O Vaarala

Summary

Affiliation: National Public Health Institute
Country: Finland

Publications

  1. ncbi Cow's milk formula feeding induces primary immunization to insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes
    O Vaarala
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 48:1389-94. 1999
  2. ncbi Effect of coincident enterovirus infection and cows' milk exposure on immunisation to insulin in early infancy
    O Vaarala
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Biomedicum, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetologia 45:531-4. 2002
  3. ncbi The gut immune system and type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Biomedicum, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 958:39-46. 2002
  4. ncbi Antibodies to oxidised LDL
    O Vaarala
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Lupus 9:202-5. 2000
  5. ncbi Autoantibodies to modified LDLs and other phospholipid-protein complexes as markers of cardiovascular diseases
    O Vaarala
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    J Intern Med 247:381-4. 2000
  6. ncbi Is it dietary insulin?
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Disease and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1079:350-9. 2006
  7. pmc The "perfect storm" for type 1 diabetes: the complex interplay between intestinal microbiota, gut permeability, and mucosal immunity
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 57:2555-62. 2008
  8. doi Leaking gut in type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:701-6. 2008
  9. ncbi Relation between T-cell responses to glutamate decarboxylase and coxsackievirus B4 in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    P Klemetti
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Virol 14:95-105. 1999
  10. ncbi Genetic and phenotypic diversity of echovirus 30 strains and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes
    A Paananen
    Enterovirus Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 79:945-55. 2007

Detail Information

Publications66

  1. ncbi Cow's milk formula feeding induces primary immunization to insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes
    O Vaarala
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 48:1389-94. 1999
    ..This immune response to insulin may later be diverted into autoaggressive immunity against beta-cells in some individuals, as indicated by our findings in children with diabetes-associated autoantibodies...
  2. ncbi Effect of coincident enterovirus infection and cows' milk exposure on immunisation to insulin in early infancy
    O Vaarala
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Biomedicum, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetologia 45:531-4. 2002
    ..As gut-associated lymphoid tissue is also the primary replication site of enteroviruses, we tested whether enterovirus infections could modify the development of immune response to dietary insulin in early infancy...
  3. ncbi The gut immune system and type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Biomedicum, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 958:39-46. 2002
    ..Research on the gut immune system in human type 1 diabetes is needed to reveal the role of oral immunity in this disease...
  4. ncbi Antibodies to oxidised LDL
    O Vaarala
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Lupus 9:202-5. 2000
    ..These antibodies can be considered as markers of the pathogenic determinants of atherosclerosis, such as enhanced lipid oxidation, proinflammatory stage and impaired vasodilatation...
  5. ncbi Autoantibodies to modified LDLs and other phospholipid-protein complexes as markers of cardiovascular diseases
    O Vaarala
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    J Intern Med 247:381-4. 2000
    ..These autoantibodies can be used as markers of atherosclerosis but their possible pathogenic role in the athero- and thrombogenesis needs further studies...
  6. ncbi Is it dietary insulin?
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Disease and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1079:350-9. 2006
    ..This kind of secondary immunization may cause functional changes in the dietary insulin primed immune cells, and lead to the infiltration of insulin-reactive T cells to the pancreatic islets...
  7. pmc The "perfect storm" for type 1 diabetes: the complex interplay between intestinal microbiota, gut permeability, and mucosal immunity
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 57:2555-62. 2008
    ..Herein, we discuss the complex interplay between these factors and raise testable hypotheses that form a fertile area for future investigations as to the role of the gut in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 1 diabetes...
  8. doi Leaking gut in type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Laboratory for Immunobiology, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:701-6. 2008
    ..This review discusses the recent research linking the gut and type 1 diabetes, which may reveal novel pathogenic pathways and new possibilities for disease prevention...
  9. ncbi Relation between T-cell responses to glutamate decarboxylase and coxsackievirus B4 in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    P Klemetti
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, and Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Virol 14:95-105. 1999
    ..A possible connection between glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) autoimmunity and enterovirus infections in IDDM has been suggested to be based on a homology region between GAD and the non-structural protein 2C of coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4)...
  10. ncbi Genetic and phenotypic diversity of echovirus 30 strains and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes
    A Paananen
    Enterovirus Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 79:945-55. 2007
    ..This finding does not support a previous proposition of aberrant antibody responses to E-30 in diabetic patients. It is concluded that identification of the genetic counterparts of pathogenicity of E-30 strains requires further studies...
