- Mechanism of action of St John's wort in depression : what is known?Veronika Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Munster, Germany
CNS Drugs 17:539-62. 2003..This review integrates new findings of possible mechanisms that may underlie the antidepressant action of St John's wort and its active constituents with a large body of existing literature...
- Plasma levels of hypericin in presence of procyanidin B2 and hyperoside: a pharmacokinetic study in ratsV Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Germany
Planta Med 69:189-92. 2003..It can be speculated that, when administered together with these compounds, a significant accumulation of hypericin in rat plasma in the presence of both polyphenols might be responsible for the observed increased in vivo activity...
- Long-term effects of an Apocynum venetum extract on brain monoamine levels and beta-AR density in ratsVeronika Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Universitätsklinikum Muenster, Domagkstrasse 12, 48149 Munster, Germany
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75:557-64. 2003..125I]CYP binding to beta-adrenergic receptors was found to be decreased after 8 weeks treatment with imipramine, whereas AV-extract had no effect on beta-receptor binding...
- In vitro receptor screening of pure constituents of St. John's wort reveals novel interactions with a number of GPCRsVeronika Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Muenster, Domagkstrasse 12, 48149 Muenster, Germany
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 162:193-202. 2002..Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort; SJW) is one of the leading psychotherapeutic phytomedicines and great effort has been devoted to clarifying its mechanism of action...
- Long-term effects of St. John's wort and hypericin on monoamine levels in rat hypothalamus and hippocampusVeronika Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Domagkstrasse 12, 48149 Muenster, Germany
Brain Res 930:21-9. 2002..01). Our data clearly show that long-term, but not short-term administration of St. John's wort and its active constituent hypericin modify levels of neurotransmitters in brain regions involved in the pathophysiology of depression...
- Pharmacological and endocrine effects of Hypericum perforatum and hypericin after repeated treatmentV Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Munster, Germany
Pharmacopsychiatry 34:S2-7. 2001..From our present data, we propose that cooperative effects of hypericin and procyanidin B2 are of important relevance for the acute, but not for the chronic effects of this polycylic quinone...
- Antidepressant effects of apocynum venetum leaves in a forced swimming testV Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, WWU Muenster, Germany
Biol Pharm Bull 24:848-51. 2001..Further, it can be speculated that this effect might be related to hyperoside and isoquercitrin which are major flavonoids in the extract...
- Step by step removal of hyperforin and hypericin: activity profile of different Hypericum preparations in behavioral modelsVeronika Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Universitätsklinikum Muenster, Domagkstrasse 12, 48149 Muenster, Germany
Life Sci 73:627-39. 2003..We also could show that hyperforin contributes to the beneficial properties of SJW extract, confirming the hypothesis that the crude SJW extract contains several constituents with antidepressant activity...
- St John's wort, hypericin, and imipramine: a comparative analysis of mRNA levels in brain areas involved in HPA axis control following short-term and long-term administration in normal and stressed ratsV Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Domagkstrasse 12, 48149 Munster, Germany
Mol Psychiatry 6:547-64. 2001..However, imipramine appears to be more effective in blocking stress effects on the HPA axis than the plant extract...
- Extracts of St. John's wort and various constituents affect beta-adrenergic binding in rat frontal cortexK Simbrey
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Universitatsklinikum Munster, Domagkstrasse 12, 48149 Munster, Germany
Life Sci 74:1027-38. 2004..Compared to the SJW extracts and single compounds the effect of imipramine on beta-AR-binding was more pronounced in both treatment paradigms...
- Flavonoids from Hypericum perforatum show antidepressant activity in the forced swimming testV Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Westfalische Wilhelms Universitat, Munster, Germany
Planta Med 66:3-6. 2000..Except for quercetin, quercitrin and astilbin all compounds were active. To exclude false positive results in the FST the validity was checked in open field experiments and in the FST after 12 days of daily treatment...
- [Pharmacologic and clinical studies using Cimicifuga racemosa in climacteric complaints]H Winterhoff
Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie des Universitätsklinikums Münster, Deutschland
Wien Med Wochenschr 152:360-3. 2002..In addition pronounced effects on the central nervous system were shown. Taking these relevant therapeutic properties into account further experimental and clinical studies seem to be necessary and promising...
- Flavonoids of Cynara scolymus possess potent xanthinoxidase inhibitory activity in vitro but are devoid of hypouricemic effects in rats after oral applicationSasiporn Sarawek
College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Planta Med 74:221-7. 2008..In conclusion, an aqueous ALE, caffeic acid derivatives and flavones exerted XO inhibitory effects in vitro but a hypouricemic activity could not be confirmed after oral administration...
- St. John's wort: role of active compounds for its mechanism of action and efficacyVeronika Butterweck
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
Wien Med Wochenschr 157:356-61. 2007..Although there are some open questions, the bulk of data suggests that several groups of active compounds are contributing to the antidepressant efficacy of the plant extract...
- Potential of pharmacokinetic profiling for detecting herbal interactions with drugsVeronika Butterweck
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Clin Pharmacokinet 47:383-97. 2008..Effective screening tools that accurately predict metabolic herb-drug interactions would offer a tremendous advantage because it is not possible to study all potential herb-drug interactions in clinical trials...
