Claude Gaultier

Summary

Country: France

Publications

  1. ncbi Abnormalities of the chemical control of breathing: Clinical correlates in infants and children
    C Gaultier
    Department of Physiology, Hĵpital Robert Debré, Faculte de Medecine, UNIVERSITE DE PARIS, France
    Pediatr Pulmonol . 2001
  2. ncbi Functional brain deficits in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: commentary on the articles by Woo et al. on page 510 and Macey et al. on page 500
    Claude Gaultier
    INSERM U676, Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 57:471-2. 2005
  3. ncbi [Genetics and respiratory control: studies in normal humans and genetically modified animals]
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Rev Mal Respir 20:77-94. 2003
  4. ncbi Pediatric disorders with autonomic dysfunction: what role for PHOX2B?
    Claude Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 58:1-6. 2005
  5. ncbi Genes modulating chemical breathing control: lessons from mutant animals
    Claude Gaultier
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 136:105-14. 2003
  6. ncbi Genetics and early disturbances of breathing control
    Claude Gaultier
    INSERM E9935, Réanimation Médicale Pédiatrique, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 55:729-33. 2004
  7. ncbi Genes and genetics in respiratory control
    Claude Gaultier
    Department of Physiology, INSERM 9935, Hôpital Robert, Faculté de Médecine Lariboisiere, Universite Paris VII, France
    Paediatr Respir Rev 5:166-72. 2004
  8. ncbi [Respiratory tests in sleep disorders in children]
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris
    Rev Mal Respir 17:933-8. 2000
  9. ncbi Development of the control of breathing: implications for sleep-related breathing disorders in infants
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, INSERM CRI 9701, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Sleep 23:S136-9. 2000
  10. ncbi [The genetics of sleep apnea syndromes]
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, 48, boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris
    Rev Mal Respir 23:7S109-7S112. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. ncbi Abnormalities of the chemical control of breathing: Clinical correlates in infants and children
    C Gaultier
    Department of Physiology, Hĵpital Robert Debré, Faculte de Medecine, UNIVERSITE DE PARIS, France
    Pediatr Pulmonol . 2001
    ..Genetic influences, as well as environmental factors in utero or during early infancy, may contribute to abnormal chemical control of breathing during infancy and childhood...
  2. ncbi Functional brain deficits in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: commentary on the articles by Woo et al. on page 510 and Macey et al. on page 500
    Claude Gaultier
    INSERM U676, Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 57:471-2. 2005
  3. ncbi [Genetics and respiratory control: studies in normal humans and genetically modified animals]
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Rev Mal Respir 20:77-94. 2003
    ....
  4. ncbi Pediatric disorders with autonomic dysfunction: what role for PHOX2B?
    Claude Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 58:1-6. 2005
    ..Furthermore, the development of genetic mouse models should help to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying neural crest disorders...
  5. ncbi Genes modulating chemical breathing control: lessons from mutant animals
    Claude Gaultier
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 136:105-14. 2003
    ....
  6. ncbi Genetics and early disturbances of breathing control
    Claude Gaultier
    INSERM E9935, Réanimation Médicale Pédiatrique, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 55:729-33. 2004
    ..Recent insights into the genetic basis for CCHS may shed light on the genetics of other early disturbances in breathing control, such as apnea of prematurity and sudden infant death syndrome...
  7. ncbi Genes and genetics in respiratory control
    Claude Gaultier
    Department of Physiology, INSERM 9935, Hôpital Robert, Faculté de Médecine Lariboisiere, Universite Paris VII, France
    Paediatr Respir Rev 5:166-72. 2004
    ..International multicentre studies would advance the area of respiratory control research...
  8. ncbi [Respiratory tests in sleep disorders in children]
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris
    Rev Mal Respir 17:933-8. 2000
    ..The prevalence of this syndrome in the general pediatric population would be 1.6%, increasing to 8.4% in members of a family with a child having obstructive sleep apnea syndrome...
