophila
    Jishy Varghese
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 21:2277-82. 2007
    ..Failure to limit EcR levels is responsible for the many of the defects observed in miR-14 mutants. miR-14 plays a key role in modulating the positive autoregulatory loop by which Ecdysone sensitizes its own signaling pathway...
  22. pmc Drosophila Minus is required for cell proliferation and influences Cyclin E turnover
    Sébastien Szuplewski
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 23:1998-2003. 2009
    ..Minus does not affect dMyc, another known SCF(Ago) substrate in Drosophila. We propose that Minus contributes to cell cycle regulation in part by selectively controlling turnover of Cyclin E...
  23. ncbi request reprint bantam encodes a developmentally regulated microRNA that controls cell proliferation and regulates the proapoptotic gene hid in Drosophila
    Julius Brennecke
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 113:25-36. 2003
    ..bantam microRNA simultaneously stimulates cell proliferation and prevents apoptosis. We identify the pro-apoptotic gene hid as a target for regulation by bantam miRNA, providing an explanation for bantam's anti-apoptotic activity...
  24. ncbi request reprint Connecting proliferation and apoptosis in development and disease
    David R Hipfner
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 169117, Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 5:805-15. 2004
    ..Elaborate mechanisms ensure that cells do not evade these constraints, and thereby prevent uncontrolled proliferation...
  25. ncbi request reprint The conserved microRNA miR-8 tunes atrophin levels to prevent neurodegeneration in Drosophila
    Janina S Karres
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 131:136-45. 2007
    ..Drosophila atrophin is related to the atrophin family of mammalian transcriptional regulators, implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder DRPLA. The regulatory relationship between miR-8 and atrophin orthologs is conserved in mammals...
  26. doi request reprint Temporal reciprocity of miRNAs and their targets during the maternal-to-zygotic transition in Drosophila
    Natascha Bushati
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Developmental Biology Programme, Meyerhofstr 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Biol 18:501-6. 2008
    ..The finding that unrelated miRNAs regulate the maternal to zygotic transition in different animals suggests convergent evolution...
  27. ncbi request reprint Glycosphingolipids with extended sugar chain have specialized functions in development and behavior of Drosophila
    Ya Wen Chen
    Developmental Biology Program, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Biol 306:736-49. 2007
    ..Despite the similar enzymatic activity, we provide evidence that the two enzymes are not functionally redundant in vivo, but direct distinct developmental functions of GSL...
  28. pmc The Drosophila sterile-20 kinase slik controls cell proliferation and apoptosis during imaginal disc development
    David R Hipfner
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Biol 1:E35. 2003
    ..We suggest that Slik mediates growth and survival cues to promote cell proliferation and control cell survival during Drosophila development...
  29. pmc Principles of microRNA-target recognition
    Julius Brennecke
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Biol 3:e85. 2005
    ....
  30. pmc Isolation of microRNA targets by miRNP immunopurification
    George Easow
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    RNA 13:1198-204. 2007
    ..This approach provides a means to identify functional miRNA targets based on their physical interaction in vivo...
  31. pmc A genetic screen in Drosophila for identifying novel components of the hedgehog signaling pathway
    Russell T Collins
    Developmental Biology Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Genetics 170:173-84. 2005
    ..It also identified mutations in a gene whose product is necessary for the movement of Hedgehog protein through tissues...
  32. ncbi request reprint Not miR-ly muscular: microRNAs and muscle development
    Julius Brennecke
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 19:2261-4. 2005
  33. ncbi request reprint Distal antenna and distal antenna related encode nuclear proteins containing pipsqueak motifs involved in antenna development in Drosophila
    B Starling Emerald
    Developmental Biology Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 130:1171-80. 2003
    ..We propose that dan and danr are effector genes that act downstream of these genes to control differentiation of distal antennal structures...
  34. ncbi request reprint A re-evaluation of the contributions of Apterous and Notch to the dorsoventral lineage restriction boundary in the Drosophila wing
    Marco Milan
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 130:553-62. 2003
    ..We propose that Apterous controls expression of surface proteins that confer an affinity difference in conjunction with activated Notch. Thus, we view Apterous as instructive and Notch activity as essential, but permissive...
  35. pmc Towards a complete description of the microRNA complement of animal genomes
    Julius Brennecke
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genome Biol 4:228. 2003
    ..Recent cloning and computational studies have sought to catalog all the microRNA genes encoded in animal genomes. Here, we highlight recent advances in identifying Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster microRNAs...
  36. ncbi request reprint microRNA functions
    Natascha Bushati
    Developmental Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany 69117
    Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 23:175-205. 2007
    ..In animal cells, miRNAs regulate their targets by translational inhibition and mRNA destabilization. Here, we review recent work in animal models that provide insight into the diverse roles of miRNAs in vivo...
  37. ncbi request reprint Structural insights into the Notch-modifying glycosyltransferase Fringe
    Martin Jinek
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 13:945-6. 2006
    ..Mutations of several invariant residues in this pocket impair Fringe activity in vivo...
  38. ncbi request reprint Repression of Teashirt marks the initiation of wing development
    Jun Wu
    Developmental Biology Program, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Development 129:2411-8. 2002
    ..Thus, repression of Tsh defines the presumptive wing earlier in development than repression of Hth, which must therefore be considered a secondary event...
  39. pmc 4E-BP functions as a metabolic brake used under stress conditions but not during normal growth
    Aurelio A Teleman
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 19:1844-8. 2005
    ..We suggest that 4E-BP works as a metabolic brake that is activated under conditions of environmental stress to control fat metabolism. 4E-BP mutants lack this regulation, reducing their ability to survive under unfavorable conditions...