  11. pmc Immune activation in the small intestine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    R Nissinen
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biomedicum, PO Box 104, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    Ann Rheum Dis 63:1327-30. 2004
    ....
  12. pmc Cytokine and chemokine receptor profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells during treatment with infliximab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis
    R Nissinen
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biomedicum, PO Box 104, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    Ann Rheum Dis 63:681-7. 2004
    ..To analyse immunological changes during treatment with a monoclonal anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antibody, infliximab, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  13. doi Scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018: emphasis on prevention and endorsing tolerance
    L C Von Hertzen
    Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Allergy 64:678-701. 2009
    ..In this review, the scientific rationale for the Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018 is outlined. The focus is on tolerance and how to endorse tolerance at the population level...
  14. doi Dietary intervention in infancy and later signs of beta-cell autoimmunity
    Mikael Knip
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    N Engl J Med 363:1900-8. 2010
    ..We tested the hypothesis that supplementing breast milk with highly hydrolyzed milk formula would decrease the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies in such children...
  15. ncbi Gut and the induction of immune tolerance in type 1 diabetes
    O Vaarala
    Department of Biochemistry, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 15:353-61. 1999
    ..In this review, the possible role of the gut immune system in the development of beta-cell autoimmunity and Type 1 diabetes is discussed with special reference to the putative therapeutic implications...
  16. pmc Infiltration of forkhead box P3-expressing cells in small intestinal mucosa in coeliac disease but not in type 1 diabetes
    M Tiittanen
    Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, Laboratory for Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Exp Immunol 152:498-507. 2008
    ..The increased intestinal expression of IL-18 mRNA in patients with T1D adds evidence in favour of the hypothesis that T1D is associated with derangements in the gut immune system...
  17. ncbi Coxsackievirus immunization delays onset of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice
    B Davydova
    Enterovirus Laboratory, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 69:510-20. 2003
    ....
  18. doi Probiotics in infancy induce protective immune profiles that are characteristic for chronic low-grade inflammation
    E Marschan
    The Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Exp Allergy 38:611-8. 2008
    ..Probiotics are widely studied both in the treatment and prevention of allergic diseases, but their mode of action is poorly known...
  19. ncbi Relation of inflammation to vascular function in patients with coronary heart disease
    J Sinisalo
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, The Helsinki University Central Hospital, Meilahti 15krs, Haartmaninkatu 4, FIN 00290, Helsinki, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 149:403-11. 2000
    ..It is possible that endothelial dysfunction in coronary heart disease patients is related to the chronic inflammation or infection coexisting with atherosclerosis...
  20. ncbi Peptidylarginine deiminase, the arginine to citrulline converting enzyme, is frequently recognized by sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and primary Sjögren syndrome
    R Nissinen
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biomedicum, Helsinki, Finland
    Scand J Rheumatol 32:337-42. 2003
    ..We studied whether the enzyme peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD), responsible for the post-translational modification of peptide-bound arginine residues to citrulline, constitutes an antigen for patients with RA...
  21. ncbi Immunologic and hematologic properties of antibodies to prothrombin and plasminogen in a mouse model
    M Puurunen
    Department of Health and Disability, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Lupus 10:108-15. 2001
    ..Antibodies to prothrombin and plasminogen have different functional profiles, immunisation with prothrombin leads to prolonged blood clotting time, and immunisation with plasminogen induces antibodies interfering with fibrinolysis...
  22. ncbi Decreased in vitro type 1 immune response against coxsackie virus B4 in children with type 1 diabetes
    Susanne Skarsvik
    Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linkoping University, S 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    Diabetes 55:996-1003. 2006
    ..This may lead to a delayed clearance of the virus and, at least partly, explain why children with type 1 diabetes may be more prone to CVB4 infections and related complications, such as beta-cell damage...
  23. doi Progression to type 1 diabetes and autoantibody positivity in relation to HLA-risk genotypes in children participating in the ABIS study
    Camilla Gullstrand
    Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Pediatr Diabetes 9:182-90. 2008
    ..In this study, we have investigated the role of HLA-risk and -protective genotypes for development of beta-cell autoantibodies and progression to T1D in healthy children...
  24. ncbi Diminished IFN-gamma response to diabetes-associated autoantigens in children at diagnosis and during follow up of type 1 diabetes
    Maria Karlsson Faresjo
    Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, S 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    Diabetes Metab Res Rev 22:462-70. 2006
    ..Imbalance of T-helper (Th)1- and Th2-like cytokines has been associated with type 1 diabetes. We therefore studied the immune deviation in antigen-specific T cells from diagnosis onwards in type 1 diabetic children...