  9. ncbi Development of the control of breathing: implications for sleep-related breathing disorders in infants
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, INSERM CRI 9701, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Sleep 23:S136-9. 2000
    ..In genetically-predisposed subjects, environmental conditions during the period of development of respiratory control mechanisms may add to the intrinsic vulnerability to SDB...
  10. ncbi [The genetics of sleep apnea syndromes]
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, 48, boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris
    Rev Mal Respir 23:7S109-7S112. 2006
  11. ncbi Sleep-disordered breathing in newborn mice heterozygous for the transcription factor Phox2b
    Estelle Durand
    INSERM U676, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:238-43. 2005
    ..Heterozygous mutations of the homeobox gene Phox2b were recently found in a very high proportion of patients...
  12. ncbi Phox2b controls the development of peripheral chemoreceptors and afferent visceral pathways
    Stephane Dauger
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM EPI9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Bd Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Development 130:6635-42. 2003
    ....
  13. ncbi Pulmonary function tests in preschool children with cystic fibrosis
    Nicole Beydon
    Department of Physiology of the Robert Debré Teaching Hospital, Paris, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:1099-104. 2002
    ..04). Genotype did not influence the data. We conclude that Rint(exp) and functional residual capacity measurements may help to follow young children with CF who are unable to perform reproducible forced expiratory maneuvers...
  14. pmc PHOX2B genotype allows for prediction of tumor risk in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
    Delphine Trochet
    Unité de Recherches sur les Handicaps Génétiques de l Enfant INSERM U 393, Département de génétique, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
    Am J Hum Genet 76:421-6. 2005
    ..These data further highlight the link between congenital malformations and tumor predisposition when a master gene in development is mutated...
  15. ncbi Ventilatory control in newborn mice prenatally exposed to cocaine
    Fanny Autret
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Pediatr Pulmonol 34:434-41. 2002
    ..25 +/- 23%).Thus, breathing control was impaired by prenatal cocaine exposure, possibly because of abnormal development of neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopamine and serotonin systems...
  16. ncbi Neonatal exposure to 65% oxygen durably impairs lung architecture and breathing pattern in adult mice
    Stephane Dauger
    the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France
    Chest 123:530-8. 2003
    ..To test the hypothesis that exposure to hyperoxia during the postnatal period of rapid alveolar multiplication by septation would cause permanent impairments, even with moderate levels of hyperoxia...
  17. ncbi The French Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome Registry: general data, phenotype, and genotype
    Ha Trang
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Universite Paris 7, Paris, France
    Chest 127:72-9. 2005
    ..To analyze the main clinical features, genetic mutations, and outcomes of patients of the French Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) Registry...
  18. ncbi Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in heterozygous c-ret newborn mice
    Sophie Aizenfisz
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019, Paris, France
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 131:213-22. 2002
    ..These results are further evidence that respiratory control at birth is heavily dependent on genes involved in the neural determination of neural crest cells...
  19. ncbi Exclusion of RNX as a major gene in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, Ondine's curse)
    Jeanne Amiel
    Département de Génétique et INSERM U 393, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
    Am J Med Genet A 117:18-20. 2003
    ..The screening of the RNX gene in a series of 25 patients with CCHS did not reveal any significant nucleotide variation. We therefore conclude that RNX is not a major gene for CCHS in human...
  20. pmc beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit modulates protective responses to stress: A receptor basis for sleep-disordered breathing after nicotine exposure
    Gary Cohen
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et de Physiologie du Développement, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:13272-7. 2002
    ..We propose that nicotine impairs breathing (and possibly arousal) responses to stress by disrupting functions normally regulated by beta2-containing, high-affinity nAChRs...
  21. ncbi PHOX2B gene mutation in a patient with late-onset central hypoventilation
    Ha Trang
    Service de Physiologie, INSERM E 9935, Hopital Robert Debre, Universite Paris 7, Paris, France
    Pediatr Pulmonol 38:349-51. 2004
    ..This finding suggests that some of these cases may be genetically determined and allelic to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome...
