Jürgen Pauluhn

Summary

Affiliation: Bayer HealthCare AG
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi Inhalation studies in laboratory animals--current concepts and alternatives
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Pathol 28:734-53. 2000
  2. ncbi Respiratory hypersensitivity to trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway rats: evidence for different activation pattern of immune cells following topical and respiratory induction
    H W Vohr
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 76:538-44. 2002
  3. ncbi Repeated inhalation challenge with diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate in brown Norway rats leads to a time-related increase of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage after topical induction
    J Pauluhn
    Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 17:67-78. 2005
  4. ncbi Experimental approaches to evaluate respiratory allergy in animal models
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, BA YER HealthCare, Wuppertal 42096, Germany
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 56:203-34. 2005
  5. doi Retrospective analysis of 4-week inhalation studies in rats with focus on fate and pulmonary toxicity of two nanosized aluminum oxyhydroxides (boehmite) and pigment-grade iron oxide (magnetite): the key metric of dose is particle mass and not particle sur
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma, Department of Inhalation Toxicology, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 259:140-8. 2009
  6. doi Subchronic inhalation toxicity of iron oxide (magnetite, Fe(3) O(4) ) in rats: pulmonary toxicity is determined by the particle kinetics typical of poorly soluble particles
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 32:488-504. 2012
  7. ncbi Acute nose-only exposure of rats to phosgene. Part II. Concentration x time dependence of changes in bronchoalveolar lavage during a follow-up period of 3 months
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 18:595-607. 2006
  8. ncbi Analysis of biomarkers in rats and dogs exposed to polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) and its glutathione adduct
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 222:202-12. 2006
  9. ncbi Acute nose-only exposure of rats to phosgene. Part I: concentration x time dependence of LC50s, nonlethal-threshold concentrations, and analysis of breathing patterns
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Health Care, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 18:423-35. 2006
  10. ncbi Mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity. Part II: subchronic nose-only inhalation study in rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 26:279-92. 2006

Detail Information

Publications66

  1. ncbi Inhalation studies in laboratory animals--current concepts and alternatives
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Pathol 28:734-53. 2000
    ..Some of the many variables and possible artifacts likely to occur in animal inhalation studies are addressed in this paper...
  2. ncbi Respiratory hypersensitivity to trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway rats: evidence for different activation pattern of immune cells following topical and respiratory induction
    H W Vohr
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 76:538-44. 2002
    ....
  3. ncbi Repeated inhalation challenge with diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate in brown Norway rats leads to a time-related increase of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage after topical induction
    J Pauluhn
    Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 17:67-78. 2005
    ....
  4. ncbi Experimental approaches to evaluate respiratory allergy in animal models
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, BA YER HealthCare, Wuppertal 42096, Germany
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 56:203-34. 2005
    ..Accordingly, the specific pros and cons of the selected animal model, including protocol variables, animal species and strain selected, must be interpreted cautiously in order to arrive at a meaningful extrapolation for humans...
  5. doi Retrospective analysis of 4-week inhalation studies in rats with focus on fate and pulmonary toxicity of two nanosized aluminum oxyhydroxides (boehmite) and pigment-grade iron oxide (magnetite): the key metric of dose is particle mass and not particle sur
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma, Department of Inhalation Toxicology, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 259:140-8. 2009
    ..From that perspective, the determination of mass-based pulmonary lung burdens appears to be amongst the most important and critical nominator of dose and dose-related pulmonary toxicity...
  6. doi Subchronic inhalation toxicity of iron oxide (magnetite, Fe(3) O(4) ) in rats: pulmonary toxicity is determined by the particle kinetics typical of poorly soluble particles
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 32:488-504. 2012
    ..7 and 4.4 mg m(-3) , respectively, and supports an OEL (time-adjusted chronic occupational exposure level) of 2 mg m(-3) (alveolar fraction)...
  7. ncbi Acute nose-only exposure of rats to phosgene. Part II. Concentration x time dependence of changes in bronchoalveolar lavage during a follow-up period of 3 months
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 18:595-607. 2006
    ..6 mg/m3 x min distinct differences to the control existed. Despite the extensively increased airway permeability, histopathology did not provide evidence of lung tissue remodeling or irreversible sequelae...
  8. ncbi Analysis of biomarkers in rats and dogs exposed to polymeric methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) and its glutathione adduct
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 222:202-12. 2006
    ..Due methodological uncertainties associated with the harsh hydrolysis of biological specimens may be reduced substantially when using incremental pre- to post-shift changes rather than relying solely on absolute data...
