Affiliation: Bayer AG
- Determination of the excitatory potencies of fluoroquinolones in the central nervous system by an in vitro modelG Schmuck
Bayer AG, Institute of Toxicology, Wuppertal, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:1831-6. 1998..These investigations pointed to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor as the probable target of the fluoroquinolone effects...
- Rat cortical neuron cultures: an in vitro model for differentiating mechanisms of chemically induced neurotoxicityG Schmuck
Bayer AG, Pharma Research Centre, Wuppertal, Germany
In Vitr Mol Toxicol 13:37-50. 2000..Damage of the cytoskeleton may be considered as an endpoint mechanistically related to degenerative neuropathic effects...
- [The importance of standardised cell culture methods for the routine toxicology in pharmaceutical companies]G Schmuck
Bayer AG, D Wuppertal
ALTEX 18:79-80. 2001..The central question of toxicology is the risk assessment. Here, the in vitro toxicology will provide important information by a comparison between human and animal cell cultures under the same conditions...
- Neurotoxic mode of action of artemisininGabriele Schmuck
Pharma Research Center, Bayer AG, D 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:821-7. 2002..Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, two other antioxidant enzymes that were investigated, did not show any changes in their mRNA expression in all three cell types after exposure to artemisinin...
- Effects of the dithiocarbamate fungicide propineb in primary neuronal cell cultures and skeletal muscle cells of the ratGabriele Schmuck
Bayer AG, Pharma Research Centre, Aprather Weg, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
Arch Toxicol 76:414-22. 2002..In conclusion, the toxicity of propineb is not comparable to disulfiram, diethyldithiocarbamate or CS(2) neurotoxicity. In regard to these findings, a direct reversible effect of propineb on skeletal muscle cells seems to be more likely...
- Effects of the carbamates fenoxycarb, propamocarb and propoxur on energy supply, glucose utilization and SH-groups in neuronsGabriele Schmuck
Bayer AG, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
Arch Toxicol 78:330-7. 2004..The prevention by pyruvate and acetylcysteine pointed to these biochemical endpoints...
- Effects of the new herbicide fentrazamide on the glucose utilization in neurons and erythrocytes in vitroGabriele Schmuck
Bayer AG, PH PD Toxicology, Aprather Weg 18a, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
Neurotoxicology 24:55-64. 2003..It is concluded that this effect of fentrazamide in rats poses no specific risk under the exposure conditions relevant to humans...
- An in vitro model for toxicological investigations of environmental neurotoxins in primary neuronal cell culturesG Schmuck
Bayer Pharma Research Center, Wuppertal, Germany
Toxicol Ind Health 12:683-96. 1996..Therefore, the determination of cell-specific end points is necessary to detect the neurotoxic potency and quality of a compound, whereas the cytotoxicity assay limited the tested concentration range...
- c-fos mRNA expression in rat cortical neurons during glutamate-mediated excitotoxicityA Rogers
Bayer HealthCare, Pharma Research Centre, Aprather Weg, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
Toxicol Sci 82:562-9. 2004..In view of the high levels of expression of c-fos mRNA, the rat cortical cell system may also be used as a more sensitive model than mCGCs for investigations into early markers of excitotoxicity...
- Developmental and reproductive toxicity studies on artemisoneG Schmuck
Bayer HealthCare AG, Pharma Research Center, Wuppertal, Germany
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 86:131-43. 2009....
- The influence of oxidative stress on catalase and MnSOD gene transcription in astrocytesE Röhrdanz
Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Universitatsstr 1, D 40225, Dusseldorf, Germany
Brain Res 900:128-36. 2001..These results indicate transcriptional regulation of MnSOD and post-transcriptional regulation of catalase gene expression after oxidative stress in primary rat astrocytes...
- Artemisone--a highly active antimalarial drug of the artemisinin classRichard K Haynes
Department of Chemistry, Open Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Institute of Molecular Technology for Drug Discovery and Synthesis, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, PR China
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 45:2082-8. 2006
- Critical analysis of potential body temperature confounders on neurochemical endpoints caused by direct dosing and maternal separation in neonatal mice: a study of bioallethrin and deltamethrin interactions with temperature on brain muscarinic receptorsJürgen Pauluhn
Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
J Appl Toxicol 23:9-18. 2003..However, owing to their higher ventilation, under such conditions the pups may receive dosages at least double those of the dams...
- Improvements in an in-vitro assay for excitotoxicity by measurement of early gene (c-fos mRNA) levelsAnnamarie Rogers
Bayer HealthCare, Pharma Research Centre, Aprather Weg, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
Arch Toxicol 79:129-39. 2005..Furthermore, this test has the potential for application in screening newly-designed excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists in the search for clinically relevant drugs to treat a variety of neuropathologies...