  22. ncbi Ventilatory response to hyperoxia in newborn mice heterozygous for the transcription factor Phox2b
    N Ramanantsoa
    INSERM U676, Hopital Robert Debre, Universite Paris, France
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290:R1691-6. 2006
    ..Thus partial loss of Phox2b function by heterozygosity did not diminish the tonic drive from peripheral chemoreceptors...
  23. ncbi Use of nasal cannula for detecting sleep apneas and hypopneas in infants and children
    Ha Trang
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Universite Paris VII, INSERM E9935, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:464-8. 2002
    ..Thus, the NC is more likely than the thermistor to detect OA and OH in infants and children, and this superiority is particularly marked for hypopneas...
  24. ncbi Transgenic models to study disorders of respiratory control in newborn mice
    Claude Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie and INSERM U676, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    ILAR J 47:15-21. 2006
    ..Furthermore, combined studies in mutant newborn mice and in humans have helped to provide pathogenic information on genetically determined developmental disorders of respiratory control in humans...
  25. ncbi Maturation of baseline breathing and of hypercapnic and hypoxic ventilatory responses in newborn mice
    S Renolleau
    , , and Service de Physiologie, , 75019 Paris, France
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281:R1746-53. 2001
    ..At all ages, hypoxic decline was ascribable mainly to a VT decrease, and posthypoxic decline was ascribable to a T(TOT) increase with apneas, suggesting different underlying neuronal mechanisms...
  26. doi Recruitment in pediatric clinical research was influenced by study characteristics and pediatricians' perceptions: a multicenter survey
    Florentia Kaguelidou
    AP HP, Hopital Robert Debre, Unité d Epidémiologie Clinique, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019, Paris, France
    J Clin Epidemiol 66:1151-7. 2013
    ..The aim of this survey was to quantify refusal rates and identify factors of refusal pertaining to studies and recruiting pediatricians in the research recruitment process...
  27. ncbi Noradrenergic neuronal development is impaired by mutation of the proneural HASH-1 gene in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (Ondine's curse)
    Loic de Pontual
    Unité de Recherches sur les Handicaps Génétiques de l Enfant INSERM U 393, and Département de Génétique, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France
    Hum Mol Genet 12:3173-80. 2003
    ....
  28. ncbi Development of respiratory control: evolving concepts and perspectives
    Claude Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 149:3-15. 2005
    ....
  29. ncbi Control of breathing in newborn mice lacking the beta-2 nAChR subunit
    S Dauger
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, boulevard Serurier, Paris, France
    Acta Physiol Scand 182:205-12. 2004
    ..To study the ventilatory and arousal/defence responses to hypoxia in newborn mutant mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  30. ncbi [Methacholine challenge in young children: measurement of resistance by interruption]
    N Beydon
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital, Robert Debré, Paris, France
    Rev Mal Respir 22:959-66. 2005
    ..Interrupter resistance increases significantly during bronchial provocation in responding young children and may be used to measure the degree of bronchoconstriction...
  31. ncbi Inhibitory effects of repeated hyperoxia on breathing in newborn mice
    F Lofaso
    INSERM U676, Service de Réanimation Pédiatrique, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Eur Respir J 29:18-24. 2007
    ..This finding further supports a need for stringent control of oxygen therapy, most notably repeated oxygen administration in the neonatal period for premature newborn infants and those carried to term...
  32. ncbi Maternal protein restriction early in rat pregnancy alters brain development in the progeny
    P Gressens
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et de Physiologie du developpement, INSERM CRI 96 03, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 103:21-35. 1997
    ..However, the almost complete normalization in adults of brain architecture and differentiation as well as our physiological data strongly suggest a remarkable plasticity of the developing brain following an early aggression...
  33. ncbi Measurements of resistance by the interrupter technique and of transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen in young children during methacholine challenge
    N Beydon
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Universite Paris VII, 48 Bd Serurier, 75019 Paris, France
    Pediatr Pulmonol 31:238-46. 2001
    ..We conclude that: 1) M challenge using P(tc)O2 is safe in young children; and 2) our findings are not in favor of the use of Rint as the only indicator of bronchial reaction in young children during M challenge...
  34. ncbi MASH-1/RET pathway involvement in development of brain stem control of respiratory frequency in newborn mice
    S Dauger
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale E9935, Service de pédiatrie réanimation, Hopital Robert Debre, Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris, France
    Physiol Genomics 7:149-57. 2001
    ..022) and were weakly correlated with c-RET transcript levels (P = 0.032). Taken together, these results provide evidence that MASH-1 is upstream of c-RET in noradrenergic brain stem neurons important for respiratory rhythm modulation...
  35. ncbi Impaired ventilatory responses to hypoxia in mice deficient in endothelin-converting-enzyme-1
    S Renolleau
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement and Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 49:705-12. 2001
    ..No differences were observed between adult ECE-1+/- and ECE-1+/+ mice. We conclude that ECE-1 is required for normal ventilatory response to hypoxia at birth...
  36. ncbi Sleep organization is unaffected by caffeine in premature infants
    Lilia Curzi-Dascalova
    INSERM, EPI9935, Service de Physiologie, Service de Neonatologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    J Pediatr 140:766-71. 2002
    ..We found no significant differences between the controls and the infants receiving maintenance caffeine...
  37. ncbi Ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in Mash-1 heterozygous newborn and adult mice
    S Dauger
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Pediatr Res 46:535-42. 1999
    ..No differences were observed between adult Mash-1+/- and Mash-1+/+ mice. Our data suggest that Mash-1 may be involved in respiratory control development via mechanisms linked to the X chromosome...
  38. ncbi Abnormal esophageal motility in children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
    Christophe Faure
    Services de Gastroenterologie et de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Universite Paris VII, Paris, France
    Gastroenterology 122:1258-63. 2002
    ..Because swallowing-induced peristalsis is centrally controlled and depends on neural crest-derived esophageal innervation, we looked for esophageal dysmotility in patients with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome...
  39. ncbi [Respiratory behavior]
    J Gallego
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris
    Rev Mal Respir 17:41-9. 2000
    ..Finally, recent studies in humans and animals show that classical conditioning affects respiratory control and sensations...
  40. ncbi Arousal response to hypoxia in newborn mice
    S Dauger
    , , , 75019, Paris, France
    Respir Physiol 128:235-40. 2001
    ..We conclude that arousal may contribute to the hypoxic ventilatory response in the early postnatal period in mice and that it should be taken into consideration in studies of ventilatory control maturation in newborns...
  41. ncbi Automatic classification of activity and apneas using whole body plethysmography in newborn mice
    B Matrot
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, 75010 Paris, France
    J Appl Physiol 98:365-70. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi Peripheral chemoreceptor activity in sleeping neonates exposed to warm environments
    K Chardon
    Laboratoire d environnement toxique périnatal et adaptations physiologiques et comportementales, EA 2088, Faculte de Medecine, 3, rue des Louvels, 80036 Amiens Cedex, France
    Neurophysiol Clin 33:196-202. 2003
    ..Since hypothalamic structures are involved in thermoregulatory, sleep processes and (probably) in respiratory control, it could well be the principal site where this interaction occurs...
  43. ncbi Intermittent hypoxia induces transient arousal delay in newborn mice
    E Durand
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    J Appl Physiol 96:1216-22; discussion 1196. 2004
    ..We conclude that IH rapidly and reversibly depressed breathing and delayed arousal in newborn mice. Both effects may be due to hypoxia-induced release of inhibitory neurotransmitters acting concomitantly on both functions...
  44. ncbi [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and genetics]
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, INSERM E9835, Hopital Robert Debre, Universite Paris VII
    Rev Neurol (Paris) 159:6S98-101. 2003
    ..Two approaches have recently been used to investigate the genetics of OSA: a segregation analysis and a whole genome scan. Data suggested a common causal pathway regulating both OSA and obesity in Caucasian families...
  45. ncbi Noninvitation of eligible individuals to participate in pediatric studies: a qualitative study
    Philippe Amiel
    Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, Unité de Recherche en Sciences Humaines et Sociales, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Hopital Robert Debre, Paris, France
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:446-50. 2007
    ..To identify subjective factors that lead investigators not to invite eligible individuals to participate in pediatric studies...
  46. ncbi Pre/postbronchodilator interrupter resistance values in healthy young children
    Nicole Beydon
    Physiology Department, Robert Debre Teaching Hospital, Paris, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:1388-94. 2002
    ..Sex did not affect pre- or postbronchodilator values. Data from the present study may prove useful for testing lung function in young children with respiratory disorders who failed to cooperate with forced expiratory maneuvers...
  47. pmc Depression of hypoxic arousal response in adolescent mice following antenatal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide blockade
    Gary Cohen
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et de Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris, France
    J Physiol 540:691-9. 2002
    ..This may signal a general deficit in the way hypoxic distress is monitored and processed, and arousal initiated and sustained in these mice...
  48. doi Neural control of breathing: insights from genetic mouse models
    C Gaultier
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Robert Debre, 48 Boulevard Serurier, Paris, France
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1522-30. 2008
    ..The development of mouse models has opened up the field of research into new treatments for respiratory-control disorders in humans...
  49. ncbi Classical conditioning of breathing pattern after two acquisition trials in 2-day-old mice
    E Durand
    Laboratoire de Neurologie et Physiologie du Développement, INSERM E9935, Hopital Robert Debre, 75019 Paris, France
    J Appl Physiol 94:812-8. 2003
    ..Our results confirm the sensitivity of breathing to conditioning and indirectly support the hypothesis that learned feedforward processes may complement feedback pathways during postnatal maturation of respiratory control...
  50. ncbi Patterns of EEG frequency, movement, heart rate, and oxygenation after isolated short apneas in infants
    M F Vecchierini
    Service de Physiologie, Hopital Bichaty, , , France
    Pediatr Res 49:220-6. 2001
    ..We conclude that 1) at termination of isolated apneas in infants, a motor event was rare, whereas an EEG frequency increase was common; 2) event patterns at apnea termination differed from those at control period termination...
  51. ncbi Effects of warm and cool thermal conditions on ventilatory responses to hyperoxic test in neonates
    Karen Chardon
    Environnement Toxique Périnatal et Adaptations Physiologiques et Comportementales EA2088, School of Medicine, 3 rue des Louvels, Amiens 80036, France
    Respir Physiol Neurobiol 140:145-53. 2004
    ....
  52. ncbi Polyalanine expansion and frameshift mutations of the paired-like homeobox gene PHOX2B in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
    Jeanne Amiel
    Unité de Recherches sur les Handicaps Génétiques de l Enfant INSERM U 393, et Département de Génétique, Hopital Necker Enfants Malades, 149, rue de Sevres, 75743 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Nat Genet 33:459-61. 2003
    ..Our data support an essential role of PHOX2B in the normal patterning of the autonomous ventilation system and, more generally, of the ANS in humans...
  53. ncbi PHOX2B germline and somatic mutations in late-onset central hypoventilation syndrome
    Delphine Trochet
    Département de génétique, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades 149, rue de Sevres, 75743 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177:906-11. 2008
    ..The potential overlap of LO-CHS with congenital CHS is under debate, even though both disorders can result from heterozygous PHOX2B gene mutations...
  54. ncbi Comparison of the hyperoxic test and the alternate breath test in infants
    Belkacem Bouferrache
    Unite de Recherches sur les Adaptations Physiologiques et Comportementales EA 2088, School of Medicine, Amiens, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:206-10. 2002
    ....
  55. ncbi Pulmonary function tests in preschool children with asthma
    Nicole Beydon
    Physiology Department of the Robert Debré Teaching Hospital, Grenoble, France
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168:640-4. 2003
    ..Pulmonary function tests that do not require active cooperation may help in the management and follow-up of preschool children with asthma who are unable to perform forced expiratory maneuvers...
  56. ncbi Statement on the care of the child with chronic lung disease of infancy and childhood
    Julian Allen
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168:356-96. 2003
  57. ncbi An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: pulmonary function testing in preschool children
    Nicole Beydon
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:1304-45. 2007