  25. ncbi Dietary risk factors for the emergence of type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies in 21/2 year-old Swedish children
    Jeanette Wahlberg
    Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Sweden
    Br J Nutr 95:603-8. 2006
    ....
  26. ncbi Aire deficient mice do not develop the same profile of tissue-specific autoantibodies as APECED patients
    Nora Pöntynen
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Autoimmun 27:96-104. 2006
    ..This study indicates that spontaneous induction of tissue-specific autoantibodies similar to APECED does not occur in the rodent model suggesting differences in the immunopathogenic mechanisms between mice and men...
  27. ncbi Dietary insulin as an immunogen and tolerogen
    Minna Tiittanen
    Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, Laboratory for Immunology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17:538-43. 2006
    ..However, our results in infants who developed beta-cell autoimmunity suggest that in this subgroup of children breast milk insulin does not promote tolerance...
  28. ncbi Insulin treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes induces upregulation of regulatory T-cell markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with insulin in vitro
    Minna Tiittanen
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, Laboratory for Immunology, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 55:3446-54. 2006
    ..Furthermore, autoantigen treatment-induced activation of regulatory T-cells may contribute to the clinical remission of the disease...
  29. ncbi Enteral virus infections in early childhood and an enhanced type 1 diabetes-associated antibody response to dietary insulin
    Miia Mäkelä
    Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, MediCity, Biocity 4 krs, Tykistokatu 6 A, 20520 Turku, Finland
    J Autoimmun 27:54-61. 2006
    ..An enhanced antibody response to dietary insulin preceded the development of beta-cell specific autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes...
  30. ncbi Probiotics for the prevention of beta cell autoimmunity in children at genetic risk of type 1 diabetes--the PRODIA study
    Martin Ljungberg
    Centre of Clinical Experimental Research, Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, S 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1079:360-4. 2006
    ..The prevalence of autoantibodies among the study subjects at 6, 12, and 24 months of age was at levels close to the expected and the clinical follow-up did not either indicate problems in the feasibility of the study...
  31. ncbi Short duration of breast-feeding as a risk-factor for beta-cell autoantibodies in 5-year-old children from the general population
    Hanna Holmberg
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linkopings Universitet, Sweden
    Br J Nutr 97:111-6. 2007
    ....
  32. ncbi Increased activation of GATA-3, IL-2 and IL-5 of cord blood mononuclear cells in infants with IgE sensitization
    Emma Marschan
    The Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 19:132-9. 2008
    ..The immune deviation towards Th2-type immunity developed already in utero and seemed to modulate the pattern of immune response favoring an IgE response to environmental antigens...
  33. ncbi Simvastatin protects against multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in CD-1 mice and recurrence of disease in nonobese diabetic mice
    Tobias Rydgren
    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Biomedicum, P O Box 571, SE 75123 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 323:180-5. 2007
    ..This was reinforced by the finding that simvastatin treatment also prolonged islet function in the recurrence of disease model in diabetic nonobese diabetic mice...
  34. ncbi Higher prevalence of autoantibodies to insulin and GAD65 in Swedish compared to Lithuanian children with type 1 diabetes
    Hanna Holmberg
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkopings Universitet, Sweden
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract 72:308-14. 2006
    ..Furthermore, the disease in patients with insulin autoantibodies seems to be clinically milder...
  35. ncbi Environmental factors related to the induction of beta-cell autoantibodies in 1-yr-old healthy children
    Jeanette Wahlberg
    Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Pediatr Diabetes 6:199-205. 2005
    ..6), whereas type 2 diabetes in grandparents was associated with GADA (OR 2.1). Exposure to cow's milk formulas <2 months of age implied an OR of 2.9 for IA-2A above the 99th percentile...
  36. ncbi Environmental factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes
    Hans K Akerblom
    University of Helsinki, Finland
    Am J Med Genet 115:18-29. 2002
    ..Among toxins, N-nitroso compounds are the main candidates. An interaction of genetic and environmental factors is important in evaluating the possible role of a certain environmental factor in the etiology of type 1 diabetes...