  9. ncbi Acute nose-only exposure of rats to phosgene. Part I: concentration x time dependence of LC50s, nonlethal-threshold concentrations, and analysis of breathing patterns
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Health Care, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 18:423-35. 2006
    ..The C x t product in the range of the nonlethal threshold concentration (1008 mg/m3 x min) caused pulmonary injury as indicated by markedly increased protein in BAL. Changes resolved almost entirely within the 4-wk postexposure period...
  10. ncbi Mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity. Part II: subchronic nose-only inhalation study in rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 26:279-92. 2006
    ..Therefore, overnight exposure to the smoke from burning mosquito coils (manufactured in Indonesia) is unlikely to be associated with any unreasonable health risk...
  11. ncbi Mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity. Part I: validation of test approach and acute inhalation toxicity
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 26:269-78. 2006
    ..The inhalation studies conducted show unequivocally that acute toxic effects are difficult to produce with this type of product even under rigorous testing conditions...
  12. ncbi Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 17:729-39. 2005
    ....
  13. ncbi Concentration-dependence of aniline-induced methemoglobinemia in dogs: a derivation of an acute reference concentration
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 214:140-50. 2005
    ..Carry-over effects related to erythrotoxicity or Heinz body formation were not observed at any exposure level...
  14. ncbi Retrospective analysis of acute inhalation toxicity studies: comparison of actual concentrations by filter and cascade impactor analyses
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 42:236-44. 2005
    ..e., sampling equipment with different aspiration efficiencies and collection media, improve the judgment whether the results from atmosphere characterization are 'conclusive' or 'inconclusive.'..
  15. ncbi Inhaled cationic amphiphilic drug-induced pulmonary phospholipidosis in rats and dogs: time-course and dose-response of biomarkers of exposure and effect
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, Building Number 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 207:59-72. 2005
    ....
  16. ncbi Partial C-fiber ablation modulates diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI)-induced respiratory allergy in Brown Norway rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 228:188-99. 2006
    ....
  17. ncbi Subacute inhalation toxicity of 2-chloro-4-toluidine in rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 18:1117-34. 2006
    ..The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the 4-wk study was 19.1 mg/m3 and is based on the predominant atrophic changes of the olfactory epithelium and the minimal to borderline erythrocytotoxic effects at 115.1 mg/m3...
  18. ncbi A simple approach to validation of directed-flow nose-only inhalation chambers
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 27:160-7. 2007
    ..75 l min(-1) per rat exposure port ( approximately 3.75 times the minute volume of young adult rats) to prevent higher CO(2)-concentrations occurring...
  19. doi Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Baytubes): approach for derivation of occupational exposure limit
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharmaceuticals, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 57:78-89. 2010
    ..05 mg Baytubes/m(3) (time weighted average) is considered to be reasonably protective to prevent lung injury to occur in the workplace environment...
  20. doi Subchronic 13-week inhalation exposure of rats to multiwalled carbon nanotubes: toxic effects are determined by density of agglomerate structures, not fibrillar structures
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Department of Inhalation Toxicology, Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma, Building Number 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 113:226-42. 2010
    ..Thus, the hypothesis of study is verified, namely, common denominators between carbon black and MWCNT do exist...
  21. doi Comparative pulmonary response to inhaled nanostructures: considerations on test design and endpoints
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 21:40-54. 2009
    ....
  22. doi Pulmonary toxicity and fate of agglomerated 10 and 40 nm aluminum oxyhydroxides following 4-week inhalation exposure of rats: toxic effects are determined by agglomerated, not primary particle size
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharmaceuticals, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 109:152-67. 2009
    ..In order to reliably demonstrate retention-related different characteristics in toxicity and fate of poorly soluble (nano)particles postexposure periods of at least 3 months appear to be indispensible...
  23. ncbi Assessment of early acute lung injury in rats exposed to aerosols of consumer products: attempt to disentangle the "Magic Nano" conundrum
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Wuppertal
    Inhal Toxicol 20:1245-62. 2008
    ..In order to prevent indiscriminant testing of such products in bioassays, the development of standardized in vitro alternatives should be considered with high priority...
  24. doi Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI): analysis of the elicitation dose-response relationship
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 104:320-31. 2008
    ..In summary, these data suggest that the vigor of asthma-like responses appear to be more dependent on the inhalation elicitation dose of previously challenged rats rather than the dermal induction dose...
