Edith Heard


Affiliation: Institut Curie
Country: France


  1. Chaligné R, Popova T, Mendoza Parra M, Saleem M, Gentien D, Ban K, et al. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer. Genome Res. 2015;25:488-503 pubmed publisher
    ..This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer. ..
  2. Galupa R, Heard E. X-Chromosome Inactivation: A Crossroads Between Chromosome Architecture and Gene Regulation. Annu Rev Genet. 2018;52:535-566 pubmed publisher
  3. Pollex T, Heard E. Nuclear positioning and pairing of X-chromosome inactivation centers are not primary determinants during initiation of random X-inactivation. Nat Genet. 2019;51:285-295 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that Xic pairing occurs in wavelike patterns, coinciding with genome dynamics and the onset of global regulatory programs during early differentiation. ..
  4. Żylicz J, Bousard A, Zumer K, Dossin F, Mohammad E, da Rocha S, et al. The Implication of Early Chromatin Changes in X Chromosome Inactivation. Cell. 2019;176:182-197.e23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the hierarchy of chromatin events during the initiation of XCI and identify key roles for chromatin in the early steps of transcriptional silencing. ..
  5. Masui O, Heard E, Koseki H. Live Imaging of Xist RNA. Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1861:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Aptamer-based green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling is suitable for visualization of RNA molecules. Here we describe a method to visualize Xist RNA using the Bgl aptamer system. ..
  6. Galupa R, Heard E. X-chromosome inactivation: new insights into cis and trans regulation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2015;31:57-66 pubmed publisher
  7. Dekker J, Heard E. Structural and functional diversity of Topologically Associating Domains. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:2877-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we outline our current understanding of such domains in different organisms and their roles in gene regulation. ..
  8. Giorgetti L, Galupa R, Nora E, Piolot T, Lam F, Dekker J, et al. Predictive polymer modeling reveals coupled fluctuations in chromosome conformation and transcription. Cell. 2014;157:950-63 pubmed publisher
  9. Heard E, Colot V. Chromosome structural proteins and RNA-mediated epigenetic silencing. Dev Cell. 2008;14:813-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Two papers in Nature Genetics now show that SMC-like proteins also participate in epigenetic processes such as X inactivation in mammals and RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants. ..

More Information


  1. Gendrel A, Attia M, Chen C, Diabangouaya P, Servant N, Barillot E, et al. Developmental dynamics and disease potential of random monoallelic gene expression. Dev Cell. 2014;28:366-80 pubmed publisher
  2. Servant N, Varoquaux N, Lajoie B, Viara E, Chen C, Vert J, et al. HiC-Pro: an optimized and flexible pipeline for Hi-C data processing. Genome Biol. 2015;16:259 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied HiC-Pro to different Hi-C datasets, demonstrating its ability to easily process large data in a reasonable time. Source code and documentation are available at http://github.com/nservant/HiC-Pro . ..
  3. Gendrel A, Marion Poll L, Katoh K, Heard E. Random monoallelic expression of genes on autosomes: Parallels with X-chromosome inactivation. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016;56:100-110 pubmed publisher
  4. Giorgetti L, Heard E. Closing the loop: 3C versus DNA FISH. Genome Biol. 2016;17:215 pubmed
    ..We then describe the technical biases that affect each approach, and review the available reports that address their compatibility. Finally, we propose an experimental scheme for comparison of 3C and DNA FISH results. ..
  5. Heard E, TISHKOFF S, Todd J, Vidal M, Wagner G, Wang J, et al. Ten years of genetics and genomics: what have we achieved and where are we heading?. Nat Rev Genet. 2010;11:723-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The way ahead looks similarly exciting as we address questions such as how cells function as systems and how complex interactions among genetics, epigenetics and the environment combine to shape phenotypes. ..
  6. Heard E, Martienssen R. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance: myths and mechanisms. Cell. 2014;157:95-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the inheritance of epigenetic characters can certainly occur-particularly in plants-how much is due to the environment and the extent to which it happens in humans remain unclear. ..
  7. request reprint
    Heard E. Delving into the diversity of facultative heterochromatin: the epigenetics of the inactive X chromosome. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2005;15:482-9 pubmed
    ..Lineage-specific differences provide a glimpse into the developmental complexity of the epigenetic marks that ensure the inactive state. ..
  8. Borensztein M, Okamoto I, Syx L, Guilbaud G, Picard C, Ancelin K, et al. Contribution of epigenetic landscapes and transcription factors to X-chromosome reactivation in the inner cell mass. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1297 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, some X-linked genes have minimal epigenetic memory in the inner cell mass, whereas others may require active erasure of chromatin marks. ..
  9. da Rocha S, Boeva V, Escamilla Del Arenal M, Ancelin K, Granier C, Matias N, et al. Jarid2 Is Implicated in the Initial Xist-Induced Targeting of PRC2 to the Inactive X Chromosome. Mol Cell. 2014;53:301-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Jarid2 thus represents an important intermediate between PRC2 and Xist RNA for the initial targeting of the PRC2 complex to the X chromosome during onset of XCI. ..
  10. Heard E, Turner J. Function of the sex chromosomes in mammalian fertility. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011;3:a002675 pubmed publisher
    ..We also present working models for how perturbations in sex chromosome inactivation or reactivation result in subfertility in the major classes of sex chromosome abnormalities. ..