  37. ncbi Enterovirus infection may induce humoral immune response reacting with islet cell autoantigens in humans
    Taina Härkönen
    Enterovirus Laboratory, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 69:426-40. 2003
    ..In conclusion, enteroviruses may induce immune responses that react with islet cell autoantigens, which is a concern when a putative inactivated enterovirus vaccine is considered...
  38. ncbi Variation in enterovirus receptor genes
    Ase Karttunen
    Department of Virology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 70:99-108. 2003
    ..In conclusion, both synonymous and nonsynonymous sequence variability of genes coding for enterovirus and rhinovirus receptors was shown to occur, but no pattern directly specific for type 1 diabetes was found. =..
  39. ncbi Immunologic activity in the small intestinal mucosa of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes
    Mia Westerholm-Ormio
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 52:2287-95. 2003
    ..Our study supports the hypothesis that a link exists between the gut immune system and type 1 diabetes...
  40. ncbi CCR3, CCR5, interleukin 4, and interferon-gamma expression on synovial and peripheral T cells and monocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    Riikka Nissinen
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Biomedicum, PO Box 104, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    J Rheumatol 30:1928-34. 2003
    ..To characterize cytokine and chemokine receptor profiles of T cells and monocytes in inflamed synovium and peripheral blood (PB) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other arthritides...
  41. ncbi Induction of diabetes-related autoantibodies below cutoff for "positivity" in young nondiabetic children
    Hanna Holmberg
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1005:269-74. 2003
    ..We conclude that there is a natural induction of humoral immune response to beta cell autoantigens early in life. Our results suggest that the mechanisms of beta cell tolerance to GAD and IA-2 differ in healthy children...
  42. doi GAD treatment and insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 diabetes
    Johnny Ludvigsson
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    N Engl J Med 359:1909-20. 2008
    ..This trial assessed the ability of alum-formulated GAD (GAD-alum) to reverse recent-onset type 1 diabetes in patients 10 to 18 years of age...
  43. doi Characterization of the humoral immune response to islet antigen 2 in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
    Anna Mäkinen
    Scientific Laboratory, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Biomedicum I, PO Box 63, FI 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Endocrinol 159:19-26. 2008
    ....
  44. ncbi Cow milk is not responsible for most gastrointestinal immune-like syndromes--evidence from a population-based study
    Laura Paajanen
    Foundation for Nutrition Research, Helsinki, Finland
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:1327-35. 2005
    ..Gastrointestinal hypersensitivity to cow milk (CM) may be more common among school-aged children and young adults than previously thought...
  45. ncbi Anti-insulin activity in IgG-fractions from children with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes and negative for insulin autoantibodies
    Minna Tiittanen
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Autoimmunity 37:45-9. 2004
    ..Our results suggest that formation of immune complexes results in false negative results in tests for IAA but not for GADA...
  46. pmc Aberrant regulation of interleukin-12 receptor beta2 chain on type 1 cytokine-stimulated T lymphocytes in type 1 diabetes
    Susanne Skarsvik
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Research Centre, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Immunology 114:287-93. 2005
    ..006 and P=0.04) in a type 1 cytokine environment was seen in both groups of patients. Peripheral blood T cells from patients with both newly diagnosed and longstanding T1D showed poor polarization towards type 1 cells...
  47. ncbi Psychological stress may induce diabetes-related autoimmunity in infancy
    Anneli Sepa
    Division of Paediatrics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Linkoping University, SE 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    Diabetes Care 28:290-5. 2005
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether psychological stress, measured as psychosocial strain in families, is associated with diabetes-related autoimmunity during infancy...
  48. ncbi Increased IFN-gamma secretion from duodenal biopsy samples in delayed-type cow's milk allergy
    Laura Paajanen
    Foundation for Nutrition Research, PO Box 30, FIN 00039 Valio, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 16:439-44. 2005
    ..059). In conclusion, the children with delayed CMA showed up-regulation of IFN-gamma. Interestingly, TGF-beta secretion was up-regulated in those children with delayed CMA who avoided CM suggesting recovery of regulation mechanisms...
  49. ncbi Is type 1 diabetes a disease of the gut immune system triggered by cow's milk insulin?
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linkoping, 58185, Sweden
    Adv Exp Med Biol 569:151-6. 2005
    ....
  50. doi Pre and probiotics in the prevention and treatment of food allergy
    Erkki Savilahti
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8:243-8. 2008
    ..The interest in modulating commensal bacterial flora with prebiotics and probiotics to prevent and treat food allergy has multiplied in recent years...