- Anti-anxiety effects of Apocynum venetum L. in the elevated plus maze testOliver Grundmann
College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, Gainesvilla, FL 32610, USA
J Ethnopharmacol 110:406-11. 2007..These results indicate that AV extract is an effective anxiolytic agent, and suggest that the anxiolytic-like activities of this plant are mainly mediated via the GABAergic system...
- Effects of St. John's wort extract and single constituents on stress-induced hyperthermia in miceOliver Grundmann
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Planta Med 72:1366-71. 2006..1 mg/kg. In conclusion, using open field stress as a psychological stressor to induce hyperthermia in mice we were able to detect putative anxiolytic effects of SJW extract and single consituents...
- Antidepressant effect of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in behavioral modelsHiroyuki Sakakibara
Department of Food Science, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Japan
Biol Pharm Bull 29:1767-70. 2006..The present study clearly demonstrated that EGB exerts an antidepressant effect in these two behavioral models...
- Isolation and HPLC quantitative analysis of antioxidant flavonoids from Alternanthera tenella CollaMarcos J Salvador
Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida dos Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040 901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brasil
Z Naturforsch C 61:19-25. 2006..Moreover, the total soluble phenolic contents of the extract and fractions were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the quantitative analysis of flavone C-glycosides major constituents was performed by HPLC...
- Hyperforin in St. John's wort drug interactionsRajanikanth Madabushi
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, P O 100494, Gainesville, 32610, USA
Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62:225-33. 2006..In the present paper clinical significant SJW interactions are critically evaluated against the background of hyperforin...
- Effects of forced swimming stress on rat brain functionHiroyuki Sakakibara
Department of Food Science, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Japan
J Med Invest 52:300-1. 2005..These phenomena may be included in key mechanisms of the development of depression...
- Apocynum venetum extract does not induce CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in ratsMichiya Kobayashi
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari Tobetsu, Japan
Biol Pharm Bull 27:1649-52. 2004..These results suggest that, unlike SJW, the recommended dose of AV (3.3 mg/kg/d) would not influence hepatic CYP3A and intestinal P-gp in rats...
- Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions: are preventive screenings necessary and appropriate?Veronika Butterweck
Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Planta Med 70:784-91. 2004..Efforts to identify all possible interactions will lead to limitless investigations and to inconsistent decisions...
- The role of interleukin-6 in stress-induced hyperthermia and emotional behaviour in miceVeronika Butterweck
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Domagkstrasse 12, Muenster 48149, Germany
Behav Brain Res 144:49-56. 2003..These data suggest that IL-6 plays an important role in the control of emotionality, but not in the regulation of body temperature after psychological stress...
- Cimicifuga extract BNO 1055: reduction of hot flushes and hints on antidepressant activityHilke Winterhoff
Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Central Clinic, University of Munster, Domagkstrasse 12, 48149 Munster, Germany
Maturitas 44:S51-8. 2003..These findings in pharmacological tests-a reduction of the frequency of hot flush equivalents and hints on antidepressant activity of Cimicifuga extracts-are in good agreement with the therapeutical responses in climacteric women...
- [What is known about St. John's wort? Phytochemistry and pharmacology]Veronika Butterweck
Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie und Phytochemie Westf Wilhelms Universität Hittorfstr 56 48149 Münster
Pharm Unserer Zeit 32:212-9. 2003
- Hyperforin-containing extracts of St John's wort fail to alter gene transcription in brain areas involved in HPA axis control in a long-term treatment regimen in ratsVeronika Butterweck
Section on Functional Neuroanatomy, NIMH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Neuropsychopharmacology 28:2160-8. 2003..These data suggest that hyperforin and hyperforin derivatives are not involved in the regulation of genes that control HPA axis function...
- Variation of flavonoids and furanocoumarins in grapefruit juices: a potential source of variability in grapefruit juice-drug interaction studiesWhocely Victor De Castro
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, P O BOX 100494, Gainesville, Florida 32610 0494, USA
J Agric Food Chem 54:249-55. 2006..The concentration of potentially contributing compounds may crucially influence the magnitude of observed interaction and impair direct comparison of studies in which different juices have been used...
- Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A: an update on pharmacology and analytical methodologyOliver Grundmann
College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, FL 32608, USA
Planta Med 73:1039-46. 2007..divinorum...
- Hypothermic effects of hops are antagonized with the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole in miceVeronika Butterweck
College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Florida, Gainesville, PO Box 100494, FL 32610, USA
J Pharm Pharmacol 59:549-52. 2007..Thus, our data suggests that the hypothermic--and therefore the sleep-inducing--effects of hops extract are possibly mediated through activation of melatonin receptors...
- Polymethoxylated flavones and other phenolic derivates from citrus in their inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of talinolol in Caco-2 cellsSusanne U Mertens-Talcott
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, P O BOX 100494, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
J Agric Food Chem 55:2563-8. 2007..Based on their relatively low concentrations (< or =3 microg/mL) in citrus, the clinical relevance of these interactions needs to be further elucidated in in vivo studies...
- Effect of grapefruit juice, naringin, naringenin, and bergamottin on the intestinal carrier-mediated transport of talinolol in ratsWhocely Victor De Castro
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Road, P O BOX 100494, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
J Agric Food Chem 56:4840-5. 2008..5- to 1.8-fold, respectively. In conclusion, the effect of GFJ on P-gp activity seems to depend on the variety, the concentration of compounds in the juice, and the composition of different ingredients...