  25. ncbi Inhalation toxicology: methodological and regulatory challenges
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 60:111-24. 2008
    ..Accordingly, it is experimentally challenging to articulate a unifying denominator of dose at critical cellular targets in both in vivo and in vitro test systems due to the complex dependence on test material-specific characteristics...
  26. doi Comparative assessment of early acute lung injury in mice and rats exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate-polyisocyanate aerosols
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, Bayer Schering Pharmaceuticals, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 247:33-45. 2008
    ..In summary, this study supports the conclusion that data from rat inhalation studies with these types of isocyanates appear to be more conservative and less variable than the respective data from mice...
  27. ncbi Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI): impact of vehicle for topical induction
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharmaceuticals, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 50:144-54. 2008
    ..This animal model provides a versatile and robust experimental tool to evaluate and assess at least some features of MDI-related asthma...
  28. ncbi Workshop summary: phosgene-induced pulmonary toxicity revisited: appraisal of early and late markers of pulmonary injury from animal models with emphasis on human significance
    J Pauluhn
    Bayer Schering Pharma, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 19:789-810. 2007
    ....
  29. ncbi Pulmonary irritant potency of polyisocyanate aerosols in rats: comparative assessment of irritant threshold concentrations by bronchoalveolar lavage
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 24:231-47. 2004
    ..The content of free NCO per se appears to be a poor predictor of the pulmonary irritant potency of polyisocyanate aerosols...
  30. ncbi Comparative analysis of pulmonary irritation by measurements of Penh and protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in brown Norway rats and Wistar rats exposed to irritant aerosols
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 16:159-75. 2004
    ..This supports the conclusion that Wistar rats afford a higher diagnostic resolution than BN rats...
  31. ncbi Subacute inhalation toxicity of aniline in rats: analysis of time-dependence and concentration-dependence of hematotoxic and splenic effects
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 81:198-215. 2004
    ..However, spleens of the 32.4 mg/m3 exposure group exhibited a minimal increase in extramedullary hematopoiesis. Exposure to 9.2 mg/m3 was not associated with any significant effect...
  32. ncbi Acute head-only exposure of dogs to phosgene. Part III. Comparison of indicators of lung injury in dogs and rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 18:609-21. 2006
    ..This is believed to be associated with the higher ventilation of small rodents and with rodent-specific sensory bronchopulmonary defense reflexes...
  33. doi Poorly soluble particulates: searching for a unifying denominator of nanoparticles and fine particles for DNEL estimation
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Department of Inhalation Toxicology, Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharmaceuticals, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 279:176-88. 2011
    ..5 μl PM(respirable)/m³ x agglomerate density, independent on nano- or submicron-sized properties, as a generic no-adverse effect level in both rats and humans...
  34. ncbi Critical analysis of biomonitoring endpoints for measuring exposure to polymeric diphenyl-methane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI) in rats: a comparison of markers of exposure and markers of effect
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 76:13-22. 2002
    ..In all compartments, dosimeters related to higher oligomers of MDI demonstrated low bioavailability, i.e. their recovery was appreciably lower than expected...
  35. ncbi Respiratory hypersensitivity to trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway rats: a comparison of endpoints
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 22:89-97. 2002
    ..However, it remains unresolved whether the marked effects observed in the topically sensitized rats are more related to a route-of-induction or dose-dependent phenomenon...
  36. ncbi Concentration-dependence of biomarkers of exposure of methylenediphenyl-diisocyanate following acute inhalation exposure of rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Department of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Building No 514, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 185:35-48. 2003
    ..Comparison of MDI with its corresponding amine support that the analytes determined stem from conjugated MDI rather than in vivo hydrolyzed MDI...
  37. ncbi Respiratory hypersensitivity to trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway rats: analysis of dose-response following topical induction and time course following repeated inhalation challenge
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 194:1-17. 2003
    ..Repeated short-term inhalation exposures to mildly irritant concentrations (but low doses) of chemical asthmagens may be of higher concern than topical exposures...
  38. ncbi Short-term inhalation toxicity of polyisocyanate aerosols in rats: comparative assessment of irritant-threshold concentrations by bronchoalveolar lavage
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 14:287-301. 2002
    ..It is concluded that pulmonary irritation caused by polyisocyanate aerosols can readily be quantified in an acute rat bioassay by the analysis of total protein in BALF...
  39. ncbi Acute inhalation studies with irritant aerosols: technical issues and relevance for risk characterization
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Building No 514, Bayer HealthCare AG, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 78:243-51. 2004
    ....
  40. doi Pulmonary toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Baytubes) relative to alpha-quartz following a single 6h inhalation exposure of rats and a 3 months post-exposure period
    Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 266:16-29. 2009
    ..This supports the conclusion that the predominant response to inhaled MWCNT is principally related to the assemblage structure and not catalyst impurities (if in the range of < or = 0.5%)...
  41. doi Interrelating the acute and chronic mode of action of inhaled methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in rats assisted by computational toxicology
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Experimental Toxicology, Bayer Pharma AG, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 61:351-64. 2011
    ..In the case that threshold is exceeded, the secondary compensatory chronic response may then cause additional superimposed types of chronic pathologies...
  42. doi Brown Norway rat asthma model of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI): determination of the elicitation threshold concentration of after inhalation sensitization
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 281:15-24. 2011
    ..Taking into account the respective differences in exposure intensities, the comparison of elicitation thresholds of BN rats sensitized by inhalation or skin exposure did not demonstrate essential differences...
  43. doi Siderite (FeCO₃) and magnetite (Fe₃O₄) overload-dependent pulmonary toxicity is determined by the poorly soluble particle not the iron content
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Experimental Toxicology, Bayer Pharma AG, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 23:763-83. 2011
    ....
  44. ncbi Respiratory hypersensitivity in guinea pigs sensitized to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI): comparison of results obtained with the monomer and homopolymers of HDI
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 171:147-60. 2002
    ..In summary, with respect to induction of allergy and asthma, the data presented here suggest that the homopolymeric forms of HDI appear to be less potent asthmagens, if any, than monomeric HDI...
  45. ncbi Analysis of markers of exposure to polymeric methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) in rats: a comparison of dermal and inhalation routes of exposure
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Department of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 54:135-46. 2002
    ..e., results obtained from integrating dosimeters of exposure need to be verified by adequate air monitoring...
  46. ncbi Inhalation toxicity of propineb. Part II: Results of mechanistic studies in rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Health Care, Building 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 15:435-60. 2003
    ..Accordingly, the muscular deficits elicited by high concentrations of propineb are viewed to be secondary effects in an animal species likely to be more susceptible to this type of change than humans (Pauluhn & Rosenbruch, 2003)...
  47. ncbi Overview of inhalation exposure techniques: strengths and weaknesses
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Healthcare, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 57:111-28. 2005
    ..This paper addresses major developments in the discipline of inhalation toxicology with particular emphasis on the state-of-the-art testing of complex mixtures...
  48. doi Attempts to counteract phosgene-induced acute lung injury by instant high-dose aerosol exposure to hexamethylenetetramine, cysteine or glutathione
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 23:58-64. 2011
    ..In spite of using maximal technically attainable concentrations, it appears to be experimentally challenging to deliver such nucleophiles to the lower respiratory tract at high dosages...
  49. ncbi Aniline-induced methemoglobinemia in dogs: pitfalls of route-to-route extrapolations
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 14:959-73. 2002
    ..This study demonstrates some of the pitfalls that can occur in context with route-to-route extrapolations and reinforces many of the concerns related to such extrapolations...
  50. ncbi Overview of testing methods used in inhalation toxicity: from facts to artifacts
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Department of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, AG, Building No 514, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 140:183-93. 2003
    ..e., whether a dynamic or (quasi)static mode of exposure is chosen. Inappropriate timing of the sampling of biological specimens may lead to the underestimation of effects, especially in whole-body exposed animals...
  51. ncbi Issues of dosimetry in inhalation toxicity
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Department of Toxicology, Institute of Toxicology, BAYER AG HealthCare, Building No 514, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Lett 140:229-38. 2003
    ..Also with systemically acting agents caution is advised to perform simple route-to-route extrapolations in the absence of a detailed pharmacokinetic understanding and knowledge of the critical toxophoric moieties...
  52. ncbi Critical analysis of potential body temperature confounders on neurochemical endpoints caused by direct dosing and maternal separation in neonatal mice: a study of bioallethrin and deltamethrin interactions with temperature on brain muscarinic receptors
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    J Appl Toxicol 23:9-18. 2003
    ..However, owing to their higher ventilation, under such conditions the pups may receive dosages at least double those of the dams...
  53. doi Acute inhalation toxicity of ammonia: revisiting the importance of RD50 and LCT01/50 relationships for setting emergency response guideline values
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Global Drug Discovery Global Early Development Toxicology, Bayer Pharma AG, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 66:315-25. 2013
    ..For one hour exposure periods, these PODs were derived to be 1500 and 500 ppm, respectively...
  54. doi Acute nose-only inhalation exposure of rats to di- and triphosgene relative to phosgene
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 23:65-73. 2011
    ..In summary, triphosgene-induced lung injury patterns are different from that of phosgene and diphosgene. More research is needed to close the substantial data gaps of triphosgene...
  55. ncbi Inhalation toxicity of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate homopolymer (HDI-IC) aerosol: results of single inhalation exposure studies
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 58:173-81. 2000
    ..9 mg/m(3). With respect to changes of early markers of pulmonary epithelial barrier dysfunction, approximately 3 mg HDI-IC/m(3) was considered to be the threshold concentration for acute pulmonary irritation...
  56. ncbi Two-week inhalation toxicity of polymeric diphenylmethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate (PMDI) in rats: analysis of biochemical and morphological markers of early pulmonary response
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 11:1143-63. 1999
    ..In summary, it appears that respirable PMDI aerosol interacts with pulmonary surfactant, which, in turn, may stimulate type II pneumocytes to increase their production of surfactant and to proliferate...
  57. ncbi Inhalation toxicity of propineb. Part I: Results of subacute inhalation exposure studies in rats
    Jürgen Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer Health Care, Building 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 15:411-34. 2003
    ..97 mg/m(3). Further study is needed to clarify whether the pulmonary response observed at this exposure level is consistent with an adaptive or an early adverse effect...
  58. ncbi Acute inhalation toxicity of polymeric diphenyl-methane 4,4'-diisocyanate in rats: time course of changes in bronchoalveolar lavage
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 74:257-69. 2000
    ..7 mg/m3 and appears to be related a dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant. Nonprotein sulfhydryl constituents appear to play a role as portal-of-entry specific modifying factors...
  59. ncbi Single high-dose dexamethasone and sodium salicylate failed to attenuate phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats
    Fangfang Liu
    Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China Department of Toxicology, Bayer Pharma AG, D 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 315:17-23. 2014
    ..Similarly, this outcome supports the supposition that non-inflammatory, cardiogenic and/or neurogenic factors play a role in this type of acute lung injury...
  60. ncbi Bone marrow micronucleus assay in Brown-Norway rats exposed to diphenyl-methane-4,4'-diisocyanate
    J Pauluhn
    Bayer AG, Department of Toxicology, Wuppertal, Germany
    Arch Toxicol 75:234-42. 2001
    ..Positive control groups exhibited significant increases in MN-PCE. In summary, monomeric MDI aerosol did not induce cytogenetic damage in Brown-Norway rats when investigated according to current testing guidelines...
  61. ncbi Respiratory hypersensitivity to diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate in guinea pigs: comparison with trimellitic anhydride
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 11:187-214. 1999
    ..Furthermore, it appears that particles in the range of approximately 2-6 microm evoke more consistent respiratory response upon challenge exposure than particles in the 1-2 microm range...
  62. ncbi Rat model of lung fibrosis: comparison of functional, biochemical, and histopathological changes 4 months after single irradiation of the right hemithorax
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096, Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicology 161:153-63. 2001
    ....
  63. ncbi Inhalation toxicity of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate homopolymers (HDI-IC and HDI-BT): results of subacute and subchronic repeated inhalation exposure studies
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 13:513-32. 2001
    ..The no-observable-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) of both the 3- and 13-wk studies were in the range of 3-4 mg/m(3). Appreciable differences between the two types of polyisocyanates were not observed...
  64. ncbi Repeated pulmonary function measurements in rats after intratracheal instillation of a polyamine textile pigment component
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 12:591-604. 2000
    ..Collectively, this study supports the view held that polymeric alpha, omega-diamines appear to be potent pneumotoxicants...
  65. ncbi Inhalation toxicity of 4-ethoxyaniline (p-phenetidine): critical analysis of results of subacute inhalation exposure studies in rats
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Inhal Toxicol 13:993-1013. 2001
    ..1 mg/m(3) air and that of the 1-wk study was 38.2 mg/m(3) air. This difference in NOAELs is considered to be related to the selection of exposure concentrations rather than cumulative toxicity...
  66. ncbi Respiratory sensitization to diphenyl-methane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI) in guinea pigs: impact of particle size on induction and elicitation of response
    J Pauluhn
    Institute of Toxicology, Bayer AG, Building No 514, 42096 Wuppertal, Germany
    Toxicol Sci 56:105-13. 2000
    ..Overall, challenge exposures with this type of irritant aerosol appear to evoke more consistent effects when the MMAD is in the range of approximately 2 rather than approximately 5 microm...