  51. doi Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on rBet v1 and rMal d1 specific IgA in the saliva of patients with birch pollen allergy
    Laura Piirainen
    National Public Health Institute, Laboratory for Immunobiology, Helsinki, Finland
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 100:338-42. 2008
    ..Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has demonstrated promising results in the treatment and prevention of atopic eczema...
  52. pmc Reduced CCR4, interleukin-13 and GATA-3 up-regulation in response to type 2 cytokines of cord blood T lymphocytes in infants at genetic risk of type 1 diabetes
    Kristiina Luopajarvi
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Immunology 121:189-96. 2007
    ....
  53. doi Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018--time to act and change the course
    T Haahtela
    Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Allergy 63:634-45. 2008
    ..The current dogma of allergen avoidance has not proved effective in halting the 'epidemic', and it is the Finnish consensus that restoring and strengthening tolerance should more be in focus...
  54. pmc Two insulin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 1 diabetes risk in the Finnish and Swedish populations
    Antti Pekka Laine
    Immunogenetics Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Dis Markers 23:139-45. 2007
    ..These observations suggest that heterogeneity between the protective IDDM2 lineages could exist, and analyzing both -23HphI and -2221MspI would thus potentially enhance the sensitivity and specificity of type 1 diabetes risk estimation...
  55. ncbi Enterovirus infection and activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells
    Salla Saijets
    Enterovirus Laboratory, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    J Med Virol 70:430-9. 2003
    ..In contrast, human leukocyte antigen-DR expression was not increased by virus infection...
  56. ncbi Environmental causes: dietary causes
    Outi Vaarala
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, PO Box 104, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 33:17-26, vii. 2004
  57. ncbi Intestinal immunity and type 1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences University of Linköping, 58185 Linkoping, Sweden
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39:S732-3. 2004
  58. ncbi No difference in platelet activation or inflammation markers after diets rich or poor in vegetables, berries and apple in healthy subjects
    Riitta Freese
    Dept of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology Nutrition, PO Box 27 Viikki, Latokartanonkaari 9, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Nutr 43:175-82. 2004
    ..Part of these cardioprotective effects may be mediated via the antithrombotic effects of compounds found in vegetables and fruits, such as flavonoids...
  59. ncbi Lactobacillus GG effect in increasing IFN-gamma production in infants with cow's milk allergy
    Emma Pohjavuori
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:131-6. 2004
    ..Probiotic bacteria are potentially beneficial to maturation of the infant's immune system...
  60. ncbi IgA antibodies, TGF-beta1 and -beta2, and soluble CD14 in the colostrum and development of atopy by age 4
    Erkki Savilahti
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland erkki savilahtihus fi
    Pediatr Res 58:1300-5. 2005
    ..Specific IgA antibodies to CM antigens and sCD14 in colostrum significantly associated with the appearance of both symptomatic and verified atopy by age 4...
  61. ncbi Environmental triggers and determinants of type 1 diabetes
    Mikael Knip
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, P O Box 281, FI 00029 Huch, Helsinki, Finland
    Diabetes 54:S125-36. 2005
    ..Accordingly, progression to clinical type 1 diabetes typically requires the unfortunate combination of genetic disease susceptibility, a diabetogenic trigger, and a high exposure to a driving antigen...
  62. ncbi A TLR4 polymorphism is associated with asthma and reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-12(p70) responses in Swedish children
    Malin Fagerås Böttcher
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, and Clinical Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:561-7. 2004
    ....
  63. ncbi Long-term effects of weaning habits: type-1 diabetes
    Outi Vaarala
    Division of Pediatrics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden
    Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 56:175-82; discussion 182-4. 2005
  64. ncbi Effect of HLA DQ2, dietary exposure and coeliac disease on the development of antibody response to gliadin in children
    Jonas F Ludvigsson
    Paediatric Department, Orebro University Hospital, Sweden
    Scand J Gastroenterol 41:919-28. 2006
    ..5 years of age in children who developed CD and in healthy children...
  65. ncbi Intestinal cytokine mRNA expression in delayed-type cow's milk allergy
    Laura Paajanen
    Foundation for Nutrition Research, Helsinki, Finland
    J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 43:470-6. 2006
    ....
  66. ncbi Association of mannan-binding lectin deficiency with venous bypass graft occlusions in patients with coronary heart disease
    Vilho Limnell
    Department of Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
    Cardiology 98:123-6. 2002
    ..Further studies are clearly warranted...