  40. pmc The bantam gene regulates Drosophila growth
    David R Hipfner
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genetics 161:1527-37. 2002
    ..However, epistasis and genetic interaction analyses indicate that bantam and cyclinD-cdk4 operate independently. Thus, the bantam locus represents a novel regulator of tissue growth...
  41. ncbi request reprint The secret life of Smoothened
    Russell T Collins
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Dev Cell 5:823-4. 2003
  42. pmc Mei-P26 regulates microRNAs and cell growth in the Drosophila ovarian stem cell lineage
    Ralph A Neumüller
    Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences IMBA, Dr Bohr Gasse 3, 1030 Vienna, Austria
    Nature 454:241-5. 2008
    ..Mei-P26 and Brat have a similar domain composition that is also found in other tumour suppressors and might be a defining property of a new family of microRNA regulators that act specifically in stem cell lineages...
  43. pmc Gain-of-function screen for genes that affect Drosophila muscle pattern formation
    Nicole Staudt
    Max Planck Institut fur biophysikalische Chemie, Gottingen, Germany
    PLoS Genet 1:e55. 2005
    ....
  44. pmc Genome-wide analysis of mRNAs regulated by Drosha and Argonaute proteins in Drosophila melanogaster
    Jan Rehwinkel
    EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell Biol 26:2965-75. 2006
    ..Moreover, AGO1 and AGO2 silence the expression of a common set of mobile genetic elements. Together, these results indicate that the functional overlap between AGO1 and AGO2 in Drosophila is more important than previously thought...
  45. pmc Re-evaluating AKT regulation: role of TOR complex 2 in tissue growth
    Ville Hietakangas
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 21:632-7. 2007
    ..Thus, TORC2 acts as a rheostat to broaden the range of AKT signaling at the high end of its range...
  46. pmc A single Hox locus in Drosophila produces functional microRNAs from opposite DNA strands
    Alexander Stark
    Broad Institute of Massachussetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Genes Dev 22:8-13. 2008
    ..We also report sense/antisense miRNAs in mouse and find antisense transcripts close to many miRNAs in both flies and mammals, suggesting that additional sense/antisense pairs exist...
  47. doi request reprint TORCing up metabolic control in the brain
    Ville Hietakangas
    Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, Singapore 11706
    Cell Metab 7:357-8. 2008
    ..In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Wang and coworkers (2008) report an intriguing role for Drosophila TORC in the neuronal regulation of metabolism...
  48. pmc TOR complex 2 is needed for cell cycle progression and anchorage-independent growth of MCF7 and PC3 tumor cells
    Ville Hietakangas
    Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, The National University of Singapore, 117604, Singapore
    BMC Cancer 8:282. 2008
    ..Hydrophobic motif site phosphorylation is needed only for a subset of AKT functions. Whether proliferation of tumor cells depends on TORC2 activity has not been thoroughly explored...
  49. pmc Identification of novel Drosophila melanogaster microRNAs
    Thomas Sandmann
    Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    PLoS ONE 2:e1265. 2007
    ..This data provides the basis for future genetic analysis of miRNA function and will aid the discovery of orthologous sequences in other species...
  50. pmc On the mechanism of wing size determination in fly development
    Lars Hufnagel
    Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3835-40. 2007
    ..This analysis provides an alternative hypothesis for the size determination process. Novel experimental approaches will be needed to test this model...
  51. ncbi request reprint On the role of glypicans in the process of morphogen gradient formation
    Lars Hufnagel
    Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
    Dev Biol 300:512-22. 2006
    ..In particular, our model suggests that Dlp acts by allowing Wg to diffuse on cell surface while protecting it from loss and degradation, and that Dlp rather than acting as Wg co-receptor competes with receptors for morphogen binding...
  52. ncbi request reprint Drosophila Melted modulates FOXO and TOR activity
    Aurelio A Teleman
    Dev Cell 9:271-81. 2005
    ..We provide evidence that in the melted mutant, TOR activity is reduced and FOXO is activated. The melted mutant condition mimics the effects of nutrient deprivation in a normal animal, producing an animal with 40% less fat than normal...
  53. ncbi request reprint Drosophila egghead encodes a beta 1,4-mannosyltransferase predicted to form the immediate precursor glycosphingolipid substrate for brainiac
    Hans H Wandall
    School of Dentistry, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Allé 20, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 278:1411-4. 2003
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint Boundary formation in the Drosophila wing: functional dissection of Capricious and Tartan
    Marco Milan
    Icrea and Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Dev Dyn 233:804-10. 2005
    ..Their intracellular domains may be required to transduce a signal necessary for the establishment of the DV boundary...
  55. ncbi request reprint Egghead and brainiac are essential for glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in vivo
    Hans H Wandall
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Allé 20, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 280:4858-63. 2005
    ..The study demonstrates that glycosphingolipids are essential for development of complex organisms and suggests that the function of the Drosophila glycosphingolipids in development does not depend on the core structure...
  56. ncbi request reprint Drosophila's insulin/PI3-kinase pathway coordinates cellular metabolism with nutritional conditions
    Jessica S Britton
    Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Dev Cell 2:239-49. 2002
    ..Hence we surmise that an essential function of insulin/PI3K signaling in Drosophila is to coordinate cellular metabolism with nutritional conditions...
  57. ncbi request reprint Developmental biology: long-range signalling by touch
    Stephen M Cohen
    Nature 426:503-4. 2003
  58. ncbi request reprint The Drosophila gene brainiac encodes a glycosyltransferase putatively involved in glycosphingolipid synthesis
    Tilo Schwientek
    School of Dentistry, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Allé 20, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    J Biol Chem 277:32421-9. 2002
    ..We suggest that brainiac exerts its biological functions by regulating biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids...