M Bohus

Summary

Affiliation: Central Institute of Mental Health
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. doi request reprint The short version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23): development and initial data on psychometric properties
    Martin Bohus
    Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Psychopathology 42:32-9. 2009
  2. ncbi request reprint Psychometric properties of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL)
    Martin Bohus
    Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
    Psychopathology 40:126-32. 2007
  3. doi request reprint [Mindfulness-based psychotherapy]
    M Bohus
    Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Klinik für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Postfach 122120, 68072 Mannheim, Deutschland
    Nervenarzt 83:1479-87; quiz 1488-9. 2012
  4. doi request reprint [General principles in psychotherapy of personality disorders]
    Martin Bohus
    Abteilung für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit Mannheim
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 59:149-57. 2009
  5. doi request reprint [Dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of childhood sexual abuse]
    Martin Bohus
    Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Klinik für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Mannheim
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 61:140-7. 2011
  6. doi request reprint [Psychopathology and psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder: state of the art]
    M Bohus
    Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit Mannheim, Klinik fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, Mannheim, Germany
    Nervenarzt 82:16-24. 2011
  7. pmc Script-driven imagery of self-injurious behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder: a pilot FMRI study
    A Kraus
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 121:41-51. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder
    Anja Kraus
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Pain 143:179-85. 2009
  9. doi request reprint A cross-sectional investigation of discontinuation of self-injury and normalizing pain perception in patients with borderline personality disorder
    P Ludascher
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 120:62-70. 2009
  10. doi request reprint Amygdala deactivation as a neural correlate of pain processing in patients with borderline personality disorder and co-occurrent posttraumatic stress disorder
    Anja Kraus
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 65:819-22. 2009

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. doi request reprint The short version of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23): development and initial data on psychometric properties
    Martin Bohus
    Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Psychopathology 42:32-9. 2009
    ..The BSL-95 includes 95 items. In order to reduce patient burden and assessment time, a short version with 23 items (BSL-23) was developed...
  2. ncbi request reprint Psychometric properties of the Borderline Symptom List (BSL)
    Martin Bohus
    Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany
    Psychopathology 40:126-32. 2007
    ..The psychometric properties and validity of the BSL have been investigated in several studies...
  3. doi request reprint [Mindfulness-based psychotherapy]
    M Bohus
    Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Klinik für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Postfach 122120, 68072 Mannheim, Deutschland
    Nervenarzt 83:1479-87; quiz 1488-9. 2012
    ..In summary, mindfulness used as one component in modular conceptualized treatment programs seems to be both acceptable and effective...
  4. doi request reprint [General principles in psychotherapy of personality disorders]
    Martin Bohus
    Abteilung für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit Mannheim
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 59:149-57. 2009
    ..The intention was to develop a concept which gets beyond the school oriented therapeutic approaches in order to provide the platform for further developments of general and specific treatments for personality disorders...
  5. doi request reprint [Dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in survivors of childhood sexual abuse]
    Martin Bohus
    Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Klinik für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Mannheim
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 61:140-7. 2011
    ..An overview is given on the treatment rational, the dynamic hierarchy of treatment focusses and the interventions used. In the internet version of this article treatment application is exemplified in a case study...
  6. doi request reprint [Psychopathology and psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder: state of the art]
    M Bohus
    Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit Mannheim, Klinik fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie, Mannheim, Germany
    Nervenarzt 82:16-24. 2011
    ..This is mirrored by the annual costs for inpatient treatment extending to 4 billion Euros, which is approximately 20% of the total costs for psychiatric care in Germany...
  7. pmc Script-driven imagery of self-injurious behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder: a pilot FMRI study
    A Kraus
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 121:41-51. 2010
    ..Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is one of the most distinctive features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and related to impulsivity and emotional dysregulation...
  8. doi request reprint Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder
    Anja Kraus
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Pain 143:179-85. 2009
    ..Our results suggest an association of PTSD with reduced pain sensitivity, which could be related to PTSD-related (neuro-)psychological alterations or to a pre-existing risk factor for the disorder...
  9. doi request reprint A cross-sectional investigation of discontinuation of self-injury and normalizing pain perception in patients with borderline personality disorder
    P Ludascher
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 120:62-70. 2009
    ..The aim of the present study was to test whether pain perception in patients with current SIB is different from that of patients who had stopped SIB, and whether pain perception of the latter group differs from healthy controls (HC)...
  10. doi request reprint Amygdala deactivation as a neural correlate of pain processing in patients with borderline personality disorder and co-occurrent posttraumatic stress disorder
    Anja Kraus
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 65:819-22. 2009
    ..This study aimed at clarifying whether central antinoceptive mechanisms discriminate BPD patients with and without co-occurrent PTSD...
  11. doi request reprint Influence of emotional distraction on working memory performance in borderline personality disorder
    A Krause-Utz
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Psychol Med 42:2181-92. 2012
    ..Although current theories emphasize the disruptive potential of negative emotions on cognitive functioning in BPD, behavioral and neurobiological data on this relationship are still lacking...
  12. doi request reprint Oligodipsia and dissociative experiences in borderline personality disorder
    K Hoeschel
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Acta Psychiatr Scand 117:390-3. 2008
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Do improvements after inpatient dialectial behavioral therapy persist in the long term? A naturalistic follow-up in patients with borderline personality disorder
    Nikolaus Kleindienst
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    J Nerv Ment Dis 196:847-51. 2008
    ..The effects of inpatient dialectical behavior therapy seem to persist after patients returned to their usual lives...
  14. ncbi request reprint Affective dysregulation and dissociative experience in female patients with borderline personality disorder: a startle response study
    Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Postfach 12 21 20, 68072 Mannheim, Germany
    J Psychiatr Res 39:85-92. 2005
    ..Furthermore, it highlights the importance of assessing present-state dissociation in basic research as well as psychotherapy...
  15. ncbi request reprint State affective instability in borderline personality disorder assessed by ambulatory monitoring
    Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Psychol Med 37:961-70. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the pattern of instability that characterizes BPD has not yet been identified...
  16. ncbi request reprint Psychophysiological ambulatory assessment of affective dysregulation in borderline personality disorder
    Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Postfach 122120, 68072 Mannheim, Germany
    Psychiatry Res 150:265-75. 2007
    ..M., 1993. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. The Guildford Press, New York.] and suggest the potential utility for evaluating treatment outcome...
  17. doi request reprint Motives for nonsuicidal self-injury among women with borderline personality disorder
    Nikolaus Kleindienst
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    J Nerv Ment Dis 196:230-6. 2008
    ..NSSI was usually preceded by a large variety of negative feelings that were reported to clearly improve with NSSI. In conclusion, therapists should anticipate a multidimensional functional spectrum when exploring motives of NSSI...
  18. doi request reprint Distress and affective dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder: a psychophysiological ambulatory monitoring study
    Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68072 Mannheim, Germany
    J Nerv Ment Dis 196:314-20. 2008
    ..Physiological arousal (heart rate) was related to distress in both groups. Our empirical findings emphasize training in labeling emotions and distress tolerance interventions in treatment for BPD...
  19. ncbi request reprint A valence-dependent group-specific recall bias of retrospective self-reports: a study of borderline personality disorder in everyday life
    Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    J Nerv Ment Dis 194:774-9. 2006
    ..A traditional questionnaire approach does not distinguish between symptoms of the disorder and recall bias, although the pathological mechanisms underlying them as well as the appropriate treatment strategies may be different...
  20. pmc Emotional learning during dissociative states in borderline personality disorder
    Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 34:214-22. 2009
    ..The aim of our study was to determine whether high states of dissociative experience would specifically alter emotional learning, but not declarative knowledge...
  21. pmc Pain sensitivity and neural processing during dissociative states in patients with borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study
    Petra Ludäscher
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Mannheim, Germany
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 35:177-84. 2010
    ..Our aim was to investigate the psychologic, somatosensory (pain sensitivity) and neural correlates of dissociative states in patients with these disorders...
  22. doi request reprint Correlation of glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate cortex with self-reported impulsivity in patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls
    Mareen Hoerst
    Department of Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:946-54. 2010
    ..Impulsivity is a key feature of BPD and can be related to anterior cingulate cortex function...
  23. doi request reprint Affect regulation and pain in borderline personality disorder: a possible link to the understanding of self-injury
    Inga Niedtfeld
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 68:383-91. 2010
    ..Pain in BPD has further been observed to lead to a reduction in neural activity in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex, which may be attributed to patients' perception of relaxation...
  24. ncbi request reprint Differential nociceptive deficits in patients with borderline personality disorder and self-injurious behavior: laser-evoked potentials, spatial discrimination of noxious stimuli, and pain ratings
    Christian Schmahl
    Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mannheim, Germany
    Pain 110:470-9. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that hypoalgesia in BPD may primarily be due to altered intracortical processing similar to certain meditative states...
  25. doi request reprint Pain sensitivity is reduced in borderline personality disorder, but not in posttraumatic stress disorder and bulimia nervosa
    Christian Schmahl
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    World J Biol Psychiatry 11:364-71. 2010
    ..To establish whether these findings are specific for BPD, we compared pain thresholds in patients with BPD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bulimia nervosa, and healthy controls...
  26. doi request reprint Metabolic alterations in the amygdala in borderline personality disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
    Mareen Hoerst
    Department of Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, 68159 Mannheim, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 67:399-405. 2010
    ..0 T in which we acquire data within only the small amygdala. The purpose of this study was to determine alterations of the metabolism in the amygdala in BPD patients...
  27. pmc Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in patients with borderline personality disorder with or without posttraumatic stress disorder
    Christian Schmahl
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    J Psychiatry Neurosci 34:289-95. 2009
    ..Both groups exhibit volume reductions of the hippocampus and amygdala. Our aim was to investigate the influence of comorbid PTSD on hippocampus and amygdala volumes in patients with BPD...
  28. ncbi request reprint Neural correlates of antinociception in borderline personality disorder
    Christian Schmahl
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:659-67. 2006
    ..We predicted that heat stimuli in patients with BPD would activate brain areas concerned with cognitive and emotional evaluation of pain...
  29. ncbi request reprint [Psychopathology and treatment of borderline personality disorder]
    M Bohus
    Klinik für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim, J5, 68117, Mannheim
    Nervenarzt 78:1069-80; quiz 1081. 2007
    ..Studies on psychopharmacological treatment with promising results have also recently been published. Sufficient outpatient treatment by trained psychotherapists is underdeveloped. Hence, specialized inpatient centers assume this task...
  30. doi request reprint [Development of the "Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test" (MMST)]
    Tatyana Kolotylova
    Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit Mannheim, Klinik für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Universitat Jena, Jena, Germany
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 60:64-72. 2010
    ..We conclude that the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST) induces high levels of physiological and psychological stress and can serve as an economical method to investigate stress reactions in a laboratory setting...
  31. ncbi request reprint New developments in the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder
    Martin Bohus
    Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, J 5, 68159 Mannheim, Germany
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 6:43-50. 2004
    ..Most of the neuropsychologic, physiologic, endocrinologic, and neuroimaging data support the theory that a dual brain pathology, affecting prefrontal and limbic circuits, may underlie this hyperarousal-dyscontrol syndrome...
  32. doi request reprint [Short version of the borderline symptom list (BSL-23): development and psychometric evaluation]
    Martina Wolf
    Klinik für Psychosomatik und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 59:321-4. 2009
    ..The results indicate that the BSL-23 is an efficient and convenient self-rating instrument that displays very good psychometric properties comparable to those of the full version of the BSL...
  33. ncbi request reprint Emotional modulation of pain: a clinical perspective
    Iris Klossika
    Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University of Heidelberg, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    Pain 124:264-8. 2006
  34. ncbi request reprint Increased delta power and discrepancies in objective and subjective sleep measurements in borderline personality disorder
    Alexandra Philipsen
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, Haupt strasse 5, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Psychiatr Res 39:489-98. 2005
    ..Earlier findings in sleep EEG abnormalities in BPD may have been confounded by concomitant depressive symptoms...
  35. ncbi request reprint Altered pain processing in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder
    Elbert Geuze
    Department of Military Psychiatry, Central Military Hospital, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:76-85. 2007
    ..Several brain areas related to pain processing are implicated in PTSD. To our knowledge, no functional imaging study has discussed whether patients with PTSD experience and process pain in a different way than control subjects...
  36. ncbi request reprint Frontolimbic brain abnormalities in patients with borderline personality disorder: a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study
    Ludger Tebartz van Elst
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 54:163-71. 2003
    ..We measured limbic and prefrontal brain volumes to test the hypothesis that frontolimbic brain pathology might be associated with borderline personality disorder...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of inpatient dialectical behavioral therapy for borderline personality disorder: a controlled trial
    Martin Bohus
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy with Polyclinic, Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Medical School, Hauptstrasse 5, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Behav Res Ther 42:487-99. 2004
    ..Within a relatively short time frame, improvement was found across a broad range of psychopathological features. Stability of the recovery after one month following discharge, however, was not evaluated and requires further study...
  38. ncbi request reprint Clonidine in acute aversive inner tension and self-injurious behavior in female patients with borderline personality disorder
    Alexandra Philipsen
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, Freiburg, Germany
    J Clin Psychiatry 65:1414-9. 2004
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Subtype differentiation of patients with borderline personality disorder using a circumplex model of interpersonal behavior
    Florian Leihener
    1 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, Hauptstr 5, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Nerv Ment Dis 191:248-54. 2003
    ..Implications of these findings for future research and management of BPD are discussed...
  40. ncbi request reprint Neuroimaging of pain perception in Dutch veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: preliminary results
    Elbert Geuze
    Department of Military Psychiatry, Central Military Hospital, Heidelberglaan, 100 3584, CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071:401-4. 2006
    ..Fixed affects analysis demonstrated that stimuli subjectively perceived as more painful resulted in increased activation of the caudal ACC, whereas less painful stimuli resulted in increased activation of the rostral ACC in both groups...
  41. ncbi request reprint Elevated pain thresholds correlate with dissociation and aversive arousal in patients with borderline personality disorder
    Petra Ludäscher
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, Germany
    Psychiatry Res 149:291-6. 2007
    ..Measuring electric pain thresholds is a valid and reasonable method for larger studies...
  42. ncbi request reprint Shame and implicit self-concept in women with borderline personality disorder
    NICOLAS RUSCH
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Hauptstrasse 5, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Am J Psychiatry 164:500-8. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on dysfunctional implicit and explicit emotions among women with borderline personality disorder
    NICOLAS RUSCH
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    J Nerv Ment Dis 195:537-9. 2007
    ..Self-reported guilt proneness and implicit anxiety may mediate the negative impact of comorbid PTSD on women with BPD...
  44. ncbi request reprint Self-stigma in women with borderline personality disorder and women with social phobia
    NICOLAS RUSCH
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Germany
    J Nerv Ment Dis 194:766-73. 2006
    ..This may reflect intense labeling processes as being mentally ill due to repeated hospitalizations, frequent interpersonal difficulties, and visible scars...
  45. ncbi request reprint [Development and characteristics of Dissociation-Tension-Scale acute (DSS-Akute)]
    Christian E Stiglmayr
    Freie Universitat Berlin, Arbeitsbereich für Psychotherapie und Beratung
    Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 53:287-94. 2003
    ..The DSS-acute is a reliable and valid instrument to assess present-time dissociative experiences as well as aversive inner tension. Current studies should further proof the sensitivity for changing symptomatology...
  46. doi request reprint Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potentially aggravating factor in borderline personality disorder
    Alexandra Philipsen
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany
    Br J Psychiatry 192:118-23. 2008
    ..Clinical experience suggests that people with borderline personality disorder often meet criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, empirical data are sparse...
  47. ncbi request reprint Borderline personality disorder
    Klaus Lieb
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, Hauptstrasse 5, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Lancet 364:453-61. 2004
    ..Current strategies are focusing on the neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder and the development and dissemination of better and more cost-effective treatments to clinicians...
  48. ncbi request reprint [Dialectical behavior therapy in borderline syndrome: a way out of the therapeutic dead end]
    Heike Barthruff
    Universitatsklinik fur Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Freiburg
    Pflege Z 57:534-7. 2004
  49. ncbi request reprint Increased diurnal salivary cortisol in women with borderline personality disorder
    Klaus Lieb
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, Hauptstr 5, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    J Psychiatr Res 38:559-65. 2004
    ..Increased adrenal activity and lowered feedback sensitivity of the HPA-axis may characterise BPD. Further studies have to reveal reasons of heightened adrenal activity in these patients...
  50. ncbi request reprint Measuring shame and guilt by self-report questionnaires: a validation study
    NICOLAS RUSCH
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Hauptstrasse 5, D 79104 Freiburg, Germany
    Psychiatry Res 150:313-25. 2007
    ..The discriminant validity of the TOSCA-3 to distinguish between shame- and guilt-proneness may be diminished in clinical samples. The measure of state shame (ESS) showed a large overlap with state anxiety...
  51. ncbi request reprint Self-stigma, empowerment, and perceived legitimacy of discrimination among women with mental illness
    NICOLAS RUSCH
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Psychiatr Serv 57:399-402. 2006
    ..The authors hypothesized that a high level of perceived discrimination, little sense of identification with the group of people with mental illness, and a high level of perceived legitimacy of discrimination lead to self-stigma...
  52. ncbi request reprint A critique of the American psychiatric practice guideline for the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder
    Cynthia Sanderson
    University of Massachusetts Medical College, USA
    J Pers Disord 16:122-9. 2002